|FORESTS IN THE LIGHT OF THE NEW FOREST ACT
A panel addressing the current condition of Croatian forests was organized on the occasion of Days of Croatian Forestry that were held in June 2018. The title of the discussion was “Will forests outlive mankind?” The purpose of the panel was to inform broader public of the condition of forest ecosystems, as well as of the changes taking place in them. Does the title of the panel reflect the seriousness of the danger facing our forests? In the last five years, changed climate conditions occurring at the beginning of the 21st century have inflicted major problems to the forests. Add to this general market globalisation, which contributes to the faster and easier spread of invasive diseases and pests. There is not one important forest tree species today that does not have problems. Forests of Gorski Kotar, which are composed of fir, beech, and spruce, have succumbed to climatic extremes and to attacks of bark beetles. Lowland forests of pedunculate oak are infested with the oak lace bug, while forests of narrow-leaved ash are rapidly deteriorating under the cumulative action of several factors, particularly Halare. Dalmatian pine forests are severely threatened by the pine bark beetle. Forest fires also cause extensive damage. The subsequent erosions lead to the loss of forest soils, which greatly hinders recovery and contributes to the degradation of forests. The financial means needed to protect and regenerate such forests are being minimized and this has now definitely been incorporated in the new Forest Act (Official Gazette 68/2018), which came into effect on August 4th, 2018. A parliamentary discussion did not bring about any changes with regard to the proposed act, which was adopted by the Government of the Republic of Croatia. The Act in fact follows the Government programme for the field of economy, agriculture and rural development of October 2016. In the said programme forestry is addressed in the sub-chapter “Active management of forests, higher production and more work places in the domestic wood industry” with the following sentence: By changing legal regulations, the Government will remove obstacles and improve ways of managing forests and forest land. It will also undertake demining operations in forests and forest land, prevent illegal felling and trade and stimulate the development of domestic wood industry which produces wood products. In our opinion, such programme is not really stimulative for forests and forest land. Demining is certainly an improvement in the management of forests and it has been carried out for years, and so is the announced prevention of illegal felling and trade. However, there are not enough positive indicators for this, since these activities have become very profitable at the detriment of forests and forest owners. At the beginning of the year the Agricultural Land Act was passed (Official Gazette 20/2018, in effect since March 9th, 2018), which regulated, as did the Forest Act, the exclusion of abandoned agricultural land from the forest-management plan and its conversion to agricultural production, as well as the possibility of leasing or selling such land in accordance with the Disposition Programme. The Act also allows for the land outside construction areas, which is listed as agricultural land in the land register but is abandoned in reality, to be included in the forest-management area, since the cost of converting the land for agricultural purposes is higher than the market value or the total amount of rent for such land. These provisions should finally enable a rational division of land into agricultural and forest land, and consequently its proper usage. The new Forest Act has also adopted long-lasting objections made by those obliged to pay a non-market forest function fee. The public and the media often harshly criticized this fee as an unnecessary and incomprehensible “parafiscal” tax. Now, 90% of those obliged to pay the fee (about 180 thousand subjects) are exempt from paying the fee, since the threshold for the obligation has been set down at an annual income or profit higher than 3 million kuna, while the rate of the fee has been retained at 0.0265 %. Demands by local self-management units to raise the rate of forest contribution have also been adopted, and it has accordingly been raised from 3.5 % to 5 %, while for units in subsidized areas it has been raised from 5 % to 10 % of the selling price of the product before felling. The Act also defines a forest owner: a public forest owner authorized to manage a forest and/or forest land owned by the Republic of Croatia, a public institution whose founder is the Republic of Croatia and its scientific-teaching components which carry out their scientific-teaching activity and scientific-research work in the field of forestry, a legal person whose founder and owner is the local self-management unit and which is entrusted with management by a Government decision, and a private forest owner. Private forest owners are divided into small (up to 20 ha of forests and/or forest land), medium (from 20 to 300 ha) and large (more than 300 ha) forest owners. A Register of a forest-management area in the electronic form will be established by the Ministry, and it will be available under certain conditions. The Register will contain a reporting part needed to fulfil international and national obligations in the forestry sector. The Act also provides for the allocation of earmarked means into a special fund for the development of the wood industry, which is also one of the activities in the Government programme from 2016.
