|Should the national forestry policy and strategy be modernized?
At its session on July 17, 2003, the Government of the Republic of Croatia passed the National Forestry Policy and Strategy. In view of the increasingly pronounced climate change, which requires a new approach to nature and the environment, of the deficiencies of the current National Forestry Policy and Forestry Strategy, as well as, in our opinion, of the inadequate inclusion of forestry in the national economy, has the time come to introduce some changes in the valid National Forestry Policy and Strategy? Do we have any models? A review of forestry policies in relevant countries in which forestry is an important branch of economy clearly shows that they cannot be literally copied. In his brochure “Forestry Policy” Sabadi (1992) analyzed forestry policies in Germany and Switzerland and concluded that “every country has its own form of forestry policy which is in line with its economic and political system, philosophy and the influence of individuals and groups on the state government”. It is, however, indisputable that every forestry policy is an integral part of the national economy. The most important stage in the creation of a national forestry policy is its inclusion into and integration with other national economies into one interactive unit. The same author goes on to say that in order to develop forestry policy, “its goals should first be determined, followed by means and measures of achieving the set goals. Particular attention should be paid to small private forest estates (about 25 % of the forested area)”. This is very difficult in our country because privately owned forests are small and private forest owners are not willing to merge their estates, which is the only way in which success can be achieved. An aggravating circumstance lies in the fact that investments in forests are of long-term nature and are not sufficiently profitable for investors, chiefly because they do not perceive forestry as an integral and highly influential factor in the national economy. Forests are mainly viewed as a source of raw material for processing, while the non-market forest role, which requires a broader support by the national economy, is overlooked. If the real value of forests is not understood by private forest owners and entrepreneurs in general, whose primary goal is the current value of raw material, then it is the State which should understand it, especially when the State is the major owner as in Croatia. Collective interest should be above all other interests. The State should also make sure that private forest owners adhere to the regulations of the Forest Act, the instrument of the National Forestry Policy and Strategy which is binding for all forest owners.
In our analysis of whether we apply the regulations set down in the valid National Forestry Policy and Strategy and what additional items should be incorporated, we should ask questions and answer them ourselves, since we would consider answers by other parties as mostly unjustified criticism. These questions involve the following: do we sell wood assortments according to market principles; do we really believe that with contracts on the delivery of raw material we contribute to the development of final wood processing and increased employment of engineers and qualified workers in the first place, or do we fill the pockets of private exporters of primary processing products; if raw wood material is not directed towards optimal final production, does not this mean that we squander the national wealth in which a hundred-year-long effort has been invested; at the same time we find that the Rosewood Competence Centre for Eastern Europe provides examples of good practice and innovations to be implemented into wise and sustainable use of valuable wood material; do we control felling in private forest estates in practice or only declaratively, particularly in forests which have been returned to their original owners; which instruments do we use and how successfully to accomplish this; do we ensure benefits which forestry should provide for the local community and the population of rural areas, which is one of the main principles of the EU Forestry Policy and Strategy, which we support in principle; do we stimulate and to what extent modern energy use of wood material; do we think about how to solve the question of succession - rural areas are increasingly being abandoned and forests are spreading as far as the people’s gardens - pastures and grassland areas within forest, which were until recently mowed or grazed by wildlife, are disappearing; is it true that wood processors do not want to ensure stocks of wood material, and when it suits them “dictate” the extraction of wood assortments even when weather conditions are unfavourable (wet terrain), thus inflicting vast damage on forest soil; why did we allow workers’ resort centres, especially those at the seaside, to be taken over by concessionaires for petty cash (these resorts were built with the money which workers allocated from their salaries for exactly this purpose); in relation to other countries, did we allocate too large areas to Natura 2000; did we restructure the company “Croatian Forests Ltd”? Sabadi says: “ Rational organisation presupposes that all jobs are accomplished in a forest office, and only those jobs which cannot be performed in a forest office or their solution is not rational should be performed at a higher level. Forest monitoring services and services aimed at assisting small forest owners should be set up in the Ministry”. Have we covered all the relevant questions? No, we have not, but we urge the readers to ask questions and give the answers themselves. The first question to be answered is the one mentioned in the headline.
