broj: 9-10/1999        pdf (26,1 MB)


                    stari brojevi      novi broj

Znanstveno-stručno i staleško glasilo
Hrvatskoga šumarskoga društva
Journal of Forestry Society of Croatia
      Prvi puta izašao 1877. godine i neprekidno izlazi do današnjeg dana
   ISSN No.: 0373-1332              UDC 630*
upute autorima


Topić, V. UDK 630* 114.2 + 237 (001)
Amelioration Effects of Forest Cultures on the Karst in Relation to the Pedosphere     pdf     HR     EN 411
Ballian, D., Mikić, T., Pintarić, K. UDK 630* 232.1 (001) (Pseudotsuga menziesii)
Growth Analysis of 5 Douglas Fir Provenances (Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb. Franco.) in Field Experiment at Batalovo Brdo     pdf     HR     EN 423
Meštrović, A. UDK 630* 524.6 + 122 (001)
Prosper of Pinus heldreichii Christ in Herzegovina     pdf     HR     EN 431
Summary: The first part of the article features the introduction of the Whitebark Pine (Pinus heldreichii Christ) as a Tertiary relict both generally and particularly in the research area. The research objectives are the establishment of conditions for the growth of the Whitebark Pine and the production properties of the pure natural stands in Hercegovina. After considering a detailed description of the name under which the authors have dealt with this species on various locations, the authors agreed upon a single name (Croatian: munika).Most papers on the Whitebark Pine refer to the botanical/geographical research and that on the soils and plant associations, while the research into the stand structure and production properties have been rare.
The range of the Whitebark Pine, both natural and artificial, is described in detail. It includes the Mediterranean and submediterranean mountains of the Balkan peninsula and south Italy. The hercegovinian location has been described through four phytocenoses where the pine grows naturally. The total area where this species thrives either in pure or mixed stands covers 5,865 ha of which pure stands grow on 1,528 ha. The climate of the hercegovinian range has been described through the data of four meteorological stations: Mostar, Konjic, Posušje and Tomislavgrad. They prove that the White-bark pine thrives in the continental-mountainous and the changed submediterranean climate of the colder belt. The characteristic soil properties were analyzed on the test plots showing the chemical and mechanical properties: brown soil on chalk, humus on chalk and rendzine on dolomite. All these soils lack phosphorus, have a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction (Ph 6.9 to 7.8) and a high percentage of free carbonates in the black soils on chalk and rendzine on dolomite due to the great quantity of tiny skeletal particles. The biological properties, reproduction and adaptability have been dealt with on all needed ecosystems, and a very wide ecological amplitude of the whitebark as a pine species has been established.
Described in detail, all four test plots were analyzed as to the growth and increment of one tree from each. The results are shown in tables both for the test areas and each tree in particular. The number of trees in the research stands ranged from 785 to 2,060 per ha. The mean tree diameter of the main stand ranged from 12.5 to 18.7 cm, the volume from 0.06 to 0.17 m3, wood mass 125.16 to 214.31 m3 per ha, while the stand age ranged from 38 to 62 years (Table 3).
The research results have been analyzed in detail so that the habitat site class is determined according to the tree heights on test area compared to those published by Drinić & Prolić in 1979. All measured stand are within the third site class. Within the research on the volume structure of the test assignment in the stand, the most significant are the results obtained about the natural stand regeneration. Classified according to the diameter structure, the number of trees can be seen in Table 9 and Diagram 3. The assignment was done in order to obtain information about a possible cut size, i.e. the stand regeneration, and the time within which this can be done. The average volume of the test assignment of all research stands is 47.1 m3/ha of total wood mass. This is about 30% of the existing stand volume - 152.93 m3/ha, or approximately a thirteen-year-average yearly increment of 3.50 m3/ha. Trees thicker than 50 cm make two thirds or 63.5% volume of the test assignment; those classified as III quality class over four fifth or 82.8% of the same volume (Table 7). The average number per ha of young whitebark trees in all research stands was 3,822; young spruces 299; young beech trees 287. The number of all tree species together on all test plots was 4,761 (Table 8).
