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HR  EN   



Scientific-technical and professional journal
of Croatia Forestry Society
                         Issued continously since 1877.
       First issue of this web edition start with number 1-2/2008.
   ISSN No.: 1846-9140              UDC 630*https://doi.org/10.31298/sl

Portal of scientific
journals of Croatia
   Issued by: Croatian Forestry Society

   Address: Trg Mažuranića 11, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
   Phone/fax: ++385 1 4828477
   e-mail: urednistvo@sumari.hr
   Editor in Chief: Josip Margaletić

Uredništvo   205
University of Zagreb, Faculty of forestry and wood technology – provider of education in forestry and wood technology      
The Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology (FFWT) of the University of Zagreb is an internationally recognized institution in the training of highly skilled personnel for the needs of forestry, wood processing and furniture manufacture. The intensive development of higher education began in 1898, when university-level education was organized at the Academy of Forestry within the Faculty of Philosophy of the University of Zagreb. The FFWT has since been a faculty in constant growth that systematically develops excellence in education and research in forestry, wood technology and related fields, which is based on the establishment of a quality system and the transfer and application of knowledge for the benefit and prosperity of all components of the social community.
The FFWT is a forerunner in creating changes in the field of forestry and wood technology, where renowned scientists and students of high moral and ethical principles are dedicated to working and improving the social community as a pledge for a better future.
Starting from the undeniable fact that students are the reason and the essence of the existence of every faculty, the teaching staff of the FFWT is determined to fully justify the trust of those who perceive its study programs as excellent, who are aware that the forestry profession responsibly manages one of the most important and largest natural resources of our country, and who regard wood technology as a profession that is extremely important for the economy, GDP and export. Their satisfaction with study programs, their motivation and student standards, as well as the subsequent employment rate based on acquired knowledge, skills and competences, are important guidelines for the activities of the FFWT.
In the last three academic years, enrolment quotas in all study programs of undergraduate university studies and undergraduate specialist studies have been filled up. This is the result of numerous activities geared towards promoting undergraduate study programs of the Faculty in the public and in the media, promoting the Faculty in secondary schools of Croatia, and organizing and preparing high school graduates interested in enrolling in undergraduate study programs at the FFWT to take the state matriculation exam.
The revised contents of all undergraduate and graduate studies, the postgraduate specialist study of Forestry, the postgraduate specialist study of Wood Technology and the postgraduate doctoral study of Forestry and Wood Technology are devised to meet the needs of the market. Postgraduate specialist studies are highly attractive in the system of life-long learning of masters of forestry engineering, masters of engineering in urban forestry, nature and environment protection, and masters of engineering in wood technology. The academic diploma must remain a prestigious document and a guarantee of the quality of future employees in public and private companies and state institutions.
Editorial Board

Hazan Alkan Akinci,Funda Erşen Bak  UDK 630* 622 + 564 (001)
Pojava ženki velikog smrekinog likotoča Dendroctonus micans (Kugelann, 1794) na vitalnim stablima kavkaske smreke u Artvinu, Turska      
Dendroctonus micans (Kugelann, 1794), which was first discovered in 1966 in Turkey, has established almost in all oriental spruce forests in the Eastern Black Sea region until the late 2000s. In its expanding front it is responsible for killing spruce trees representing millions of cubic meters of wood. In recent years, oriental spruce forests have endemic population of this pest. But extreme climatic conditions that cause extreme weather circumstances may trigger suitable environment that favors D. micans outbreaks. In this study, we aimed to examine tree vitality of naturally infested and uninfested trees in the forest. Field studies were performed at a pure spruce stand in Taşlıca Forest Sub-District, Artvin Directorate of Forestry in 2016. Both infested and uninfested trees were selected in the stand closure. One core per tree was extracted from 30 naturally infested and 30 uninfested oriental spruce trees at the same stand. Core samples were taken at the second week of September. Phloem thickness, recent tree growth rates, diameter of breast height and the average number of xylem cells in a radial file formed until the sampling date were studied. Phloem thickness, recent tree growth rates and number of xylem cells were higher in infested trees. Host selection of D. micans was discussed in relation to characteristics of infested and uninfested trees.

