|EVALUATION OF FORESTS IN THE LIMATE POLICY AND THE CASCADE USE OF FORESTS
These were the main topics of the press conference held at the Westin Hotel at the end of September. The speakers who introduced the topics to those present were Ms Marijana Petir, the Croatian representative in the European Parliament, and Marijan Kavran, Director of the Croatian Wood Cluster.
A new legislative package in the field of the European policy of climate change mitigation, which was adopted in July, was presented at an extraordinary session of the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety in Strasbourg in September. The package was also supported by the Croatian MEP, who commended the continued responsible application of the EU energy and climate policy. However, she objected that the proposals of the regulations lacked a more palpable evaluation of the long-term forest potential as a carbon sink. We fully agree with this objection, stressing that this is just one, but highly important, of the fifteen-or-so non-market forest roles listed in the Forest Act. We constantly refer to these roles whenever we argue against those who perceive the forest as a raw material resource only.
As for carbon sinks, we would like to remind the readers that in the year 2000, a group of forestry experts appointed by the then Ministry of Environment Protection and Spatial Planning, made an analysis within the Academy of Forestry Sciences for the Forestry Sector (one of six sectors) and issued a Report on the Role of Forests and Forestry in Carbon Sequestration. The report was a contribution to the national report on climate change for the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Here are some important insights, data and calculations from the Report:
Forests have a significant effect on climate, depending on the age of forest stands, and positively mitigate the negative effect of „glasshouse gases“. Of 720 milliard tons of CO2, 120 milliard tons are sequestered in the process of photosynthesis, 60 milliard tons are sequestered permanently, while the largest part is stored in forests. According to Burschel, by capturing CO2 forests have an immense importance in carbon dioxide reduction. In forests, carbon is sequestered in trees, ground vegetation, soil and dead wood (wood products). The following mitigating measures were listed: reducing the degree of devastation, increasing areas under forests (e.g. about 331,000 ha of productive bare soil may be used to establish energy forests), and increasing carbon stocks in the existing forests through tending by thinning, which will result in greater wood mass, higher quality and biological diversity. Other measures of increasing carbon stocks would be to apply progressive management and raise the quality of private forests. The analysis also discusses the possibility of replacing fossil fuels with forest biomass as yet another contribution to climate change mitigation. However, this is another issue. The Forest Management Plan of the area for the period 1996 – 2005 and a method by Burschel, Kuersten and Larson were used to calculate the quantity of sequestered carbon in trees (large wood, branches and roots) by tree species for the continental part of Croatia and the Mediterranean. The same was done for ground vegetation, forest soil and dead wood. Overall, the amount is 418,191,492 tons (374, 281, 359 tons of coniferous and 43, 910, 103 tons of deciduous trees).
This Report and the calculations are presented here in brief form, just to show that they exist, because we are not sure that those in the ministries are aware of their existence or that they use them. We do not know whether Ms Petir, the Croatian MEP, is aware of these data either. We would also like to know whether calculations were made for the period 2006 -2015, but we doubt it very much, considering that MEP Petir, when praising the Croatian forestry experts and their know-how, claimed that our state institutions have failed yet again, so that the strategic document such as the Forest Management Plan of the Republic of Croatia for the period 2016 – 2025, which is the basis for the new calculation, is late. According to the aforementioned package, in terms of the share of land use and forestry, the Committee will apply the „principle of non-indebtedness“ as of 2021 – no quantities of emissions are allowed beyond those that nature can absorb. As Ms Petir says, the Croatian representatives constantly stress the advantages of the Republic of Croatia in terms of preserved forests compared to those in other countries. To this, we would add the advantages related to carbon sequestration, which could be lost by the repeatedly irresponsible behaviour.
