|Establishing yet another study of forestry in Croatia|
|It seems that history, just like fashion, repeats itself periodically. Every so often there are some “wise guys” with, as folks would say, “outlandish ideas” which are, without exception, highly questionable and almost always groundless. After the idea of establishing a new study of forestry was outlined in the journal of Glas Slavonije (Voice of Slavonia) (14 February 2019), Professor Joso Vukelić, PhD, wrote an article for the column Challenges and Confrontations (Forestry Journal 11-12/2006), in which he opposed the then unofficial idea by providing well argued facts. There is almost nothing to add to Professor Vukelić’s text, except that these days the said idea has become an official initiative of a local community and that the success or failure of the Bologna Process can now be viewed objectively given the time passed. Everything else would only be tiresome repetition, which we do not want, but what we would like here is to just hint at some issues and point to arguments in order to encourage you to look for and read the text by professor Vukelić, which is still highly topical.
For a start, the author focuses on the chaotic process of establishing similar studies with identical programmes outside the existing universities and former schools of higher education in the Republic of Croatia, a process which is still going on. The results achieved by the newly opened studies have not justified their establishment, so it is clear that their foundation was of an exclusively political nature. The most important issue that the author questions is the need and adequacy of launching a study of forestry in addition to the existing one at the Faculty of Forestry of the University in Zagreb. He lists the following facts:
– there are no conclusive insights on the success of the application of the Bologna Process (nor are there any today, either - it has met the expectations only partially);
– the Bologna Process is not adequately accompanied by other changes in the legislative-organisational sphere in the Croatian forestry;
– there are over 200 engineers (masters) of forestry registered at the Croatian Employment Service (currently with about 100 unemployed forestry engineers);
– interest in the study of classical forestry is declining;
– the competent ministry allocates less and less money to field training and overhead expenses at the existing faculty;
– there is a newly-built, modern and adequate facility which needs to be furnished with up-to-date equipment;
– there are five internationally recognized teaching polygons, international student exchange and highly educated young teachers, as well as 108 years (at the time of writing the article and 120 years now) of tradition of higher forestry education in Croatia - the fourth study to be launched at the University of Zagreb;
– there are enough graduate students, and maybe even too many for the needs of the profession.
The author continues by discussing the need of county governments to stimulate development, which in this case is mistakenly directed at solving local problems. He cites some concrete examples of education which has not fulfilled its purpose and expresses concern about the teaching staff with little pedagogical training and experience. Instead of expanding the university education of forestry, he proposes to focus on permanent education, which is a necessity today but its implementation is three times lower than in the EU. The crucial goal to aspire towards should be excellence; accordingly, both expert specialists and financial means should be geared towards reaching this goal. Regrettably, we have not learned anything and we are not prepared to analyze the negative sides of, for example, forestry education at the secondary school level, based precisely on the needs at the local communities rather than at the national level. Allowing for some specific aspects, the curricula should be almost uniform in all of some ten forestry schools in Croatia. Can we compare the quality of teaching in these schools (is quality at all possible considering the staff and the equipment) and the needs of the profession? Where is educational excellence which should be aspired to at this level as well?
Definitely, the initiative to establish another study of forestry should be discussed at the national level (but who is going to conduct the discussion when the current competent minister ignores the forestry profession)? There should be no political pressures and superficiality, and all debates should be free of private interests, including a hidden wish to “make some money on the side”. <br>
|ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPERS|
|Jelena Kranjec Orlović, Ivan Andrić, Ida Bulovec, Danko Diminić|| UDK 630*443 (001)
|Mycobiota in the seeds of narrow-leaved ash (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl)|
Narrow-leaved ash (Fraxinus angustifolia), currently the most damaged forest tree species in the Republic of Croatia, is suffering from dieback primarily caused by pathogenic fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. Since health status of seeds is very important for future seedling production, objective of this study was to screen narrow-leaved ash seeds for presence of this main pathogen and other potentially parasitic fungi. Seeds were collected from five locations and analysed using three different methods. Results revealed relatively good health status of inspected seeds, with total of 15 different fungal taxa identified in less than 40% of samples and no confirmation of Hymenoscyphus fraxineus presence. Most frequently detected fungi were various species of genus Alternaria and species Sphaerulina berberidis, while other taxa occurred rarely. Although identified fungal species haven’t caused visible symptoms on seeds after one to two months of storage, many of them are known seed pathogens or opportunistic ash (Fraxinus spp.) pathogens and could have a negative effect on seeds after longer period of storage or storage in unfavourable conditions.