Key words: Tree vitality; growth and increment; Picea orientalis; phloem thickness; host selection

    Hazan Alkan Akinci  
    Funda Erşen Bak  
Arzu Ergül Bozkurt, Kamil Coşkunçelebi, Salih Terziog˘lu  UDK 630* 811 (001)
Variation in needle anatomy of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) populations according to habitat and altitudinal zones in Türkiye      
In this study, eight Scots pine populations from Turkiye were studied to explore the influence of different habitats and altitudinal zones on the needle anatomical traits. A total of 496 needles belonging to 64 individuals were examined using light microscopy with the aim to score variability of sixteen needle anatomical traits. Variance analysis showed significant differences in needle thickness, needle width, resin canal number, resin canal diameter, central cylinder width, central cylinder thickness, endodermis cell number, endodermis width and endodermis thickness of eight populations depending on habitat zones. However, only resin canal diameter, endodermis width and endodermis thickness differ significantly in examined populations depending on altitudinal gradients. Cluster analysis showed the greatest similarities between the Bolu-Aladağ and Ardahan-Yalnızçam populations, and the most distinguishable population was the Giresun-Espiye population based on the anatomical characteristics of the needles. Although principal component analysis showed that needle width, central cylinder width, needle thickness, and central cylinder thickness had the greatest influence on the delimitation of Scots pine populations distributed in Turkiye, discrimination analysis did not separate the examined populations depending on the anatomical characteristics of the needles.

Key words: Anatolia; altitude; needle anatomy; Pinus sylvestris; variation

    Arzu Ergül Bozkurt  
    Kamil Coşkunçelebi  
    Salih Terziog˘lu  
Velisav Karaklić, Zoran Galić, Miljan Samardžić, Lazar Kesić, Saša Orlović, Martina Zorić  UDK 630* 114.6 (001)
Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from soils during the regeneration of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) stand in the summer period      
The loss of soil organic carbon stock and increased CO2 emission from soil are induced by various human activities. The aim of this study was to examine whether an anthropogenic influence during the regeneration of a pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) stand can affect the increment of CO2 emission from the soil. The research was carried out within three plots, out of which two were exposed to different degrees of anthropogenic influence. The air samples were collected using the soil respiratory chambers and analysed using the gas chromatograph Agilent 8890. Based on the obtained results, soil temperature and moisture as the most dominant drivers of the CO2 emission had different effects on the CO2 flux from soil depending on the intensity of anthropogenic influences and environmental conditions. Within the experimental plot with the significant soil alteration, a reliable positive correlation was detected for the CO2 flux with the soil temperature (r = 0.77, p < 0.05). High significant correlation was observed considering soil moisture (r = 0.85, p < 0.05) in the natural soil where the application of pesticides was conducted. The results showed that both soils that were exposed to the anthropogenic influences had notably higher values of the CO2 flux in comparison to the reference natural soil without anthropogenic impacts.

Key words: CO2; pedunculate oak; anthropogenic influence; soil temperature; soil moisture

    Velisav Karaklić  
    Zoran Galić  
    Miljan Samardžić  
    Lazar Kesić  
    Saša Orlović  
    Martina Zorić  
Mario Šporčić, David Mijoč, Matija Bakarić, Zdravko Pandur, Marin Bačić, Matija Landekić  UDK 630* 969
The challenge of recruiting forestry workforce in Europe and worldwide      
We can define workforce as the totality of human physical and mental abilities that is used to produce use values of any kind. The scope or size of the workforce depends on the total number of inhabitants and their numerous structural characteristics. As an economically active part of the population, it is the most significant factor in the production process in all types of society, regardless of the changes that took place during historical development in its role as the initiator and bearer of the production process. Work in forestry includes all human activities that are necessary for the performance of planned forestry tasks, in order to achieve benefits from the forest and forestland. In accordance with this, forestry workers, i.e. people with the necessary knowledge, skills and abilities, along with the appropriate work means and the subject of work, represent a fundamental factor in forestry production. Professionally trained, responsible, conscientious and motivated forestry workers have a crucial role in achieving successful production and business results and are an inseparable component in the modern, generally accepted paradigm of sustainable forest management.
Forestry work, especially wood harvesting, is a high-risk, physically intensive and professionally demanding activity, which requires a qualified and sustainable workforce. However, today in a world of constant changes, forestry is faced with the challenge of securing the necessary workforce. The lack of forestry workers is becoming an increasingly frequent problem in European and global forestry, and the reason for this are different demographic, economic, technological and political processes, as well as the specifics of the sector itself. Therefore, in addition to the general characteristics of forestry work, the paper presents some indicators of the status and position of the forestry workforce in Europe and the world. Special attention is paid to current issues and problems in obtaining and securing the necessary forestry workforce (shortage of workers, lack of interest among young people, aging of the existing workforce, forestry entrepreneurs, informal employment, etc.) and to certain tools and instruments important for successful recruitment and retention of forestry workers (understanding of their motivation, work compensation, education and training of workers, new technologies, etc.). It is emphasized that the discipline of human resources management should gain a much more prominent place in forest management and become the main task of forestry managers in efforts to solve the issue of workforce sustainability. Equally, the forestry sector should adapt its policies and activities to global processes affecting the workforce, especially in terms of social, economic and other trends, through the development of new skills and technologies, the establishment of flexible organizational structures, reorganization of work, adaptive forms of employment, introduction of “green jobs” and other procedures that can contribute to sustainability and competitiveness of the sector itself. The purpose of the paper includes provision of basis that can be an important contribution in improving the condition and sustainability of the workforce in forestry.

