|ANTI-EROSION AND WATER PROTECTIVE ROLE AS THE MOST IMPORTANT NON-COMMERCIAL FOREST FUNCTION PDF HR EN||5001|
|Fifty Years of Forestry Hydro-pedological Research Within the Forest Basins of Mountain Water Runs pdf HR EN||5007|
|Slavko Matić, Igor Anić, Milan Oršanić||UDK 630* 228+516|
|Silvicultural Treatments Aimed at Improving the Anti-Erosion and Water-Protective Role of Forests pdf HR EN||5017|
|Petr Kantor||UDK 630* 116|
|Possibilities of Mountain Forests in Reducing High Waters and Floods pdf HR EN||5031|
|Vlado Topić, Lukrecija Butorac||UDK 630* 116|
|The Impact of Scrub Vegetation of Oriental Hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis Mill.) on Soil Protection Against Erosion in Croatia pdf HR EN||5040|
|Vaclav Tlapak, Jakub Caska, Jaroslav Herynek||UDK 630* 116|
|The Influence of Forests and Vegetation on Erosion and Flood Control of Landscape pdf HR EN||5051|
|Karol Gubka||UDK 630* 116 + 228|
|The Structure of the Forest Stand with a Soil Conservation Function in the Locality Pusty Hrad - Zvolen pdf HR EN||5061|
|Stjepan Husnjak, Nikola Pernar, Renata Pernar, Ivica Kisić||UDK 630* 116+514.7|
|Risk of Water-Induced Soil Erosion in the Forest Ecosystems of Croatia pdf HR EN||5069|
|Premysl Horek, Pavel Mauer, Lubomir Novak||UDK 630* 372+ 377+516|
|Larix Forest Cableways - Implement of Nature Oriented Silviculture, Especially in Soil Erosion Control pdf HR EN||5078|
|Vice Ivančević||UDK 630* 116 + 384 + 232.4|
|Biological and Technical Regulation of the Senj Torrent "Torrente" and Increase in Water Capacity pdf HR EN||5091|
|Joso Gračan, Sanja Perić, Mladen Ivanković, Hrvoje Marjanović||UDK 630* 232+516+ 165|
|Biological Erosion Control in the Western Part of Croatia pdf HR EN||5117|
|Sanja Perić, Vlado Topić, Željko Orešković, Romana Maradin||UDK 630* 232.5|
|Biological Control of Excavations and Dumps during the Construction of Highways in Croatia pdf HR EN||5120|
|Anamarija Durbešić, Ivica Milković||UDK 630* 116 + 233 + 241|
|Afforesting Unstocked Forestland on the Southern Slopes of Svilaja - Muć Mountain for Anti-Erosive Purposes pdf HR EN||5133|
|Stanislav Kucbel||UDK 630* 907+ 231+524|
|The Structure and Natural Regeneration of a Subalpine Spruce Forest with Protective Function in Nizke Tatry Mountains (Slovakia) pdf HR EN||5144|
|Emil Klimo, Jiri Kulhavy||UDK 630* 116+514.2 + 425|
|The Role of Floodplain Forests in Southern Moravia in the Protection of Quality of Water Resources pdf HR EN||5155|
|Boris Vrbek, Ivan Pilaš, Tomislav Dubravac||UDK 630* 425+ 114.2+ 116|
|Lysimetric Monitoring of Soil Water Quality in the Forest of Pedunculate Oak and Common Hornbeam pdf HR EN||5165|
|Branimir Prpić, Petar Jurjević, Hranislav Jakovac||UDK 630* 116 + 907|
|Assessing the Value of the Anti-erosive and Water-protective Role of the Forest pdf HR EN||5186|
|Miloslav Janeček||UDK 630* 116|
|Application of the Method of Runoff Curve Numbers to Evaluate the Effect of Forest on Surface Runoff pdf HR EN||5195|
|Ivica Tikvić, Dinko Puntarić, Željko Zečić, Damir Ugarković, Zvonko Seletković||UDK 630* 116-907.1-113|
|The Impact of Montane Forest Ecosystems on Water Quality of Watercourses pdf HR EN||5202|
|Pavel Kovar||UDK 630* 181.3|
|Risk Assessment of Extreme Hydrological Situations: Case Study of the Vseminka and Drevnice Catchments, Czech Republic. pdf HR EN||5219|
|Peter Jaloviar||UDK630* 181.3|
|Fine Root Distribution in a Pure Pole-Stage Stand of Norway Spruce. pdf HR EN||5229|