Key words: fungal isolation; nested PCR; Alternaria sp.; Sphaerulina berberidis
Jelena Kranjec Orlović
ANDRIĆ, Ivan ŠL
DIMINIĆ, Danko ŠL
|Ida Katičić Bogdan, Davorin Kajba, Saša Bogdan|| UDK 630* 232.3 (001)
|Variability of clones in acorn production and its effect on effective population sizes and genetic diversity of crops in clonal seed orchards of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) in Croatia|
In this study we wanted to investigate different parameters providing informations about the efficassy of orchards in producing genetically diverse progeny. We used available inventory data from the company „Croatian Forest” ltd. about the numbers and the age of ramets, as well as evidented crops in two clonal seed orchards (CSOs) of pedunculate oak : CSO „Plešćice” and CSO „Petkovac”.
For CSO „Plešćice” we used inventory data on ramets and crops for the years 2003, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010. and for CSO „Petkovac” for the years 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008, 2009 and 2010. After 2010 the collection of crops per clone was abandoned in both orchards and we only have data for overall crops in the orchards, until the year 2017.
We calculated the amounts and variability of acorn crops in different years, as well as projections of crops for years 2018 and 2019 based on polynomial regression curves, for all years of evidented crops between years 2003 and 2017. Results are shown in Table 1 and Figures 1 and 2. All other analysis were possible only for years in which crops were collected separately by clones.
We used Pearson’s product-moment and Spearman’s rank correlations to compare distributions of crops per clones between pairs of investigated years, ie. rank of clones in crops production between investigated years. Both correlations were mostly statistically significant with some exceptions (Table 2)
Clone fructification balance described by cummulative curves of acorn production in different years, per percentage of fructifying clones is shown in Figures 3 and 4. Clone balance curves in both orchards show irregular distribution of crops per clones, meaning that in investigated years minority of clones contributed to majority of crops. In conditions of equal clone fertility and maximal sinchronicity of clones, clone’s contribution to crops would be in concordance with the number of its ramets (clone size). Table 3 shows that in CSO Plešćice this correlation was weaker then in CSO Petkovac and, unlike in CSO Petkovac, not significant in all years.
Estimations of effective population sizes and genetic diversity of crops in different years is shown for female clone fertility in Table 4. For calculations of biparental contribution of clones, we used three scenarios encompassing various versions of potential male contribution in effective population sizes. Results are shown in Table 5. The values of effective (status) number of parents (Np) for the first scenario, where male contribution is proportionate to the percentage of clone’s ramets in the overall number of ramets of all clones, is intermediate between the other two scenarios. Lowest effective (status) number of parents (Np) and highest values of group ancestry coefficients (Θ) result from the second scenario where male contribution is equal to female. The highest effective numbers are gained for third scenario where equal male contribution of all clones is presumed.
In both CSOs, Spearman rank correlation between female effective numbers (Nf) and overall crops in different investigated years is statistically significant at p < 0,05 level.
These two CSOs are still filled with new ramets and are still relatively young. With increasing age and ramets’ tree sizes better results in crops and its genetic diversity are expected. For implementation of measures of crops genetic diversity estimations, it is necessary to monitor successively flowering and fructification in the CSOs through the years. The monitoring can then be combined with knowledge on genetic gain and clones’ breeding values obtained through recently established CSOs progeny trials. Therefore, we recommend collection of CSOs’ crops separately by clones, because without expensive molecular analysis it is the only way to get relevant information of individual clones contribution to genetic diversity of crops produced in the CSOs.