The new Forest Act has attempted to incorporate different changes taking place since the previous Act of 2005 was passed. There have been a total of eight changes, which have been adjusted by revisions and amendments over the past 13 years. The Act is also coordinated with other laws from the field of agriculture, nature and environment protection, and the EU strategy for forests and forest-based sector. All by-laws related to the Act need to be coordinated and passed.
We wonder whether the regulations of the new Forest Act will try to solve the growing problems in the forests of Croatia.
|IZVORNI ZNANSTVENI ČLANCI
|Mladen Ognjenović, Ivica Čehulić, Ante Kaliger, Maja Križanec, Anamarija Laslo, Ivan Seletković, Nenad Potočić
| UDK 630* 114 (001)
|The influence of soil conditioner „Herbafertil“ on the growth and development of amur maple (Acer tataricum L. ssp. ginnala Maxim.) in a nursery trial
When planting trees in urban environment, often there is a need for enhancing the soil quality, which can be achieved by the use of mineral fertilizers (for enhancing chemical soil properties) or soil conditioners (influencing both soil chemical and physical properties). Amur maple (Acer tataricum L. ssp. ginnala Maxim.) is a broadleaved bush or a small tree which is interesting for use in horticulture because of attractive leaf colour and drought, pollution and patogen tolerance. We tested the influence of soil conditioner Herbafertil on the growth and nutrition of Amur maple young trees in comparison with classic fertilization with complex mineral fertilizer (YaraMila Complex 12-11-18) in a field trial. The trial was established as a random block design with three treatments and four repetitions. The highest height increment percentages, nitrogen concentration and content were achieved in Herbafertil treatment (Figure 1,2 and 3). We determined that the use of Herbafertil has effects similar to fertilizers, which is due to large quantities suggested for use. Herbafertil may have an edge over mineral fertilizers due to the possibility of its use after planting and its potential beneficial effects in deeper soil horizons.
Key words: soil conditioner; nutrient status; increment percentage; fertilization; YaraMila Complex
ČEHULIĆ, Ivica ŠL
KRIŽANEC, Maja ŠL
SELETKOVIĆ, Ivan ŠL
POTOČIĆ, Nenad ŠL
| UDK 630* 537 (001)
|Stocks of dead biomass of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest ecosystems in West Balkan Range, Bulgaria
The dead trees play an important role in the functioning and productivity of the forests’ ecosystems through influence over biological diversity, the accumulation of carbon dioxide, nutrient turnover and energy flux, hydrological processes, protection of the soils and the regeneration of tree species. The dead wood assures important habitats also. In historical aspect, for many years the dead wood was removed from the stands as a measure for protection against insects and fungi, which are perceived as a threat for the healthy forest status. This leads to reduction of the quantity of the dead wood in the forest ecosystems to critical low levels, which are not enough for maintaining the vital populations of many forest species. During the past years, the new settings in the national legislation, especially these related to the Natura 2000 development and management, require the quantity information about this component for the forest habitats assessment. In this regard, the objective of this study was to obtain quantitative data on stocks of dead forest biomass in beech communities in West Balkan Range.
The amount of standing dead wood was calculated with height rates tables; method of line intersect sampling was used for determination of the lying dead wood stocks. Thomas scale was used to assess the degree of decomposition of standing dead biomass (Table 2) and a 4-point harmonized scale for lying biomass and stumps (Table 3).
It was found total dead wood biomass stocks variation in the range of 14.48 - 41.8 m3.ha-1 as a result of studies conducted in beech stands (Table 5). The standing dead wood biomass was 6.7-17.5 m3.ha-1, lying dead wood biomass was 3.4-26.5 m3.ha-1, stumps were 0.28-6.4 m3.ha-1. The observed standing dead trees were mainly from the fourth level of decomposition. The prevailing rate of decomposition for lying biomass was B and for stumps were C and D (Table 6).
It can be generalized from the results of current study that the percentage of the total amount of dead wood to the total forest yield was insufficient from a conservation perspective.