Hoping that these thoughts will not spoil the upcoming holidays, we wish Merry Christmas and a Very Successful New Year 2020 to all members of the Croatian Forestry Association and readers of the Forestry Journal.
|IZVORNI ZNANSTVENI ČLANCI
|Jurij Marenče, Marijan Šušnjar
| UDK 630* 375 (001)
|Limiting forces and load masses during timber winching
The stability of a forest vehicle apart from the longitudinal and transversal stability angle implies the safety of tractor anchoring during timber winching. Timber winching is a dragging of timber assortmens on the ground from the stump to a forest vehicle equipped with the forest winch. At a certain limiting load and slope of the terrain, disturbance of the longitudinal stability of the forest vehicle with the winch is occured. In this case, the adhesion factor of skidder and tractor on the ground is an important indicator of the possibility of safe and proper timber winching.
The adhesion factor of the skidder during timber winching on the slope is detremined on the basis of the general expression of the adhesion factor on the skidder on the flat ground. Also, determined the dynamic model of the loading of the forest vehicle is presented during timber winching on the slope.
The results show the horizontal components of forces in the rope and the limiting masses of the loads during timber winching by skidder Ecotrac 120 V. According to the obtained values of the horizontal components of forces in the rope, it can be concluded that the stability of the vehicle, defined by the displacement of the vehicle backwards is the limitation of the timber winching.
The presented model of timber winching on the slope shows the basic principle for determining the limiting load masses and slope of the terrain, which can applied to all types of forest vehicles equipped with winch as well as easily be adapted to other conditions of timber winching at different positions of the vehicle and the direction of timber winching.
Key words: timber winching; tractor stability; dynamic model; limiting forces; load masses
ŠUŠNJAR, Marijan ŠL
|Ivan Lukić, Željko Zgrablić, Vlatka Mičetić Stanković
| UDK 630* 453 (001)
|Presence of birch bark beetle (Scolytus ratzeburgi) in Croatia
Bark beetles are one of the most important groups of forest pests and in recent years several bark beetle species have significantly impacted two biogeographic regions in Croatia. The Birch bark beetle (Scolytus ratzeburgi) is the only Scolytus species known to infest birch (Betula spp.) and is a potential threat to birch trees in Croatia but its presence has not been recorded for over 100 years. Here we review historical records of this species and examine several forest stands of Silver birch (B. pendula). The last published record of Birch bark beetle was from 1913 and entomological collections from Croatia only have specimens from neighboring countries. Examination of Silver birch forest stands discovered five new locations of Birch bark beetle with signs of its attack. This species in Croatia has a low population density in forests and urban areas. Impacts of this species may be minimal, but research on this bark beetle should not be neglected since it represents valuable part of entomofauna in Croatia. Further research in Croatia should target fungal relationships with this species in order to determine whether the bark beetle spreads tree pathogenic fungi. Assessment of possible long-term mortality trends across the southern range edge of Silver birch and the presence of the Birch bark beetle merits further attention.
Key words: Betula pendula; native species; Scolytinae
LUKIĆ, Ivan ŠL
Vlatka Mičetić Stanković
|Stjepan Kvesić, Dalibor Ballian, Mirzeta Memišević Hodžić
| UDK 630* 164 (001)
|Population variability of field maple (Acer campestre L.) in Bosnia and Herzegovina according to the fruit morphology
We researched the morphological variability of 25 populations of field maple (Acer campestre L.) in the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Morphometric research of intrapopulation and interpopulation variability was based on ten morphological traits of the fruit, using descriptive and univariate statistical analyses. Measured trait of fruit petiole length showed the highest variability and calculated characteristic proportion of width and length of seed showed the lowest variability. Measured traits of fruit were more variable than calculated traits, suggesting less variation in shape than the size of fruits. By analysing variance, we found statistically significant differences between populations in all analysed fruit traits. However, for most traits (eight out of nine), there was a higher intrapopulation than interpopulation variability. The obtained results can serve as a basis for further research in other parts of the species distribution range, with the aim of determining the interaction of ecological, geographical, climatic and migration factors on the overall morphological variability of field maple populations.