The quality of all trees on the test plots classified in three classes (Table 10) is evaluated separately. The number of III quality class trees of all research stands was on the average slightly bigger than 173 or 37.0 %.
The development and increment of the trees has been analyzed and shown in Tables and diagrams (Tables 11, 12, and 14; Diagram 4, 5 and 6) according to the usual criteria. The same applies to the stands. The height increment with the analyzed trees up to about thirty years of age is slightly more intensive, later the same or somewhat smaller. The biggest current annual height increment of the analyzed whitebark pines on all test areas was between 0 and 10 years of age. On Plot 1 it was 0.22 m, Plot 2 0.21 m, and Plot 3 0.20 m The diameter growth and increment has a rather even pace: the highest current annual diameter increment was 0.42 cm with the analyzed tree on plot 1 in the period between age 10 and 20. Total wood mass of the analyzed tree on Plot 1 was 0.16 m3 at age 58, while on Plot 2 it was 0.15 m3 at age 62. The highest average volume increment with the analyzed tree was 0.0048 m3 at age 40 to 50 on Plot 1, with a tendency of further increment. Height curves of the stands generally differ little. At the same time, the lowest height curve was shown with the youngest stand. The height curve of the stand on Plot 1 rises much higher. The best diameter growth was established also on Plot 1. Average age diameter increment of the mean tree is on Plot 1:2.1 cm. On Plot 1 the whitebark stand has achieved its highest yearly volume increment, 5.63 m3/ha. The lowest was recorded on Plot 2: 2.27 m3/ha, where the vegetation coverage was the smallest, 0.53 (Table 15).
The forest estimation indices of the investigated stands and the total production are presented in Table 16.
The studied whitebark stands site-class ranged from 3.4 to 3.2 (average 3.4); coverage from 0.53 to 0.82 (average 0.75); mean diameter from 12.5 to 18.7 (average 16.4), and the mean height from 5.8 to 8.1 cm (average 7.1). With a yearly yield of the total wood mass 5.75 m3/ha, the whitebark stand on Plot 1 is the most productive. It is followed by Plot 2 with 4.42 m3/ha, and Plot 3 with 2.99 m3/ha (Table 17). All these results have been obtained at the forest estimation limit of 5 cm.
Playing an important protective role as a pioneering species in its habitat, and taking just a small surface for its growth, the whitebark pine is a very special tree in the forests and forestry of Hercegovina. A natural rarity of forest vegetation, its stands have a highly protective function in terms of hydrology, erosion and climate. Its beauty contributes to tourism and recreation of this very poor mountainous arid karst region where Black pine does not grow. It is here only the whitebark pine that can develop into normal trees. Last but not least, whitebark pine wood has high technical properties.
The research aim has been obtained. A relict, endemic tree species of Hercegovina, the whitebark pine grows under extreme conditions and on poor soils. Contributing greatly to the beauty of the scenery, it is also a pioneering species, protecting the soil and creating suitable conditions for the arrival of other tree species. With a natural progression upon the grazeland areas, on the mountain of Čvrsnica its wood yield is smaller than in other places, though within satisfactory limits: 2.0 to 6.0 m3/ha.

Key words: Growth; Whitebark Pine (Pinus heldreichii Christ); Tertiary relict; endemic species; range; whitebark in Hercegovine; climate; soil; habitat; biological properties; site-class; young growth; development and increment; developemnt and increment of stands; yield
Risović, S., Domac, J. UDK 630* 831 + 839
Usage and Energy Potential of Biomass from Wood Processing Industry in Zagreb County     pdf     HR     EN 453
Dimitrov, T. UDK 630* 432
Forest Fires in Croatia - a Motive for Consideration     pdf     HR     EN 461
Tustonjić, A., Pavelić, J., Farkaš-Topolnik, N., Đuričić-Kuric, T. UDK 630* 614 + 911
Forests Within the Regional Plan of County of Zagreb     pdf     HR     EN 469

                UNDER CONSTRUCTION