Key words: dead wood; stocks; beech communities.
|Michal Bugala, Zuzana Parobeková, Ján Parobek
| UDK 630* 180 + 564 (001)
|Influence of the ecological conditions on the productive potential of Grey alder
The aim of the study is to analyse the productive potential of grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) along an altitudinal gradient to verify coincidence of productive and ecological optimum and to identify climatic factors that control the growth. Along the altitudinal gradient of the river basin, dendrometric data has been analysed on the eight permanent research plots at the altitude of 525–705 m. Correlations between standard chronology and average monthly climate characteristics were calculated for the period 1969–2015. Significant differences in the average basal area increments have been recognized among the investigated altitudinal zones. The highest basal area increment (1661±975 mm2y-1) was detected in the zone of altitude 605 m. and the average annual volume increment of the model grey alder stand was 4.59 m3. The radial growth of grey alder has been positively affected only by the temperature of the current April and negatively by precipitation of the previous growing season. Based on the pointer year analysis can be claimed that condition of the root system is the most influential factor in relation to the radial growth and is dependent on water stress in the previous year. Investigated relationships may significantly influence decision making process in the forest management focused on grey alder re- or afforestation.
Key words: production; ecological optimum; basal area increment; dendrochronology; climate-growth relationships
| UDK 630* 148.2 + 111
|Results of long-term monitoring of timing of laying in deciduous forest Blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus L.) in northwestern Croatia
In the last 100 years, climate warming (climate change) phenomenon has been present on our planet. Numerous biological features of organisms have been linked to climate change and many papers in the last few decades have illustrated changes in natural biological systems. In most cases, these responses are associated with changes in air temperature. In birds, most of the published works are looking at phenology. Such studies suggest that the laying date is advancing. In this study, I examined long-term changes in the date of clutch initiation in sedentary local hole-nesting population of the Blue Tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) in deciduous forest (dominated Pediculate Oak Quercus robur L. and Common Hornbeam Carpinus betulus L.) from 1980 to 2016 (northwestern Croatia). Also, I examined relationship between timing of breeding and mean spring air temperature. All the records used in this work, as well as numerous ornithological papers around the world have been based on the use of nest-boxes by birds. The boxes were placed on the trees, at 2.5 to 4 m above ground and all nest-boxes had a sliding top in order to monitor nest. All observations were recorded by the author. Spring mean local air temperatures during research period have significant increase. Relationship between laying date and year was also significant. The breeding date in researched species has advanced by 11 days in study period. According to my results, sedentary local population of the Blue Tit in northwestern Croatia was able to respond to spring warming changes during 37-year period.
Key words: Blue Tit; Cyanistes caeruleus; spring air temperature; laying date; deciduous forest
| UDK 630* 451 + 153
|A new location record of European polecat (Mustela putorius L.) from northeastern forests in Turkey
The present study deals with European Polecat Mustela putorius found at one locality (near the Kop River in Bayburt) on the region of Eastern Black Sea of Turkey. This species are new records for the Northeastern Anatolia and the city of Bayburt. European polecat was previously reported from the region of Marmara, Trakya and Western Black Sea. The morphological and distributional features of this species are presented.
Key words: European Polecat; biodiversity; distribution; new record; Northeastern Anatolian
|Martina Đodan, Robert Brus, Anne-Mareen Eisold, Valeriu-Norocel Nicolescu, Milan Oršanić, Kristina Pratasiene, Sanja Perić
| UDK 630* 181.5
|Non-native tree species in the viewpoint of climate change: chances and opportunities - Croatia as a case study
The management of tree species non-native to Republic of Croatia has a certain tradition within Croatian forest management practice; nowadays, their potential should be regarded and re-evaluated in the new frame of climate changes and growing society demands for forest products and services. This paper is a contribution to non-native tree species (NNTS) introduction and use in Croatia, aiming at providing state of the art of NNTS as well as overview of studies and examples of possible management opportunities. Because of the complexity of the matter and growing need to further investigate risks and challenges of NNTS in Croatia, authors have continued their research and will publish the results in a separate paper. Amount of the area occupied by NNTS forest cultures point to the conclusion that the use of these tree species in forest practice is not reached by far and the nursery production does not back up the need for NNTS use. Paper also provides a comprehensive overwiev of different aspects and benefits of the use of NNTS in Croatia. For example, increased wood production and non-wood forest products; production of high quality timber in short–time periods; use of fast-growing tree species for bioenergy production in higher proportion and enhancement of ecosystem services. Increase of stability and adaptive capacity of forest stands by the use of NNTS is highlighted as new silvicultural option for facing climate change. Their use in reforestation or conversion of degraded forest to more valuabe and more resistant/resilient stands offers new possibilities. Integrated and site-specific management is a strategy, which seems to be an appropriate approach for guidelines for the introduction and management of NNTS in Croatia. The use of high productive, resistant NNTS presents new silvicultural solution especially important in terms of site amelioration and enhancement of resistance and resilience of forest stands, which is the most important component of adaptive forest management strategies.
