broj: 13/2005        pdf (56,1 MB)



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Znanstveno-stručno i staleško glasilo
Hrvatskoga šumarskoga društva
Journal of Forestry Society of Croatia
      Prvi puta izašao 1877. godine i neprekidno izlazi do današnjeg dana
   ISSN No.: 0373-1332              UDC 630* https://doi.org/10.31298/sl
upute autorima
WEB EDITION
ARHIVA ČASOPISA


HRČAK


Branimir Prpić
ANTI-EROSION AND WATER PROTECTIVE ROLE AS THE MOST IMPORTANT NON-COMMERCIAL FOREST FUNCTION     PDF     HR     EN 5001
Zdenek Vicha UDK630*116
Fifty Years of Forestry Hydro-pedological Research Within the Forest Basins of Mountain Water Runs     pdf     HR     EN 5007
Slavko Matić, Igor Anić, Milan Oršanić UDK 630* 228+516
Silvicultural Treatments Aimed at Improving the Anti-Erosion and Water-Protective Role of Forests     pdf     HR     EN 5017
Petr Kantor UDK 630* 116
Possibilities of Mountain Forests in Reducing High Waters and Floods     pdf     HR     EN 5031
Vlado Topić, Lukrecija Butorac UDK 630* 116
The Impact of Scrub Vegetation of Oriental Hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis Mill.) on Soil Protection Against Erosion in Croatia     pdf     HR     EN 5040
Vaclav Tlapak, Jakub Caska, Jaroslav Herynek UDK 630* 116
The Influence of Forests and Vegetation on Erosion and Flood Control of Landscape     pdf     HR     EN 5051
Karol Gubka UDK 630* 116 + 228
The Structure of the Forest Stand with a Soil Conservation Function in the Locality Pusty Hrad - Zvolen     pdf     HR     EN 5061
Stjepan Husnjak, Nikola Pernar, Renata Pernar, Ivica Kisić UDK 630* 116+514.7
Risk of Water-Induced Soil Erosion in the Forest Ecosystems of Croatia     pdf     HR     EN 5069
Premysl Horek, Pavel Mauer, Lubomir Novak UDK 630* 372+ 377+516
Larix Forest Cableways - Implement of Nature Oriented Silviculture, Especially in Soil Erosion Control     pdf     HR     EN 5078
Vice Ivančević UDK 630* 116 + 384 + 232.4
Biological and Technical Regulation of the Senj Torrent "Torrente" and Increase in Water Capacity     pdf     HR     EN 5091
Joso Gračan, Sanja Perić, Mladen Ivanković, Hrvoje Marjanović UDK 630* 232+516+ 165
Biological Erosion Control in the Western Part of Croatia     pdf     HR     EN 5117
Sanja Perić, Vlado Topić, Željko Orešković, Romana Maradin UDK 630* 232.5
Biological Control of Excavations and Dumps during the Construction of Highways in Croatia     pdf     HR     EN 5120
Anamarija Durbešić, Ivica Milković UDK 630* 116 + 233 + 241
Afforesting Unstocked Forestland on the Southern Slopes of Svilaja - Muć Mountain for Anti-Erosive Purposes     pdf     HR     EN 5133
Stanislav Kucbel UDK 630* 907+ 231+524
The Structure and Natural Regeneration of a Subalpine Spruce Forest with Protective Function in Nizke Tatry Mountains (Slovakia)     pdf     HR     EN 5144
Emil Klimo, Jiri Kulhavy UDK 630* 116+514.2 + 425
The Role of Floodplain Forests in Southern Moravia in the Protection of Quality of Water Resources     pdf     HR     EN 5155
Boris Vrbek, Ivan Pilaš, Tomislav Dubravac UDK 630* 425+ 114.2+ 116
Lysimetric Monitoring of Soil Water Quality in the Forest of Pedunculate Oak and Common Hornbeam     pdf     HR     EN 5165
Branimir Prpić, Petar Jurjević, Hranislav Jakovac UDK 630* 116 + 907
Assessing the Value of the Anti-erosive and Water-protective Role of the Forest     pdf     HR     EN 5186
Miloslav Janeček UDK 630* 116
Application of the Method of Runoff Curve Numbers to Evaluate the Effect of Forest on Surface Runoff     pdf     HR     EN 5195
Ivica Tikvić, Dinko Puntarić, Željko Zečić, Damir Ugarković, Zvonko Seletković UDK 630* 116-907.1-113
The Impact of Montane Forest Ecosystems on Water Quality of Watercourses     pdf     HR     EN 5202
