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HR  EN   



Scientific-technical and professional journal
of Croatia Forestry Society
                         Issued continously since 1877.
       First issue of this web edition start with number 1-2/2008.
   ISSN No.: 1846-9140              UDC 630*https://doi.org/10.31298/sl

Portal of scientific
journals of Croatia
   Issued by: Croatian Forestry Society

   Address: Trg Mažuranića 11, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
   Phone/fax: ++385 1 4828477
   e-mail: urednistvo@sumari.hr
   Editor in Chief: Josip Margaletić

Uredništvo   457
On the occasion of the 120th anniversary      
October 20th 2018 marks two important events: the 120th anniversary of the ceremonious opening of the Forestry House and the beginning of university forestry education in Croatia in the premises of the Forestry House. On October 20, 1898, the Forestry Academy was established within the Faculty of Philosophy as the fourth institution of higher education of the University of Zagreb. The Croatian Forestry Association fulfilled yet one more basic goal, after bringing higher forestry education into Croatia (Agriculture and Forestry College in Križevci in 1860 and the beginning of publishing its scientific forestry-specialized publication - Forestry Journal in 1877). To learn about and manage the most complex ecosystems, the forest, highly expert personnel is needed: this was the motto of the politics of that time (suggested by the Empress Maria Theresa). This motto was put to life through the Croatian Forestry Association. Unlike present-day politics, forestry and forests were then paid due importance. Implementing the principle of sustainability to manage forests that cover almost half (47 %) of the land territory of Croatia required a different approach to forests and forestry than is used today. First of all, the forest should be given back the values it provides. For many, these values are not recognized, although the Croatian Forestry Association as a representative of an integrated profession (forestry education, practice and science) continuously stresses them. We regret to say that, despite our repeated requests, the competent minister has not yet found time to receive the Managing Board of the Croatian Forestry Association to discuss problems arising in a part of the department he is responsible for. We do not wish to discuss problems on a political but on a professional level. Let us wait and see what importance will be given to the anniversaries mentioned above.
However, let us leave politics and turn to leafing through Forestry Journal published in 1898 (the twenty-first year of the publication). We shall mention here only several of the more important articles from the year 1898. First, Editor-in-Chief was Josip Kozarac, a state head forester from Vinkovci, and the journal came out in 12 issues.
Milan Tordony, the royal forester, discusses the topic of selection forests - examples from Fužine Forest Office - and advocates the normal status of a stand to be achieved with management practices. The goal is to obtain sustainable yield, which depends on the structure of a stand. The text and the debate of the renowned A. Kern bears the title “Managing selection stands”. Gašo Vac, a forester from Krapina, writes about “Forests and forest management in the municipality of Donji Miholjac” in general, and then about forests owned by landed gentry and by land communities, in particular about oak forests. Using the topic of “Late flushing oak ( Quercus pedunculata var. tardisima Simonkai), editor-in-chief Josip Kozarac announces two discussions: by the royal Hungarian head forester Ivan Földes and W. Nikodem, forest manager of Thurn-Taxis in Lekenik. S. Partaš writes on the topic of “Ranger’s lodges and ranger’s training courses; Aus dem Walde and H. Burckhardt write in sequels on protective trees; a) for soil protection, b) for stand protection, and c) as protective edges; Jos Ane, municipal forester, discusses “Vole damage in oak stands”; Slavko Sulki writes about “Glazed frost and its consequences on Karst” (the beginning of December in the Municipality of Hreljin); head forester Kraft writes about “Biological priciples for stand cultivation” (in the forestry profession, practice always comes first - forestry issues cannot be solved a priori by theory, but the task of theory is to give scientific explanations of what arises from practice); Dragutin Hirc writes in several sequels about “Conifer trees and shrubs of the Croatian flora”; Professor J. Partaš discusses “Oak in a high forest”; F. X. Kesterčanek asks “Do we need a Museum of Forestry Association in addition to the Academy in Zagreb?” There are also the following articles: Forestry and agricultural publications, Laws and normative acts, Minutes of management board meetings, State examinations for the forestry profession, Auction sales of wood products (as we see, 120 years ago the sale of wood products was based on market principles, while today it is politics which determines prices and fills the pockets of private owners under the pretext of protecting small sawmill owners and stimulating highly finalized production of wood products to increase employment), “Miscellaneous news”, and others,
Finally, there is the “Order by the Royal Croatian-Dalmatian Government of the Land, Department of Internal Affairs and of Religion and Education” of October 7, 1898, No 66102, issuing the order of lectures and exams for forestry students at the Faculty of Philosophy at the Royal University of Francis Joseph I in Zagreb”, completed with timetables of lectures, manner of taking exams and others. The yearbook ends with a list of members (honorary, founding, supporting, and member of the I and II Class).
Editorial Board