Key words: Pedunculate oak; clonal seed orchards; variability of the amounts of crops in different years; genetic diversity of crops; clone fructification balance
KATIČIĆ, Ida ŠL
KAJBA, Davorin ŠL
BOGDAN, Saša ŠL
|Marilena Idžojtić, Igor Anić, Ivan Šimić, Maja Anastazija Kovačević, Igor Poljak|| UDK 630* 174(001)
|Dendrological characteristics of the Trsteno Arboretum|
The Trsteno Arboretum, managed by the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, is a former land estate with gardens, old olive groves and natural vegetation. It is a protected site of natural and cultural goods of the Republic of Croatia. The history of its land estate can be traced back to the year 1494, while the Arboretum itself was established in 1948 over 28 ha. It has been 65 years since the first list of plants in the Arboretum was drawn up. In order to determine the current wealth of woody taxa, the plants were documented during 2017 and 2018. A dendrological analysis was made and the present richness of the woody plants was compared to the literary data from the middle and the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century. Currently, the Arboretum contains 317 woody taxa, of which 233 are species, 8 subspecies, 2 varieties, 10 hybrids and 64 cultivars (Table 1). The taxa belong to 179 different genera from 82 families. The gymnosperms are considerably less represented with 19 taxa, and the rest are angiosperms (298 taxa). Slightly more than a quarter of the species and subspecies are autochthonous in Croatia and are predominantly Mediterranean species. The Trsteno Arboretum is the only littoral arboretum in Croatia which supports important collections that preserve and represent the Croatian dendroflora. As a guardian of biodiversity, the Arboretum has an important educational and scientific role for both Croatian and foreign visitors. The majority of the exotic species and subspecies, that is, those which occur exclusively outside the European continent, are of Asian origin (64 species), followed by the species from the area of America (45 species), Africa (14 species) and Australia (6 species). There is a large number of particularly valuable taxa that are unique to or rarely present in Croatia, such as Acacia cyclops A. Cunn. ex G. Don, A. karoo Hayne, Albizia amara (Roxb.) B. Boivin, Callitris preisii Miq., Casuarina cunninghamiana Miq., Persea indica (L.) Spreng., Retama sphaerocarpa Raf., Schinus weinmannifolius Engl. and Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (Franch.) Rehder. Besides the particularly valuable individual examples of some species, the Arboretum also boasts collections that include species, hybrids and cultivars of various genera. Since the first plant list was drawn up, new taxa have continuously been introduced into the Arboretum, making it wealthier and more diverse in species than 65 years ago. This was achieved by enriching the collections of particular genera, but also by revising previous documentation, which brought to light numerous old cultivars, such as those in the genera Olea, Citrus, Aloe, Pelargonium and others. The genus Olea is represented by a collection of 15 old autochthonous olive cultivars from the area of Dubrovnik, and the genus Citrus with 10 autochthonous and 8 more recent citrus cultivars. This is a valuable contribution to the preservation of the genofund of historical autochthonous Croatian cultivars. Over the past 65 years, the total number of taxa has increased from 226 to 317. The number of taxa which have survived in the Arboretum until the present day is 148, meaning that of the present 317 taxa, slightly less than half were in the Arboretum 65 years ago. Of the 226 taxa present in 1953, 74 taxa have disappeared from the Arboretum as a result of a number of different factors, including the climate, growing conditions, fires, but also diseases and pests. The majority of the changes occurring
in the Arboretum since 1953 took place before 1998. For future maintenance and development of the Arboretum in the sense of regenerating the taxa that have disappeared or introducing new taxa, the facts mentioned above should be of particular concern. Exotic plants from warm regions of other continents are generally well adapted to the site conditions in the Arboretum, but they sometimes perish owing to extremely low temperatures lasting for several days. The eight oldest living trees in the Arboretum were planted in the period between 1858 and 1871: Ginkgo biloba L. (1858), Tilia americana L. (1858), Taxus baccata L. (1859), Diospyros virginiana L. (1859), Wisteria sinensis (Sims) Sweet (1861), Ginkgo biloba L. (1861), Platanus orientalis L. (1868) and Cedrus libani A. Rich. (1871). The Trsteno Arboretum is the only Croatian arboretum that is managed by a scientific institution - the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, and it fulfils all the requirements set before a historical arboretum in the modern world.
Key words: Trsteno Arboretum; Croatia; Mediterranean; trees; shrubs; half-shrubs; dendrological analysis
IDŽOJTIĆ, Marilena ŠL
ANIĆ, Igor ŠL
Maja Anastazija Kovačević
|Mladen Zadravec, Toni Koren, Boris Lauš, Ivona Burić, Barbara Horvatić|| UDK 630* 419
|Preliminary data on the beetle (Coleoptera) fauna of Turopoljski Lug forest|
Wetlands provide many important ecosystem services, e.g. serving as natural retention areas to prevent flooding and they can be recreational areas for the general public. They also represent vital habitats for many animal species and many are protected nature areas. In spite of this, the fauna of many wetlands in Croatia is still mostly unknown, especially when it comes to beetles. Not knowing the fauna of a particular habitat hinders management efforts. One such location is Turopoljski Lug forest, south-east from the capital Zagreb. The fieldwork was done from March till September 2017, utilising four methods: sweep netting, baited traps on tree trunks, light trapping with UV light traps at night, and collecting by hand. Additionally, several records from earlier visits are included. The total number of currently known species for the forest is raised from 51 to 133. A total of nine species are near threatened (NT), seven of which are saproxylic. Three species listed in Annexes II and IV of the Habitats Directive occur in the area, of which only Cerambyx cerdo had been recorded. Additionally, a neglected literature record of a fourth, Phryganophilus ruficollis, has been discovered. Current management practices for the forest should be re-evaluated and modified if necessary. Future research targeting specific beetle groups should yield further increases in the number of species known for the area, while a targeted mapping of the distribution of species listed on the Annexes should yield much-needed conservation information.