Pavel Kovar UDK 630* 181.3
Risk Assessment of Extreme Hydrological Situations: Case Study of the Vseminka and Drevnice Catchments, Czech Republic.     pdf     HR     EN 5219
Peter Jaloviar UDK630* 181.3
Fine Root Distribution in a Pure Pole-Stage Stand of Norway Spruce.     pdf     HR     EN 5229
Nikola Pernar, Danko Holjević, Josip Petraš, Darko Bakšić
Pedophysiographic Relations in the Erosion Testing Site of Abrami     pdf     HR     EN 5238
Danko Diminić, Nenad Potočić, Ivan Seletković, Maja Gršković
Influence of the Pathogenic Fungus Sphaeropsis sapinea on the Anti-erosive and Protective Role of Austrian Pine Plantations in Istria: Analyses of the Health and Nutrition Status     pdf     HR     EN 5240
Jure Čavlović, Milan Oršanić, Mario Božić
Private Forest Management in Croatia as a Limiting Factor in the Achievement of Non-commercial and Commercial Forest Functions in Lowland Regions.     pdf     HR     EN 5242
Dušan Huska, Luboš Jurik, L. Tatošova
Forest as an Important Part of a Healthy Landscape     pdf     HR     EN 5244
Ivan Pilaš, Tihomira Gojmerac, Boris Vrbek, Tomislav Dubravac
Enhancements in the Groundwater Monitoring System in Lowland Forest Ecosystems in Croatia by Using GIS and Geostatistics.     pdf     HR     EN 5245
Ivica Tikvić, Zvonko Seletković, Nikola Magdić, Višnja Šojat
The Condition and Relationship of Precipitation Waters in the Forest Ecosystems of Plitvice Lakes National Park.     pdf     HR     EN 5247
Conclusions     PDF     HR     EN 5249
The following conclusion have been drawn on the basis of the discussions and papers presented at the International Symposium dealing with the role of forests in the prevention of water-induced soil erosion, floods and torrents and spring water purification:
CONCLUSIONS
1. Research of fifty years on hydrological conditions in two basins in the Beskidi Mountains (Czech Republic) has shown that extreme precipitation restricts natural retention capacities of forests. The most urgent task in the process of forest regenera­tion involves the establishment of the forest cover and the preservation of forest soil with high infiltra­tion capacity.
Research did not reveal any statistically significant differences in surface runoff between the regenerat­ed (final cut) and forested area (Vicha).
2. Natural forests in Croatia, of which 95 % are state forests (80 % of all forested areas), are very effi­cient in preventing soil erosion, mitigating high water waves and purifying and converting spring water into drinking water. The application of silvi­cultural tending and regeneration treatments in both regular and selection forests should be aimed at preserving the forest soil cover and the soil´s capacity to absorb and purify water.
3. Hydrological conditions in mountain forests of Orlicke hory in the Czech Republic have been investigated since 1977. According to research, spruce and beech forests can efficiently mitigate unfavourable impacts of continuous precipitation of up to 100 mm. Precipitation above 150 mm completely saturates the soil profile with water. which leads to uncontrolled runoff (Kantor).
4. The scrub of oriental hornbeam (Carpinus orien­talis Mill.) in the sub-Mediterranean region in Croatia efficiently curbs water-induced soil ero­sion. Surface runoff of precipitation water in this degraded forest is very low and erosion is com­pletely absent. Research was conducted in two sample plots situated in the oriental hornbeam scrub, of which one was cut down. The average annual runoff coefficient in the cleared plot was 0.0192, whereas in the scrub-covered plot it was 0.0156. As seen from the above, the difference is very small. Slightly bigger differences were mani­fested by the maximal runoff coefficient.