Krunoslav Teslak, Marijana Žunić, Karlo Beljan, Jura Čavlović  UDK 630* 923 + 619 (001)
Status and challenges of small-scale private forest management in actual ecological and social circumstances – Croatia case study      
Forest management in Croatia traditionally has been dominantly concentrated and directed toward state owned forests, thus it characterized with continuity and consistency of forest management planning and performance of management treatments, as well as fulfillment of principles of sustainable management on all levels. On the contrary, due to historic circumstances, small share and scattered fragmented forest distribution private forests was significantly uncared for management until not long ago. Thus, aim of this paper is to analyze and to present actual characteristics of private forests, forest estate and forest owners, as well as management circumstances namely institutional and legislative framework in which it is exists.
Share of 24 % according to area and growing stock of 156 m3/ha with richness tree species and tree/stand developmental stages indicate on valuable natural forest resource in Croatia. Although during last years has achieved particular progress, existing property-juridical and land-register questions, unsuitable institutional framework and adverse socio-demographic characteristics of forest owners (large
share of old population, low level of education) load with further improvements of private forest management.
With absence of complete data base, results of researches and surveys are valuable information sources describing the private forest owner’s characteristics. In consideration on obtained results of average characteristics of forest owners (average age of 60 years, low education level) are not satisfactory, strategy and guidelines making should be based on knowledge of private forest owners preferences and types, especially of that which are active and which are ready to be active in forest management. Thereby, there is need to segregate forest owners which manage their forests and offer forest products on market (recorded in Register) from forest owners which owns small forest parcels and more or less use their forests for their own needs.
Improvement of balanced and sustainable private forest management planing would be based on transformation of the existing parallel forest management planning system divided according to categories of forest property (state, private). By integration of all publc competences over forests within unique institution with establishment more forest management regions, would provide fullfilment of requirements of sustainable forest management and long-term public interests. An effective and comprehensive establishment of sustainable private forest management is based on adoptation of knowledge and private forest management particularities including actual results of relevant scientific researches, from the all copartners of the forest management system.

Key words: forest management planning; forest property plan; size structure of forest estates; forest owners

    Krunoslav Teslak      ŠL
    Marijana Žunić      ŠL
    Karlo Beljan      ŠL
    Jura Čavlović      ŠL
Luka Kasumović, Ake Lindelöw, Boris Hrašovec  UDK 630* 453 (001)
Influence of predator abundance and winter mortality on reproduction of bivoltine populations of Ips typographus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)      
The study was aimed at evaluating the influence of winter mortality and predator larvae abundance on breeding performance of bivoltine populations of Ips. typographus colonizing felled spruce trees in Croatia. A low colonization density of I. typographus expressed as a number of maternal galleries per square meter of bark, usually reflects high reproductive success, defined as a number of daughters per mother beetle (♀/♀). Regarding this study, the mean gallery density on felled trees varied between 27 and 146 per m2 of bark, while the lowest reproduction rate was only 0.5 ♀/♀. Althought differently suggested by previous findings, the cause of such a low reproduction rate can be explained by high abundance of predator larvae and high winter mortality of larvae, pupae and callow beetles. The results suggest that predators, primarily long-legged flies-of the genus Medetera (Fischer von Waldheim) (Diptera: Dolichopodidae), have huge ecological impact on bark beetle populations at endemic levels. At low attack densities, the majority of males (74%) copulate with two females, following the evolutionary trait of avoiding ­intraspecific larval competition.

Key words: breeding; low attack; gallery; intraspecific; Medetera

    Luka Kasumović      ŠL
    Ake Lindelöw    
    Boris Hrašovec      ŠL
Mirna Mihelčić, Josipa Habuš, Marko Vucelja, Petra Svoboda, Ivan-Christian Kurolt, Alemka Markotić, Nenad Turk, Josip Margaletić, Marina Šantić  UDK 630* 443 + 451 (001)
Prevalence of Francisella tularensis in the population of small mammals species in continental forests of Croatia      
Francisella tularensisis is a causative agent of tularemia a zoonotic disease that infects wide range of hosts including arthropods, mammals and birds. In this study, the prevalence of tularemia among small mammals in Croatia was investigated. The 444 samples of small rodents and insectivores were collected in eight different localities in continental Croatia during the 2-year study. Spleen samples of: 197 Apodemus agrarius (striped field mouse), 78 Apodemus sylvaticus (wood mouse), 92 Apodemus flavicollis (yellow-necked mouse), 17 Myodes glareolus (bank vole), 27 Mycrotus agrestis (field vole), 20 Microtus arvalis (common vole) and 13 Sorex araneus (common shrew) were investigated for the presence of DNA of Francisella spp. using qRT-PCR method. Two striped field mouses and one wood mouse, originated from the same area - locality of Lipovljani, were found to be positive on Francisella spp. revealing the presence of bacteria among small mammals population in Croatia.