Key words: field maple; fruit; morphometric analysis; morphological variability
Mirzeta Memišević Hodžić
|Deniz Güney, Zeki Yahyaoglu, Ali Bayraktar, Fahrettin Atar, Ibrahim Turna
| UDK 630* 165 (001)
|Genetic diversity of Picea orientalis (L.) Link populations in Turkey
Knowledge of genetic variation is needed to understanding the genetic structure in forest tree populations. In addition, the determination of the genetic structure in the natural distribution areas of forest trees has become easier depending on the development of the isoenzyme technique. Determining the genetic structure and variations of Picea orientalis (L.) Link, which is limited local natural distribution areas on the world, transfer of this genetic to the future generations with sustainable forestry is important to ensure the continuity of the species. In this study, genetic differences and similarities were determined for P. orientalis populations in selected regions (Artvin, Torul-Örümcek, Tirebolu-Akılbaba, Ordu-Çambaşı, Artvin-Şavşat, Ardanuç-Ovacık, Şavşat-Sahara, Artvin-Saçinka, Ardahan-Posof and Maçka-Hamsiköy) in Turkey. In the study using 10 gene loci in different enzyme systems to determine the genetic variation, the values of heterozygosity (Ho), number of alleles per locus (AL), genetic diversity (v), intrapopulational differentiation (dT), multilocus diversity (Vgam) and differentiation among populations (Dj) were determined in these populations. The grand means were obtained as 0.154, 1.74 and 1.719 for the observed heterozygosity, alleles per locus and genetic diversity, respectively. Moreover, when the genetic diversity was considered, three different groups arose in terms of selected populations. Since Torul-Örümcek population had relatively higher results in contrast to other populations, this population has high importance for sustainability of gene resource of oriental spruce.
Key words: Genetic diversity; conservation; Isoenzyme; Picea orientalis
|Ilija Đorđević, Nenad Ranković, Jelena Nedeljković, Jelena Tomićević-Dubljević, Dragan Nonić, Stjepan Posavec, Goran Češljar
| UDK 630* 934 + 676 (001)
|Mechanisms of financing the protected area management system in Serbia
The financing of protected area (PA) management includes the interaction of different actors that are involved in the process of management and financing, i.e., from the management framework to the mechanisms of financing. The management framework sets the basic preconditions for PA management, while the mechanisms of financing represent the ways of financing PAs based on the long-term and sustainable conditions. The management of PAs in Serbia has mostly been done by public enterprises (PE). It was given to non-governmental organizations (NGO) for the first time in the late 1990s. Today, the management is carried out by different managers from the public sector (PS) to the private sector (PrS). This research deals with different financing mechanisms present in PAs in Serbia. Additionally, it deals with the differences in the financing between different management actors (MA) in order to establish the best financing practices in the PA management system in Serbia. The results indicate that public enterprise “Srbijašume” (PES) has the lowest average number of financial sources, unlike public enterprise “Vojvodinašume” (PEV). Regarding the average amount of financing, other managers from the public sector (OPS) have the largest amount of financing, while other public enterprises (OPE) record the smallest amount of their own financing. In order to improve the use of mechanisms for the PA management system financing, additional training for the use of funds is proposed at national and international level, as well as external, i.e., additional engagement of agencies that would prepare projects at international level. It is also proposed to establish a specific mechanism – a fund intended for nature protection.
Key words: protected areas; mechanisms of financing; management actors; Serbia
POSAVEC, Stjepan ŠL
|Nikica Ogris, Tine Hauptman, Maarten de Groot, Dušan Jurc
| UDK 630* 270 + 305
|Comparison of two methods for monitoring urban forests health
We compared the performance of two methods for monitoring urban forest health. The first was based on a systematic grid (ISM), and the second on non-linear transects (UFMO). Both methods were tested during July and August 2013 in the Rožnik urban forest in the Municipality of Ljubljana (MOL). We assessed crown condition and damaging agents on 15 ISM plots, surveying an area of 92 a (are = 100 m2) in 1,640 minutes. By comparison, the UFMO method was used to survey an area of 518 a in 1,700 minutes. The performance of the ISM and the UFMO methods was 17.8 min/a and 3.28 min/a, respectively. According to the time/area performance measure, the UFMO method performed 5.4 times better than the ISM method. The UFMO method recorded 1.5 times more damaging agents per hour, 2.7 times more trees per hour, and 13.4 times more dead standing trees per hour. It also suggested 7.0 times more management measures per hour. However, the density of the data gathered was 7.1 times higher for the ISM method. According to the chosen comparison measures, the overall performance of the UFMO method exceeded the ISM method in all chosen performance measures expressed in relative time except the amount of data gathered. We conclude that, for the same sampling cost, the ISM approach produces an unbiased, but imprecise, estimate of overall forest health, while the UFMO method produces a biased, but more precise, estimate. We discuss possible improvements and further limitations of the UFMO method with an emphasis on the differences between the two methods of monitoring and surveying forest health. We conclude, that the ISM monitoring method can be supplemented with the UFMO surveying method to capitalize on the potential synergies of combining both approaches.