Key words: new silvicultural options; adaptation strategies; forest landscape restoration.
TIJARDOVIĆ, Martina ŠL
ORŠANIĆ, Milan ŠL
PERIĆ, Sanja ŠL
|Markéta Špaková, Božena Šerá
| UDK 630* 174 + 272
|Woody plants of the main part of the Bečov Botanical Garden
The Bečov Botanical Garden is one of the three botanical gardens in district Karlovy Vary (Czech Republic). The garden was established in 1918 by duke Heinrich Beaufort–Spontini as landscape park and rockery. For decades the garden was neglected and abandoned, and it was unveiled to the public in 2005. Two parts of the original area were chosen for this study – the former landscape park and the slope with rockery. In total, 471 woody plants were recorded, 104 of them were coniferous and 367 broad-leaved species. There are 22 families, 40 genera and 85 of taxa in total, 30 of them belonging to gymnosperms and 55 to angiosperms. Some of the trees planted at the time of the founding of the garden have remained until today: Amur cork tree (Phellodendron amurense Rupr.), katsura (Cercidiphyllum japonicum Siebold et Zucc.), hardy kiwi (Actinidia arguta /Siebold et Zucc./ Planch. ex Miq.), Jezo spruce (Picea jezoensis /Siebold et Zucc./ Carriére), and Engelmann spruce (P. engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.).
Key words: dendrological evaluation; Bečov Botanical Garden; Bečov nad Teplou; coniferous trees; broad-leaved trees; Czech Republic
|Darko Posarić, Stjepan Nikolić
| UDK 630* 582
|Establishment of a network of haulage tracks and silvicultural trails in Pedunculate oak forests as a way of more efficient stand tending and more efficient forest exploitation
The establishment of silvicultural trails in young pedunculate oak forests for the purpose of simplifying work of tending young stands and more effective control of done work in Croatia was first made in 1977 in forest area managed by Forest Office Đurđenovac (Sabljak 1990) and Forest Office Cerna. Since then, it has gradually expanded as an accepted technology of work mainly in the Slavonian Forest Administrations of the Croatian Forests ltd., while in other Forest Administrations it was not accepted. Croatian Forests ltd. still have not analyzed the effectiveness of this technology, and the decision of its implementation has been left to the Forest Administrations, even Forest Offices. The technology is based on the formation of a 3 m wide regular network of haulage tracks perpendicular to the forest road and silvicultural trails 1.5 m wide parallel to the same forest road. The production area between the trails is different in width in different Forest Administrations, but most often 5 m. The grid is formed in the year of the first intervention after the final cut (before filling with seedlings or tending). It is easier to work when trails exist, and the control of a done work is especially effective. On the other hand, it is cut down between 24 and 29 % of already rejuvenated surfaces, which is the basic argument for the opponents of this technology. The article proposes to try different ways and positions of silvicultural trails. Haulage tracks are made simultaneously with the silvicultural trails and are used to haul wood material from the beginning of the thinning process to the end of the rotation period. The haulage tracks axis distance in the 750 × 750 m dimension forest compartments is 37.5 m, which divides the compartment’s surface into 20 equal segments. In compartments with other dimensions the spacing varies usually between 40 and 50 m, and the increasing of spacing between the haulage tracks reduces the efficiency of hauling. Therefore, it would be worthwhile testing the different distances between the axis of the haulage tracks, in the first place that one of 25 meters. Since this issue has very little written material in our country, and technology has been in use for many years, this article aims to describe the present situation, to indicate the good and bad sides of the establishment of haulage tracks and silvicultural trails grid, and to initiate a discussion with the ultimate goal of defining the optimal way of work and especially its unification and application throughout the pedunculate oak area in Croatia.
Key words: Pedunculate oak; tending of stands; silvicultural trails; haulage tracks; haul.
POSARIĆ, Darko ŠL
NIKOLIĆ, Stjepan ŠL