broj: 78/2009
pdf (8,4 MB) 

A WORD FROM THE EDITORINCHIEF  
Branimir Prpić  
MORE ABOUT FORESTS AND NATURE PROTECTIONIN RELATION TO NATURA 2000 IN CROATIA pdf HR EN  368  
ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPERS  
Vedriš,M., A.Jazbec, M.Frntić, M.Božić, E.Goršić  UDK 630* 529 (001)  
Precision of Structure Elements’ Estimation in a Beech – Fir Stand Depending on Circular Sample Plot Size pdf HR EN  369  
Summary: Stand structure estimate is based on data from sample plots. The aim of this research was to compare the stand structure estimates based on sample of circular plots with different radii. Through this influence of plot size on structure estimate and efficiency of stand measurement was also indirectly assessed. Measurements were made in beechfir selection stand in the Educational and experimental forest site “Zalesina” in Gorski kotar region, Croatia. Stand size is 20,63 ha, it is situated from 790 to 850 m above sea level, and belongs to site class II. Stand exposition is south to east, terrain slope is 5–10°. Tree breast height diameters (DBH) were measured on systematic sample of 17 concentric circular sample plots. Tree location from plot centre was recorded by azimuth and distance. All trees of DBH 10 cm or more were measured on 13 meter radius plot, trees of DBH 30 cm and more were measured on 19 m radius plot and trees of DBH 50 cm and more on 26 m radius plot. Computer programme CirCon for calculation of stand parameters based on measured plots and simulated plots, with radii different from measured ones, has been developed. Plots based on real measurements were simulated according to ones used in forest management practice (singular and concentric circle plots). We simulated 8 methods: K7,98 (7.98 m radius plots), K9,77 (9.77 m radius plots), K11,28 (11.28 m radius plots), K12,62 (12.62 m radius plots); K512 (concentric circle plots with radii 5 and 12 m), K713 (concentric plots with radii 7 and 13 m), K71320 (concentric plots with radii 7, 13 and 20 m) and K131926 (three concentric circles of 13, 19 and 26 m radius). Calculated estimates for number of trees, basal area and volume on the same standing points differed between methods depending on spatial tree distribution and size of plots. Descriptive statistics (arithmetic mean, standard deviation, standard error) was made for each variable (number of trees, basal area and volume) on stand level. Sample error with 95 % confidence (SE/mean*t0.05,) was also calculated to express the precision of estimates. Different estimates by methods depending on plot size were compared by repeated measures ANOVA, due to lack of independence between methods (plot sizes) on the same standpoints. Estimates of number of trees by methods (Figure 2) ranged between 275.4 and 303.5 per hectare, although differences were not statistically significant at 0.05 confidence level (Repeated measures ANOVA: F = 0.6027, df = 7, p = 0.7526). Precision expressed by relative sample error varied from 13.58 % (K131926) to 28.34 % (K512). Better results (lesser sample error) were obtained on bigger plots, though concentric circles (K512, K713 and K71320) have considerably greater sample error due to fewer trees per plot. Basal area estimates by methods ranged from 34.80 to 37.76 m2per hectare (Figure 3), making no statistically significant differences (Repeated measures ANOVA: F = 0.2948, df = 7, p = 0.9547). Relative precision ranged from 10.13 % (K131926) to 26.96 % on smallest plots (K7,98). Sample error of basal area estimate on concentric circles was just slightly bigger in spite of fewer trees per plot. Reason for that is stability of basal area on plots regardless to fewer trees: concentric circles include fewer trees but have great share of bigger ones that contribute to basal area more than smaller ones. Estimate of stand volume by methods ranged from 457.93 to 496.47 m3per hectare (Figure 4). There was no statistical difference in volume estimates between analysed methods (Repeated measures ANOVA: F = 0.2650, df = 7, p = 0.9661). Relative precision ranged between 10.14 % (K71320) and 30.36%(K7,98). Better precision was obtained with bigger plots, due to more trees per plot. Concentric circles produce just slight increase in sample error while lowering the cost of measurement by reducing the number of trees per plot. Number of measured trees per plot was computed as an indicator of plot efficiency. Differences in number of trees per plot between plot sizes were statistically significant at 0.05 level (Repeated measures ANOVA: F = 187.621, df = 7, p = 0.0000), except for: K7,98 and K512; K713 and K9,77; K71320 and K12,62 (Fisher LSD Posthoc test). Evident increasing trend of number of trees per plot by increasing of plot size is the main cause of better precision. Although concentric circles reduce number of trees per plot, loss of precision for basal area and volume are minimal (Figure 5). Therefore plots K512 are acceptable for use in this kind of stands, with remark that they require well trained staff and modern instruments. Plots K713 do not improve precision while increasing number of trees per plot (9), therefore are not recommended. Triple concentric circles K71320 reduce sample error almost by 10 %, although by significant increase of measured trees per plot. Plots K11,28 reduce number of trees per plot with minimal increase in sample error compared to K12,62 plots. That fact makes them acceptable choice for gain in efficiency. However, K11,28 sample should be adjusted with more plots to satisfy required sampling intensity (5 % of stand), which would increase costs. In order to simplify the sampling plan, legislation does not require precision rather sampling intensity (5 % of stand area), which restricts opportunity to optimize sample size. The choice of plot size is based on inventory goals and should depend on cost of measurements and expected precision. This kind of research can provide useful base for determining plot size by costs and precision of data. Exact ratio of cost and precision could be computed by including time measurement per plots of different sizes. Key words: basal area; CirConcomputer model; circular sample plots; estimation; forest inventory; number of trees; precision; volume  
Matošević,D., M.Pernek, T.Dubravac, B.Barić  UDK 630* 453 (001)  
Research of Leafminers onWoody Plants in Croatia pdf HR EN  381  
Dubravac,T., S.Dekanić  UDK 630* 423 (001)  
Structure and Dynamics of the Harvest of Dead and Declining Trees of Pedunculate Oak in the Stands of Spačva Forest from 1996 to 2006 pdf HR EN  391  
Godina, K.  UDK 630* 569 (001)  
Development Structure Elements in Mixed Oak Stands in Aria of ForestAdministration Bjelovar with Retrospect on Modelling Growth andYield of Mixed Stands pdf HR EN  407  
Cerovečki, Z.  UDK 630* 188 (001)  
Beech Forests and Milava –As.Calamagrosti arundinaceaeFagetum(Ht. 1950) Cerovečki ass. nov. of the Mountain of West Croatia pdf HR EN  417  
PROFESSIONAL PAPERS  
Pašičko,R., D.Kajba, J.Domac  UDK 630* 425 (biomasa–Biomass)  
Impacts of EmissionTrading Markets on Competitiveness of Forestry Biomass in Croatia pdf HR EN  425  
Grgurević, D.  UDK 630* 272 (Cactaceae)  
Succulents (fat plants) on theAdriatic Coast and their Use in Parks pdf HR EN  439  