|Nikola Pernar, Danko Holjević, Josip Petraš, Darko Bakšić|
|Pedophysiographic Relations in the Erosion Testing Site of Abrami pdf HR EN||5238|
|Danko Diminić, Nenad Potočić, Ivan Seletković, Maja Gršković|
|Influence of the Pathogenic Fungus Sphaeropsis sapinea on the Anti-erosive and Protective Role of Austrian Pine Plantations in Istria: Analyses of the Health and Nutrition Status pdf HR EN||5240|
|Jure Čavlović, Milan Oršanić, Mario Božić|
|Private Forest Management in Croatia as a Limiting Factor in the Achievement of Non-commercial and Commercial Forest Functions in Lowland Regions. pdf HR EN||5242|
|Dušan Huska, Luboš Jurik, L. Tatošova|
|Forest as an Important Part of a Healthy Landscape pdf HR EN||5244|
|Ivan Pilaš, Tihomira Gojmerac, Boris Vrbek, Tomislav Dubravac|
|Enhancements in the Groundwater Monitoring System in Lowland Forest Ecosystems in Croatia by Using GIS and Geostatistics. pdf HR EN||5245|
|Ivica Tikvić, Zvonko Seletković, Nikola Magdić, Višnja Šojat|
|The Condition and Relationship of Precipitation Waters in the Forest Ecosystems of Plitvice Lakes National Park. pdf HR EN||5247|
|Conclusions PDF HR EN||5249|
|The following conclusion have been drawn on the basis of the discussions and papers presented at the International Symposium dealing with the role of forests in the prevention of water-induced soil erosion, floods and torrents and spring water purification:|
1. Research of fifty years on hydrological conditions in two basins in the Beskidi Mountains (Czech Republic) has shown that extreme precipitation restricts natural retention capacities of forests. The most urgent task in the process of forest regeneration involves the establishment of the forest cover and the preservation of forest soil with high infiltration capacity.
Research did not reveal any statistically significant differences in surface runoff between the regenerated (final cut) and forested area (Vicha).
2. Natural forests in Croatia, of which 95 % are state forests (80 % of all forested areas), are very efficient in preventing soil erosion, mitigating high water waves and purifying and converting spring water into drinking water. The application of silvicultural tending and regeneration treatments in both regular and selection forests should be aimed at preserving the forest soil cover and the soil´s capacity to absorb and purify water.
3. Hydrological conditions in mountain forests of Orlicke hory in the Czech Republic have been investigated since 1977. According to research, spruce and beech forests can efficiently mitigate unfavourable impacts of continuous precipitation of up to 100 mm. Precipitation above 150 mm completely saturates the soil profile with water. which leads to uncontrolled runoff (Kantor).
4. The scrub of oriental hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis Mill.) in the sub-Mediterranean region in Croatia efficiently curbs water-induced soil erosion. Surface runoff of precipitation water in this degraded forest is very low and erosion is completely absent. Research was conducted in two sample plots situated in the oriental hornbeam scrub, of which one was cut down. The average annual runoff coefficient in the cleared plot was 0.0192, whereas in the scrub-covered plot it was 0.0156. As seen from the above, the difference is very small. Slightly bigger differences were manifested by the maximal runoff coefficient.
