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HR  EN   



Scientific-technical and professional journal
of Croatia Forestry Society
                         Issued continously since 1877.
       First issue of this web edition start with number 1-2/2008.
   ISSN No.: 1846-9140              UDC 630*PAPER EDITION

Portal of scientific
journals of Croatia
   Issued by: Croatian Forestry Society

   Address: Trg Mažuranića 11, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
   Phone/fax: ++385 1 4828477
   e-mail: urednistvo@sumari.hr
   Editor in Chief: Josip Margaletić

Uredništvo   565
What percent of the population is aware of the forestry profession?      
At the beginning of November, the Evening Paper (Večernji list) published a speech by the Prime Minister given at a meeting of the Rector’s Collegium held to discuss the Government decision related to funding higher education programmes in the academic year 2018/2019 - 2021/2022. In one part of the text the Prime Minister observes that the academic community is “visible” to about 0.3 % of the population, which is devastating. Therefore, he calls for a greater social and public involvement, which can be 100 % critical to the Government. What is important is to be seen and heard by the society, but also to be presented by people “with a name” instead of by “no-name” persons, which is a typical occurrence. If transposed to the forestry profession, we are not far from a similar “visibility” percentage; therefore, this could also be an appeal to the forestry profession. In cases in which visibility is higher, it usually carries a negative prefix, while the profession is in the background. The profession is often presented by “no-name” foresters, or by journalists who are insufficiently educated in forestry matters and who are mainly interested in scandals and affairs. The same goes for volunteers in various “green associations”, who are not prepared to listen to the profession and to change their deeply rooted opinions about the forestry profession. In vain are all attempts to inform them about professionally and expertly executed forestry operations. No heed is paid to the fact that the forestry profession has managed forests according to the principle of sustainable management for over two and a half centuries and that it meets all the criteria of special protection over a large area. Who then, if not foresters, should be in charge of the status and rang of protected areas and who should a forest be protected from?
There are no reasoned discussions about forestry and forests at the state level, nor is there any mention of its importance as the classical primary sector of economy and of its ecological-protective and social-health role. We have already mentioned several times that the word ‘forestry’ was omitted from the name of the sector ministry despite the fact that 47 % of the landed area of the Republic of Croatia is covered with forests, which should indicate the importance of the profession. In one of the articles in this column we criticized the fact that within the competent Ministry forestry has been reduced to the level of dairy production, fruit production and similar. Regrettably, it has lost even this status now. We have also written about non-market sale of wood assortments and the already established term “distribution of wood assortments”. Distribution of wood assortments and market management are two completely opposite notions. However, how can market management be applied in view of the fact that the previous management boards of Croatian Forests Ltd signed long-term agreements on the principle of distribution, which are hard to change without heavy consequences? How can the cost of silvicultural, management and protective operations be covered from such small profits and not be “skipped over”? As for the rational use of raw material and its quality, which ensures additional value and employment to highly educated people in particular, there is no data. For example, the promotional spot of the “Ambijenta” furniture fair showed mainly upholstered furniture without any wooden elements. When the wood sector brags about the production and export of furniture, there is no data about primary processing production (veneer, massive wood, panelling OPLATA and others) and its use in the domestic production of massive cabinets and other room and kitchen furniture, nor is there any data about which and how many of wood assortments have ended up in the domestic final processing.
Why have we and under whose coercion retracted from successful integral forest management which includes auxiliary and secondary activities in forestry and which contributes significantly to the profit of e.g. Austrian forests, as well as increases employment? It would be interesting to discuss how, why, to whom, for what period and at what price have concessions been granted on various facilities, such as, for example, workers’ resorts, which workers themselves built from a part of their income so as to be able to use them? We like to talk about the care for workers and their families, but how much has this fact alone changed their social status? There are many more topics to discuss here. Our wish at the end of every year is for the status of forestry to change for the better in the year to come. As hope dies last, we again expect positive changes in the next year and wish our readers Merry Christmas and a Happy and Successful New Year 2019.<br>
Editorial Board

Mateo Gašparović, Anita Simic Milas, Ante Seletković, Ivan Balenović  UDK 630* 587 (001)
A novel automated method for the improvement of photogrammetric DTM accuracy in forests      
Accuracy of a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) in a complex forest environment is critical and yet challenging for accurate forest inventory and management, disaster risk analysis, and timber utilization. Reducing elevation errors in photogrammetric DTM (DTMPHM), which present the national standard in many countries worldwide, is critical, especially for forested areas. In this paper, a novel automated method to detect the errors and to improve the accuracy of DTMPHM for the lowland forest has been presented and evaluated. This study was conducted in the lowland pedunculate oak forest (Pokupsko Basin, Croatia). The DTMPHM was created from three-dimensional (3D) vector data collected by aerial stereo-photogrammetry in combination with data collected from existing maps and field surveys. These data still present the national standard for DTM generation in many countries, including Croatia. By combining slope and tangential curvature values of raster DTMPHM, the proposed method developed in open source Grass GIS software automatically detected 91 outliers or 3.2% of the total number of source points within the study area. Comparison with a highly accurate LiDAR DTM confirmed the method efficiency. This was especially evident in two out of three observed subset areas where the root mean square error (RMSE) values decreased for 8% in one and 50% in another area after errors elimination. The method could be of great importance to other similar studies for forested areas in countries where the LiDAR data are not available.