Key words: flooded forest; Natura 2000 Ecological Network; Cerambyx cerdo; Phryganophilus ruficollis; Trox perrisii; nature protection areas
|Kenan Zahirović, Tarik Treštić, Azra Čabaravdić, Mirza Dautbašić , Osman Mujezinović|| UDK 630* 443
|Causitive agents of decay of norway spruce /Picea abies (L.) Karst./ on the mountain Zvijezda|
Wood decay fungi reduce the vitality of infected trees, predispose the surrounding trees to be attacked from other harmful agents and damage the most valued part of the stem. Because of these multiple influences it is necessary to explore the presence of these fungi in the forests of Bosnia and Herzegovina, in order to be able to prevent and reduce the damage they cause. Norway spruce in Bosnia and Herzegovina represents one of economically important trees. Because of that, this research is focused on role and implementation of molecular methods and determination of wood decaying fungi on Norway spruce from the genera Heterobasidion and Armillaria on mountain Zvijezda. The reliable identification of species of genus Heterobasidion can be made by analyzing the differences in the structure of the ITS region of rDNA. The reliable identification of species of genus Armillaria can be done by analyzing the differences in the structure of the ITS region of rDNA (genus level), or IGS rDNA regions (interspecies diversity). Inside the object of research were found 9 trees with fungus Heterobasidion parviporum Niemelä & Korhonen, 1 tree with a fungus Armillaria cepistipes Velenovský, 2 trees with the fungus Armillaria ostoyae (Romagnesi) Herink, and 17 trees whose decay was caused by other decaying fungi. Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. was identified from decaying wood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).
Key words: Heterobasidion; Armillaria; decaying fungi; DNA analysis; primers; Bosnia and Herzegovina
|Martin Bobinac, Siniša Andrašev, Andrijana Bauer-Živković, Nikola Šušić|| UDK 630* 561
|Growth elements of the trees and the stand of Gymnocladus dioicus (L.) K. Koch at Fruška gora (Serbia)|
The species Gymnocladus dioicus (L.) K. Koch has been present in the territory of Serbia for over 150 years, and is most commonly cultivated in the form of decorative single trees or in small groups. The largest heterogeneous group of trees is situated at Fruška Gora on the site of pedunculate oak and hornbeam. The growth elements of trees and the group (stand) are presented in this paper. The spacing between the trees in the stand was 3 × 3 m. The growth elements of the trees and the stand are shown for 75, 80 and 85 years of culture ages, for all trees and collectives of trees that were developed under the influence of different growing space. The productivity of the stand is high. At the age of 85 years, 502 trees per hectare were determined with quadratic mean diameter (dg) of 39.6 cm, dominant diameter (D100) 51.5 cm, Lorey’s mean height (hL) 33.0 m, dominant height (H100) 35.0 m, basal area 61.74 m2·ha–1 and volume of 918.23 m3·ha–1.
Key words: Gymnocladus dioicus(L.)K. Koch; introduction; culture; growth elements; growing conditions; Serbia
|Zdenko Franić|| UDK 630*892
|Apiforestry – beekeeping and forestry|
The paper presents a history of the interaction of beekeeping and forestry (apiforestry) in Croatia through an overview of scientific and professional literature and systematizes the most relevant recommendations and conclusions. Almost all authors recommend the planting of plants and trees rich in nectar and pollen as a precondition for advanced beekeeping and mitigating the adverse effects of climate change on bees. When planting and restoring forests, acacia, lime and chestnuts are especially recommended. The benefits of pollination service and biodiversity sustainment provided by bees, which at EU level is estimated at about € 1280 per bee colony, are much higher than the benefits of honey and other bee products. In Croatia, apiforestry, especially in chestnut forests, provides opportunities for the development of innovative activities and services based on beekeeping. One example is apitherapy as a health segment of beekeeping tourism. Apiforestry should continue to be a subject of multidisciplinary research and coordination, whereas cooperation between the sectors of forestry and beekeeping should be continuously improved.
Key words: forestry; beekeeping; honey plants; pollination; biodiversity