The authors (Topić, Butorac) point out that the cut area should be restored as quickly as possible in order to prevent adverse hydrological impacts on the soil. This experiment shows: a) that degraded forms of autochthonous vegetation efficiently restrict water-induced soil erosion, and b) that soil purifies the water reaching the subterranean karst area.
5. Forests in Croatia are predominantly located in areas whose relief and climatic characteristics indicate medium to high degree of soil erodibility. To assess the risk of erosion, a map of the Republic of Croatia was used, which was constructed in the CORINE programme. Moderate risk was found in 26.5 % and high risk in 44.8 % of the area (Husnjak et al.).
6. One of the most successful projects undertaken by the forestry profession in the Mediterranean area was the regulation of the former torrent in Senjska Draga. The activities started in the 19th century and included afforestation of 22 cultures-enclosures of black pine in a mosaic-like area of 320 ha, and the construction of 62 different torrent facilities.
Today. Senjska Draga is a green area free of torrents and erosion. Until very recently, the water supply system of the town of Senj used drinking water from 25 springs that have occurred successively after afforestation (Ivančević).
7. Forest ecosystems are efficient water purifiers. Owing to the forest soil, to its special structure, chemical composition and wealth of animate world, the forest purifies precipitation water mechanically, biologically and partially chemically. Such water enters underground flows and springs in the form of drinking water. Lowland and floodplain forests have proven particularly effective in retaining N and P from agricultural artificial fertilizers. The quality of groundwater was much better in a forest than in agricultural areas in the Drahany Highlands in the Czech Republic (Klimo and Kulhavy).
Lyzimetric research in identical lowland forest ecosystems showed differences in water purification in various areas of Croatia (Vrbek et a/.).
8. The general condition of watercourses was investigated in montane areas of Papuk, Velebit and the Plitvice Lakes National Park in Croatia. Investigation included the physical-chemical condition of water, as well as nutrient content, metals, organic compounds, mineral oils and other indicators of water quality. Almost all watercourses contained water of high quality. There was no difference in water quality between the National Park and multipurpose forests subjected to silvicultural tending treatments. Water of inferior quality was found in watercourses in the vicinity of settlements and outside forests.
No differences were found in the quality of water arriving from various forest ecosystems. This is an indication of a generally favourable impact of forest on water purification, whether water enters a watercourse as surface runoff (purification through the accumulation soil horizon) or arrives from underground flows as spring water (Tikvić el a/.).
9. Values of non-commercial forest functions have more recently captured the interest of forestry experts dealing with the evaluation of raw material-energetic function, or direct use of forests. Since they are in fact hidden ecological and biological capital of invaluable worth, the majority of activities based on the principles of profitable economy represent significantly underestimated values.
The value of anti-erosive and water-protective role of forests was presented at the symposium according to the methodology set down in the by-act of the Forest Act of the Republic of Croatia. The intention was to prevent cheap sale and conversion of the Croatian forest wealth (Prpić, Jurjević, Jakovac). Although the value of these two most important forest functions is also underestimated (the amount of assessment indicators has not changed for 9 years), it is still twice as high as that from the last evaluation.
10. The papers presented at this symposium have confirmed that forest ecosystems efficiently influence water cycling in the landscape by mitigating high water waves, preventing water-induced soil erosion and torrents, and purifying precipitation and flood water, which is percolated in underground flows below the forest. *
The highest efficiency is manifested by a multi-purpose natural forest, which ensures both the raw material - energetic function and non-commercial forest functions.
Natural forest is a forest with a natural structure whose trees have not reached physiological over-maturity. In the life of a forest, natural forest is in the optimal stage of production and protection of nature and the environment.
Since the anti-erosion and water-protective role of a forest and its preservation is of prime importance, research in this field should continue. Forestry should be granted the power to make decisions related to spatial plans. It should also receive compensation for the use of drinking water, since its production in a forest requires sophisticated silvicultural treatments of forest stands. In view of the fact that forest is one of the most useful water management facilities, the Croatian forestry should be exempt from paying water fees.