The authors (Topić, Butorac) point out that the cut area should be restored as quickly as possible in order to prevent adverse hydrological impacts on the soil. This experiment shows: a) that degraded forms of autochthonous vegetation efficiently restrict water-induced soil erosion, and b) that soil purifies the water reaching the subterranean karst area.
5. Forests in Croatia are predominantly located in areas whose relief and climatic characteristics indi­cate medium to high degree of soil erodibility. To assess the risk of erosion, a map of the Republic of Croatia was used, which was constructed in the CORINE programme. Moderate risk was found in 26.5 % and high risk in 44.8 % of the area (Husnjak et al.).
6. One of the most successful projects undertaken by the forestry profession in the Mediterranean area was the regulation of the former torrent in Senjska Draga. The activities started in the 19th century and included afforestation of 22 cultures-enclo­sures of black pine in a mosaic-like area of 320 ha, and the construction of 62 different torrent facili­ties.
Today. Senjska Draga is a green area free of torrents and erosion. Until very recently, the water supply system of the town of Senj used drinking water from 25 springs that have occurred successively after afforestation (Ivančević).
7. Forest ecosystems are efficient water purifiers. Owing to the forest soil, to its special structure, chemical composition and wealth of animate world, the forest purifies precipitation water mechanically, biologically and partially chemical­ly. Such water enters underground flows and springs in the form of drinking water. Lowland and floodplain forests have proven particularly effec­tive in retaining N and P from agricultural artificial fertilizers. The quality of groundwater was much better in a forest than in agricultural areas in the Drahany Highlands in the Czech Republic (Klimo and Kulhavy).
Lyzimetric research in identical lowland forest ecosystems showed differences in water purifica­tion in various areas of Croatia (Vrbek et a/.).
8. The general condition of watercourses was investi­gated in montane areas of Papuk, Velebit and the Plitvice Lakes National Park in Croatia. Investiga­tion included the physical-chemical condition of water, as well as nutrient content, metals, organic compounds, mineral oils and other indicators of water quality. Almost all watercourses contained water of high quality. There was no difference in water quality between the National Park and multi­purpose forests subjected to silvicultural tending treatments. Water of inferior quality was found in watercourses in the vicinity of settlements and out­side forests.
No differences were found in the quality of water arriving from various forest ecosystems. This is an indication of a generally favourable impact of forest on water purification, whether water enters a water­course as surface runoff (purification through the accumulation soil horizon) or arrives from under­ground flows as spring water (Tikvić el a/.).
9. Values of non-commercial forest functions have more recently captured the interest of forestry experts dealing with the evaluation of raw materi­al-energetic function, or direct use of forests. Since they are in fact hidden ecological and biological capital of invaluable worth, the majority of activi­ties based on the principles of profitable economy represent significantly underestimated values.
The value of anti-erosive and water-protective role of forests was presented at the symposium according to the methodology set down in the by-act of the Forest Act of the Republic of Croatia. The intention was to prevent cheap sale and conversion of the Croatian forest wealth (Prpić, Jurjević, Jakovac). Although the value of these two most important for­est functions is also underestimated (the amount of assessment indicators has not changed for 9 years), it is still twice as high as that from the last evaluation.
10. The papers presented at this symposium have con­firmed that forest ecosystems efficiently influence water cycling in the landscape by mitigating high water waves, preventing water-induced soil ero­sion and torrents, and purifying precipitation and flood water, which is percolated in underground flows below the forest. *
The highest efficiency is manifested by a multi-pur­pose natural forest, which ensures both the raw material - energetic function and non-commercial forest functions.
Natural forest is a forest with a natural structure whose trees have not reached physiological over-maturity. In the life of a forest, natural forest is in the optimal stage of production and protection of nature and the environment.
Since the anti-erosion and water-protective role of a forest and its preservation is of prime importance, research in this field should continue. Forestry should be granted the power to make decisions related to spatial plans. It should also receive com­pensation for the use of drinking water, since its production in a forest requires sophisticated silvi­cultural treatments of forest stands. In view of the fact that forest is one of the most useful water man­agement facilities, the Croatian forestry should be exempt from paying water fees.

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