Key words: forestry; forestry work; worker recruitment and retention; workforce sustainability

    ŠPORČIĆ, Mario      ŠL
    David Mijoč  
    BAKARIĆ, Matija    ŠL
    Zdravko Pandur  
    Marin Bačić  
    Matija Landekić  
Matija Bakarić, Matija Landekić, Mario Šporčić  UDK 630* 907.1 + 934
Revenue structure of public institutions for the management of protected areas in Republic of Croatia      
Introduction describes basic principles of existence of the park system, characteristics of national classification and number of public institutions per founder. Basic legal framework for functioning of park system in Republic of Croatia is also stated. The chapter on materials and methods presents a detailed elaboration of legislative framework in protected areas. The audit reports on which the elaboration of form is used for processing in results of work is also given. The chapter results and discussions provides a summary of all revenues of protected areas in the Republic of Croatia. The subchapter related to public institutions that manage national parks shows the elaboration of a form for all items with a detailed explanation of the characteristic financial characteristics. In the following subchapters related to nature parks and county and local public institutions, elements of form with explanations of specific activities for individual areas are elaborated according to the same principle. Conclusions presents precise conclusions related to the characteristics of financing protected areas in the Republic of Croatia, which show both the strengths and weaknesses of certain categories of founders.

Key words: protected areas; revenues; level of management; projects; budget

    BAKARIĆ, Matija    ŠL
    Matija Landekić  
    ŠPORČIĆ, Mario      ŠL
David Janeš, Ivica Papa, Sandi Matijašević, Ivan Žarković, Mihael Lovrinčević, Andreja Đuka  UDK 630* 686+463
Useful GIS tools in defining forest accessibility      
The purpose of this paper is a detailed explanation of determining the accessibility of the forest area by calculating road density and the relative forest openness on the examples of two management units. The mentioned two parameters represent indispensable factors in the later phase of planning the optimal forest traffic infrastructure network. As a guide for increasing forest accessibility, a valid Bylaw on measure implementation M04 »Investments in physical assets«, by-measure 4.3 »Grant for investments in development, modernization and customization of agriculture and forestry«, operation type 4.3.3 »Investments in forest infrastructure« from the Program of Rural Development in the Republic of Croatia in the period from 2014 to 2020 (NN 106/15) (NN 106/2015, 65/2017, 77/2017 and 84/2018), which in its appendix No. 1 – Form for the Effectiveness Study of Primary Forest Road Traffic Infrastructure prescribes the preparation of the Effectiveness study of the forest road network. This paper presents valuable tools within the two most common GIS software packages: the commercial ArcGIS program and QGIS, an open-source program. The GIS tools within both programs, which are necessary for preparing the Effectiveness study of the forest road network, are presented and explained in detail. This professional paper contains valuable information for all who deal with the problem of determining the availability of forest area, i.e. the optimal planning of forest road layout, as well as for determining the actual state of road density and the relative openness of the forests

Key words: GIS; road density; relative openness; planning of primary forest roads; ArcGIS; QGIS

    David Janeš  
    Ivica Papa  
    Sandi Matijašević  
    Ivan Žarković  
    Mihael Lovrinčević  
    Andreja Đuka  
Marija Popović, Hristo Mihaylov, Nikola Mihajlović, Zoran Popović  UDK 630* 156
Incomes of roe deer management in the hunting grounds of Central Serbia      
The aim of this paper is to analyze the total breeding stock market in 2021/2022, an estimate of the value of the stock of this type of game, the culling value and income per 100 ha of total hunting areas of all hunting grounds in Central Serbia. This research covered the roe deer breeding stock in the hunting grounds of central Serbia. Based on the analysis, the directions and possibilities for increasing the income in all hunting areas of Serbia has been considered. The assessment of the value of the roe deer breeding stock was determined according to the Rulebook (Official Gazette, No. 18/19), while the income from roe deer culling was calculated using the market price list given by the Hunting Association of Serbia for 2021/2022. It was determined that the value of the male roe deer stock is 6.506.000 €, while the value of the female and offspring stock is approximately 3.615.000€. Total income of culled game in 2017/2018 was 480.626 €, while the income per 100 ha of the total area of all hunting areas is 9€. The highest total income is generated by the Central Hunting ground and it amounts to 191.785 €. In order to achieve a higher profit from the management of roe deer at the hunting grounds of central Serbia, it is necessary to completely fulfill the planned culling with an increased inclusion of roebucks that have higher trophy mass.

Key words: roe deer; culling; economic aspects; income; Serbia

    Marija Popović  
    Hristo Mihaylov  
    Nikola Mihajlović  
    Zoran Popović