Key words: Francisella; Tularemia; DNA; Small rodents; Insectivores; Reservoirs; Endemic areas; Croatia; Prevalence

    Mirna Mihelčić    
    Josipa Habuš    
    Marko Vucelja    
    Petra Svoboda    
    Ivan-Christian Kurolt    
    Alemka Markotić    
    Nenad Turk    
    Josip Margaletić      ŠL
    Marina Šantić  
Silvija Šiljeg, Ivan Marić, Gojko Nikolić , Ante Šiljeg  UDK 630* 451 + 153 (001)
Accessibility analysis of urban green spaces in the settlement of Zadar in Croatia      
Accessibility of urban green spaces (UGS) is an integral element of satisfying quality of life. Due to rapid urbanization, the studies about UGS are becoming one of the key elements of urban planning. Functional network transport system and optimal spatial distribution of UGS are preconditions for maintaining the environmental balance of the urban landscape. Accessibility analysis of UGS in the settlement of Zadar was conducted as a part of the Urban Green Belts Project (UGB). Development of spatial database was the first step in generating UGS accessibility indicator. Data were collected using the supervised classification method of multispectral LANDSAT images and manual vectorization of high-resolution digital orthophoto (DOP). An analysis of UGS accessibility according to Accessible Natural Greenspace Standard (ANGst) was conducted. Accessibility indicator was generated based on seven objective measures which include the UGS per capita and accessibility of six UGS functional levels. The UGS accessibility indicator was compared with subjective measures that have been obtained by field survey of 718 respondents within 41 statistical units. The collected data reflected an individual assessment and subjective evaluation of UGS accessibility. This study illustrated the importance of using objective and subjective measures in the process of understanding UGS accessibility. It may be concluded that while evaluating accessibility, the residents emphasize the immediate residential environment, neglecting the UGS of higher functional levels. Furthermore, that large amounts of UGS within a city (114 m² per capita) do not necessarily generate a similar satisfaction with their accessibility. The output results may serve as guidelines for the further development of the functional UGS city network.

Key words: urban green spaces (UGS); accessibility indicator; subjective and objective measures; GIS.

    Silvija Šiljeg    
    Ivan Marić  
    Gojko Nikolić   
    Ante Šiljeg  
Mădălina Fornea, Marcian Bîrda, Stelian Alexandru Borz, Bogdan Popa, Željko TomaŠić  UDK 630* 360 (001)
Harvesting conditions, market particularities or just economic competition: a Romanian case study regarding the evolution of standing timber contracting rates      
A survey of timber harvesting operations and tendering prices was conducted in a representative forest region of Romania aiming to see to what extent the harvesting parameters of the sold harvesting stacks affect the tendering prices. Based on a sample of 1192 contracts, accounting for more than 20,000 harvested hectares and for more than 600,000 harvested cubic meters, descriptive statistics of harvesting conditions and tendering prices were computed and prediction models of tendering prices as a function of harvesting conditions were estimated. Harvesting factors such as the felling type, sold volume, removal intensity, tree size and pruning condition, slope and extraction distance had rather a low effect on the initial (adj. R2 = 0.20) and final tendering prices (adj. R2 = 0.17) showing that the remaining variability could be related to other factors. No obvious relations were found between the variation of harvesting factors and the variation of the difference in price paid by the contractors to buy the wood. As a consequence, a more detailed price analysis was conducted to see to what extent prices can be explained by the demand and supply evolution. Although the evolution of the prices and negotiated quantities may be considered confusing in the context of a normal market supply and demand, the analysis revealed that the stumpage market demand increase during analyzed years and there was a bigger demand for conifers species. The results of this study could be of help for both, the forest management and harvesting contractors in shaping and conducting their businesses. In addition, the study gives detailed statistics on the forest operations practices and conditions under the Romanian forestry, being of help for comparisons with other regions.