Key words: digital terrain model (DTM); vertical accuracy; LiDAR; lowland forest

    Mateo Gašparović  
    Anita Simic Milas  
    SELETKOVIĆ, Ante      ŠL
    BALENOVIĆ, Ivan    ŠL
Mirzeta Memišević Hodžić, Dalibor Ballian  UDK 630* 451 + 153 (001)
doi: 10.31298/sl.142.11-12.2
Phenological variability of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) in Bosnian-Herzegovinian provenance trial      
Our research of Phenological variability of 28 provenances of pedunculate oak in the Bosnian and Hercegovinian test of provenances in Žepce. The experiment is based in the accidentally random block system with three (3) repetitions, where each provenance in each block is represented by 36 plants (except provenances Drvar, Mutnica, Zvornik and Vinac, which are partially represented in the experiment). We have observed the process of leafing during years 2012 and 2013 and from the end of March to beginning of May. We followed five (5) phenofazes of leafing that were developed for sessile oak by Derory et al. (2006).
The analysis of phenological phases has shown that there are statistically important differences between the investigated provenances. The differences have been confirmed for the start, duration and end of certain phenological phases during leafing in the provenances and it points to a genetic variability between the populations and the dependence of phenological phases on the weather conditions.
In this research, based on the earliest appearance of the phases no differentiation between any of the provenances could be made. Bijeljina provenance entered phase B slightly earlier in 2012, while in 2013 it entered phase B at the same time as all the other groups. With the Bosanska Dubica provenance we observed lateness with all the phases in both years, however when compared to the other groups it averages a delay of 7-10 days and considering the location is in a mountainous conditions we can safely confirm that it is a matter of late form.
It should be noted that the obtained results already have great possibility of implementation in breeding programme of pedunculate oak as well as in conservation of genetic variability with in situ and ex situ methods. The obtained results should be used for planning, repopulation and reintroduction of pedunculate oak in Bosnia and Hercegovina. This research should be done further and in more depth to obtain an even more details picture about the phenology of pedunculate oak and further research would help to establish the early and late forms while taking the weather and its effects into consideration.

Key words: phenology; provenances; pedunculate oak 

    Mirzeta Memišević Hodžić  
    Dalibor Ballian  
Sezgin Ayan, Nezahat Turfan, Esra Nurten Yer, Muhidin Šeho, Halil Barş Özel, Fulvio Ducci  UDK 630* 453 (001)
Antioxidant variability of the seeds in core and marginal populations of taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich.)      
Genetic diversity is the basis for adaptation and survival of tree species under changing environmental conditions, representing the key issue of stability and productivity of forest ecosystems. In this study, core and marginal populations of Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich.) were investigated due to their importance in gene conservation. Assessment of genetic diversity in isolated populations is of great importance for the conservation and improvement programs. Under global climate change conditions, they may possess genotypes of future adaptive potential. The aim of this study is to determine the amount of proline to understand water deficiency stress of the population, total soluble proteins, MDA, H2O2, α-amylase, the variability of antioxidant as CAT, SOD, APX and GuPX of Taurus Cedar seeds fromfive core populations (Kahramanmaraş-Andırın/Elmadağı (AND), Adana-Pozantı/Pozantı (POZ), Mersin-Anamur/Abanoz (ANA), Antalya-Finike/Aykırıçay (FIN) and Antalya-Kaş/Karaçay (KAS)) and one marginal provenance (Amasya-Tokat-Niksar/Çatalan (NIK)) in Turkey. According to the results, a significant difference was detected between populations. Significantly higher amounts of proline were detected for ANA (7,46 µmol/g) and POZ (7,22 µmol/g) populations, whereas the lowest amounts of proline were detected in KAS (3,98 µmol/g) population, which represent the optimal distribution of Taurus cedar. This finding indicates that POZ and ANA populations, in the transition zone from Mediterranean region to steppe territory, are more resistant to the frost, than the other populations. The highest α-amilase enzyme amount was detected in POZ population, growing in the optimum range for Taurus cedar. Significantly higher levels of H2O2 were detected in NIK (11,97 µmol/g) and ANA (11,60 µmol/g). This is an indication of higher levels of oxidative stress in the seed samples of these populations. With the present research it’s verified that, enzymes such as SOD, CAT, GuPX and APX, controlling reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in plant cells, are the elements of the antioxidant defence system functioning as protective mechanisms for plants against stress conditions. From the practical point of view, improvement in afforestation performance can be achieved on the steppe of Central Anatolia Region holding the potential afforestation areas of Turkey, through use of forest reproductive materials from POZ and ANA stands with their higher resistance against stress, and NIK as an isolated and marginal population.