Key words: bias; ICP Forests; performance evaluation; survey; systematic grid; transect
Maarten de Groot
|Ivan Pervan, Tena Radočaj, Tea Tomljanović, Miljenko Bujanić, Dean Konjević
| UDK 630* 134
|Determination of sex and morphological characteristics of fat dormouse (Glis glis) from the area of Dalmatian hinterland
Edible dormouse (Glis glis L.) is the largest dormouse species. The edible dormouse is autochthonous game species in Croatia, and arboreal animal that is active at night. During the hunting season 2017./2018. we have collected 32 adult individuals (18 females and 14 males), on the area Dalmatian hinterland. Following sex determination, the following morphological parameters were measured: mass (total mass including tail, total mass without tail , head, tail, liver, kidney, heart, lung, digestive system and radman) and body length measurements (body length including tail, body length without tail, front and back width of the puck and tail length). Statistically significant difference between males and females was found in the length of the body without the tail (p = 0.049) and tail mass (p = 0.041), with males displaying greater values for both of these features. The other measured parameters did not show significant differences between sexes. Sexual dimorphism in this rodent is not pronounced, though on average males tend to be larger and heavier than females. It was not possible to differentiate adults and juveniles based on the color of the fur and the body size. Measured morphological parameters mostly coincide with results of similar research. Edible part of internal organs constitutes 5.1% of live weight (heart and lungs 1.8%, livers 2.43% and kidneys 0.8%). Non-edible part includes stomach and intestines (12.3%), head (11.78%), tail (4%) and skin and metapodia (11.21%). Sex of an individual Edible dormouse can be safely determined by looking at the external sex organs. Body length and total mass of Edible dormouse in Dalmatian hinterland is similar to the population in the Gorski Kotar region. Although we have established a statistically significant difference in the length of the body without the tail and the mass of the tail of the males compared to the same indicators in females, they are not sufficient for the use in recognizing sex of Edible dormouse.
Key words: Edible dormouse (Glis glis L.); Dalmatian hinterland; morphology; sexual dimorphism
|Damir Drvodelić, Milan Oršanić
| UDK 630* 232
|Selecting high quality forest seedlings of narrow-leaved ash (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl) for regeneration and reforestation purposes
This expert article describes in detail all the factors that affect the cultivation of quality forest seedlings of narrow-leaved ash for artificial regeneration and afforestation. So far no attention has been paid to the quality of the seedlings given the new and completely changed adverse ecological and biological factors occurring in narrow-leaved ash stands in Croatia. The quality of field ash seedlings was determined solely by one morphological factor, which is usually the shoot height, which is not good. The paper defines the concepts of morphological and physiological quality of seedlings. Methodologies for measuring the morphological and physiological characteristics of forest seedlings and their importance for survival, growth and growth after field planting are described. Morphological features include shoot height, stem diameter, height: diameter ratio, bud length, root and stem volume, weights, shoot: root ratio, and colour, form, and damage. Physiological properties are: cold hardiness, root growth potential (RGP), bud dormancy and foliar nutrient concentration. Three stress factors that affect the decrease in forest seedling quality, survival, growth, and field gains are described, namely: plant moisture stress (PMS), temperature stress, and physical stress (falling, crushing, vibration, surface damage, and root tearing).All other stress factors that affect the decline in the quality of forest seedlings, which occurs during the period from the nursery to field planting, have been identified. The role of an individual stress factor on seedlings is clarified, and so is the cumulative influence of multiple stress factors. The article deals with the correct handling of seedlings from harvesting in the nursery to afforestation. Recent patented protection options for seedlings from the time of removal from the nursery or cold storage truck to planting in the field are presented.
Key words: morphological quality of forest seedlings; physiological quality of forest seedlings; stress factors in forest seedlings; seedling handling; seedling protection