Key words: harvesting conditions; prediction model; auction price; selling price; supply; demand

    Mădălina Fornea  
    Marcian Bîrda  
    Stelian Alexandru Borz  
    Bogdan Popa  
    Željko Tomašić      ŠL
Ali Bayraktar, Fahrettin Atar, Nebahat Yildirim, Ibrahim Turna  UDK 630* 181.5 (001)
Effects of different media and hormones on propagation by cuttings of european yew (Taxusaxus baccata L.)      
European yew (Taxus baccata L.), native in North and Central Europe, Mediterranean countries, Azores, Turkey and Caucasus, has a wide range of uses as a non-wood forest product. Because the species is reduced in nature as a result of widespread utilization, it is necessary to protect and reproduce yew. The effects of different greenhouse media, rooting media and hormones were investigated on propagation by cutting of European yew. For the experiment, three greenhouse media (Greenhouse-1 media with air temperature at 20±2°C, rooting table temperature at 20±2°C, Greenhouse-2 media with air temperature at 20±2°C, rooting table temperature at 25±2°C and Greenhouse-3 media without temperature adjustment), two rooting media (perlite and peat) and four hormones (IBA 1000 ppm, IBA 5000 ppm, NAA 1000 ppm and NAA 5000 ppm) were determined in the present study. The rooting percentage, callus percentage, root length and the number of roots were determined. The results showed that the highest rooting percentage was 80% in IBA 5000 ppm treatment in perlite rooting media of Greenhouse-2 media. It can be suggested that the rooting table temperature should be 5°C higher than the air temperature, perlite rooting media and 5000 ppm dosage of IBA hormone should be used for high rooting success.

Key words: Taxus baccata; Cutting propagation; Greenhouse media; Rooting media; Auxin

    Ali Bayraktar  
    Fahrettin Atar    
    Nebahat Yildirim  
    Ibrahim Turna  
Vanja Daničić, Branislav Kovačević, Dalibor Ballian  UDK 630* 164 (001)
Variability in fruit morphology of european sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) in natural populations in Bosnia and Herzegovina      
The European sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) is the only native species of the genus Castanea in Europe. The sweet chestnut has a remarkable multipurpose character, and may be managed for timber production as well as for fruit production, including a broad range of secondary products and ecosystem services. Chestnut in Bosnia and Herzegovina is mainly located in the northwest Una-Sana Canton, east (Bratunac and Srebrenica) and south (Konjic and Jablanica) where grows within the forest. In B&H European sweet chestnut is a species which is not paid enough attention and it is one of the rarest and critically endangered tree species. The variability of sweet chestnut fruits in six natural populations in B&H using a morphometric analysis was investigated.
The samples of sweet chestnut for this study were collected from the six separate gographic localites in B&H (Figure 1) in year 2012. The populations were represented with 10 trees each and each tree with 20 fruits. A total of 1200 fruits and 13 morphological characteristic were analyzed. Fruits morphological characteristics were described by descriptive statistical indicators: arithmetic mean (), standard deviation (Sd), coefficient of variation (Cv) (Table 1 and 2). In order to determine the intrapopulation and interpopulation variability the univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed (Table 3).
Results obtained by statistical analysis of studied morphological characteristics of chestnut fruits showed that the most variable characteristic is the weight of the fruit (Cv = 34,5 %). Medium values of fruit weight of analyzed samples was within a range from 4,38 to 5,77 g (average 4,93). Lower variability coefficients are propere to the width (Cv = 10,8 %) and height of the fruit (Cv=13,15%). In B&H populations prevails typical brown chestnut color of the fruit. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) confirmed presence of statistically significant differences by all studied characteristics on both inter- and intra-population level. According to cluster analysis studied populations are agglomerated in three clusters (Figure 3.). However, this was not confirmed by canonical discrimination analyzis (Figure 4), by three populations formed core within well defined data claud. We assume that differences between results of two methods are probably based on the fact that cannonical discrminate analysis include information about variability within population in the process which cluster analysis does not.
High variability in populations is very important for the conservation of genetic pool of the species. For a complete knowledge on the variability of European sweet chestnut in a part of the natural area the research should be expanded by the use of molecular markers.

Key words: European sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.); morphological characteristics; fruit; multivariate analysis; Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Vanja Daničić  
    Branislav Kovačević  
    Dalibor Ballian  
Xiaoyang Zeng  UDK 630* 114.2 + 272
Influence of tourism disturbance on carbon, nitrogen, and enzyme activities of the soil in an urban park in China      
This study investigated the effects of different tourism disturbance intensities on carbon, nitrogen, and enzyme activities of soil in a subtropical urban park, China. The contents of the soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-–N), and ammonium nitrogen (NH4+–N) in the soil were significantly reduced by tourism disturbance. The activities of some soil enzymes, including sucrase, catalase, urease, and chitinase, were also reduced. Except for NH4+–N, the soil carbon–nitrogen indicators all exhibited significant positive correlations with the four soil enzyme activities. The results indicated that tourism disturbance caused soil degradation in the subtropical urban park. Therefore, the soil in damaged areas should be frequently turned up, and more organic fertilizers should be added.

Key words: tourism disturbance; subtropical urban park; soil carbon and carbon; enzyme activity

    Xiaoyang Zeng