Key words: Taurus cedar; abiotic stress; peripheral population; chemical components

    Sezgin Ayan  
    Nezahat Turfan  
    Esra Nurten Yer  
    Muhidin Šeho  
    Halil Barş Özel  
    Fulvio Ducci  
Cumhur Güngöroglu, Ç. Okan Güney, Abdullah Sari, Ayhan Serttaş  UDK 630* 537 + 238 (001)
Predicting crown fuel biomass of Turkish red pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) for the Mediterranean regions of Turkey      
Accurate fuel load estimation is an important prerequisite for effective forest fire management. The aim of this study was to develop empirical allometric equations for the estimation of crown fuel loading of Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) trees of Southwestern Mediterranean region of Turkey using dendrometric variables. For this study, 84 trees were sampled destructively. Branch samples of crown fuel biomass were classified as foliage and as branches within the following diameter ranges: very fine (≤0,3 cm), fine (0,31–0,6 cm), medium (0,61–1.0 cm), thick (1,01–2,5 cm) and active fuels. To estimate the crown biomass, the diameter at breast height, tree height, crown length, and crown width were used as the independent variables. Stepwise function and logarithmic linear regression models were used to analyze the relationships between the fuel biomass and properties of the sampled trees. Among all of the obtained allometric equations, the variation in fine branches was explained the most by crown width and crown length which together explained R2adj of 90.2 of the variation in fine branches. The variation in very fine branches was explained the least by tree height, which only explained R2adj of 60.4% the variation in very fine branches. The total crown fuel loading of Calabrian pine in present study compared with studies distributed in Greece and Turkey indicate, the fuel biomass of Calabrian pines can differ between regions.

Key words: crown biomass; fuel load; Calabrian pine; Mediterranean regions

    Cumhur Güngöroglu  
    Ç. Okan Güney  
    Abdullah Sari  
    Ayhan Serttaş  
Fahrettin Atar, Ibrahim Turna  UDK 630* 923 + 619 (001)
Fruit and seedling diversity among sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) populations in Turkey      
Sweet chestnut, Castanea sativa Mill., is an important multipurpose tree species in Asia Minor and Europe. The objective of this study was to investigate variation among eight sweet chestnut populations in Turkey by using different morphological characteristics of fruits and seedlings. A total of four fruit characteristics were analysed: fruit length, width and thickness, and fruit shape, i.e. the ratio of fruit length and width. Additionally, 1000 fruit mass and fruit moisture content were determined as well. Measurements of seedling length, root collar diameter and sturdiness quotient were carried out at one-year old seedlings. The highest values of fruit length, width and thickness were found in İzmir population, while the highest values of seedling length, root collar diameter and sturdiness quotient were found in Balıkesir population. The 1000 fruit mass ranged between 3815.1 g and 10516.5 g, and the highest average fruit moisture content was 52.21 %. In general, the fruit size increased from eastern to western populations. Furthermore, the results of statistical analyses showed that there were significant differences between analysed populations for measured morphological characteristics related to both fruit and seedling. Application of cluster analysis revealed grouping of populations according to the eco-geographic principle. However, human influence on the population structure cannot be excluded as well.

Key words: Castanea sativa; sweet chestnut; Turkey; morphology; fruit; seedling

    Fahrettin Atar  
    Ibrahim Turna  
Kristijan Tomljanović, Helena Nosek, Renata Pernar, Marijan Grubešić  UDK 630* 156 + 153
Possibilities of applying lightweight unmanned aerial vehicles to big game counting      
Different techniques and technologies are being used in wild animal research. Goals of such research and monitoring are various, most common are numbers per area and size of population for a researched species (Myslenkov i Miquelle, 2015). Development of new techniques and technologies that are used everyday in practial wild animal monitoring has made many tasks much easier and more precise, usage of technology often decreases the number of people needed to be involved in research and has made some until now unfeasable methods a reality. In conducted research we wanted to explore to what amount is it possible to apply a drone system equiped with thermal camera in assessing some population parameters for big game. Research was conducted in lowland teritorry of continental part of Republic of Croatia within hunting ground Opeka II. Wild boar has been chosen for the research as the most common species of big game in Republic of Croatia. Within two localities (I age grade of Oak forest) testing of two counting methods was conducted. First method was to try and count all
neck within researched department. Given results show relatively high numbers of wild boar in average of 1,26 with sd=+/- 0,18 necks/ha within researched plane. Second utilized method was to count wild boar on in advance determined strips, whose share in total observed surface amounts to 10%. In this method infomation are of bigger variability and somewhat smaller number off wild boar within observed plane has been determined in amount of 0,61 neck/ha with very high sd=+/- 0,53. Researched confirmed the posibility of applying drone systems with thermal cameras. From two applied methods, first (absolute counting of all animals) is more suitable for smaller surfaces, while the method of appropriate strips is more suitable for larger surfaces with conscious risk of generating greater counting error.

Key words: lightweight unmanned aerial vehicles; drone; hunting management; remote sensing; wild boar (Sus scrofa); big game counting

    TOMLJANOVIĆ, Kristijan    ŠL
    Helena Nosek  
    PERNAR, Renata      ŠL
    GRUBEŠIĆ, Marijan      ŠL