The new study of the European Commission, entitled „The Cascade Use of Wood“, and the mutual interaction of forestry, wood processing and the sector of wood for energy production, and particularly an increase in the newly-added value in the final production are topics that we are already familiar with. We mentioned these issues in our column on several occasions, for example in No 3-4/2011 „Something about the Classical-Commercial Value of Forests“, No 5-6/2011 „The Strategy (Strategies) of Development“; No 5-6/2012 „The Relationship between Forestry and Wood Processing“, and No 1-2/2016: „The Problem of Formulating a Consistent Forestry and Wood Processing Policy in Croatia“. We also dealt with the problem of forest biomass and the use of real wood waste for energy production instead of standard assortments (fuel wood). The main problem is that forest assortments are evaluated by non-market prices; as a result, wood chips and pellets, and even parquet, are produced from highly expensive raw wood material. The company Croatian Forests Ltd (daughter company „Biomass“) should primarily concentrate on the ways of obtaining wood waste from forests rather than selling biomass obtained from regular production of assortments (fuel wood). In this case, we might not have so many problems with bark beetles today, a favourite topic of discussion among non-experts mostly; however, this is another story and another topic.
|IZVORNI ZNANSTVENI ČLANCI
|Tibor PENTEK, Andreja ĐUKA, Ivica PAPA, Darija DAMIĆ, Tomislav PORŠINSKY
|UDK 630* 383 (001)
|THE EFFECTIVENESS STUDY OF PRIMARY FOREST ROAD TRAFFIC INFRASTRUCTURE – AN ALTERNATIVE TO STUDY OF PRIMARY FOREST OPENING OR JUST A SHORT-TERM SOLUTION?
The Effectiveness Study of Primary Forest Road Traffic Infrastructure – an alternative to Study of Primary Forest Opening or just a short-term solution?
Planning forest roads, as the first, inevitable and very important stage in establishing optimal i.e. best possible primary forest traffic infrastructure network, can be on: 1. strategic, 2. tactical and 3. operational level. Strategic and tactical planning level relate to planning of the entire primary forest road network, while operational planning refers to the planning of an individual forest road. The result of the tactical planning of primary forest roads is, or at least should be, the Study of Primary Forest Opening of an individual management units (hereinafter: The Study).
The absence of legal obligation in producing the Study, the document in which all work results of tactical planning primary forest traffic infrastructure, at the management unit level, would be consolidated, is a major problem in the optimization of primary forest traffic infrastructure, particularly in unopened or
insufficiently opened forest areas. Despite frequent emphasizing to this problem and the possibilities of its solving/reduction, a significant number of papers by various authors who have in their scientific work dealt with the issue of forest opening, research results and applicable recommendations are still not used broadly in practical forestry.
While establishing Program of Rural Development in Republic of Croatia in period from 2014 to 2020, EU authorities have requested from Croatian authorities a document which includes analysis and evaluation data, regarding the quantity and quality of the primary forest traffic infrastructure network spatial distribution of a specific management unit, which will determine the need of further primary forest opening, which will also define concept design alignment of planned forest roads and will accord primary forest road density at the tactical level with the recommended values of individual relief area categories on the strategic level of primary forest traffic infrastructure planning.
In the Bylaw on measure implementation M04 »Investments in physical assets«, by-measure 4.3 »Grant for investments in development, modernization and customization of agriculture and forestry«, operation type 4.3.3 »Investments in forest infrastructure« from the Program of Rural Development in Republic of Croatia in period from 2014 to 2020 (NN 106/15) (hereinafter: The Bylaw) holds an appendix No. 1 – Form for the Effectiveness Study of Primary Forest Road Traffic Infrastructure (hereinafter: The Effectiveness Study), which was completely satisfactory to EU authorities’ requests.
This paper will: 1) critically analyze the basic components of the Effectiveness Study with special emphasis on the component B – Analysis of the existing primary forest traffic infrastructure network, 2) explain in details the methodology of primary forest traffic infrastructure registry production, 3) describe the newly defined criteria for determining density of primary forest road infrastructure, 4) define the relationship and differences of the Effectiveness Study and the Study of Primary Forest Opening, and 5) give recommendations on future activities aimed at improving tactical planning of primary forest traffic infrastructure.
Key words: tactical planning of primary forest roads; Effectiveness Study of Primary Forest Road Traffic Infrastructure; Primary Forest Traffic Infrastructure Registry; criteria for determining density of primary forest road infrastructure; Study of Primary Forest Opening
PENTEK, Tibor ŠL
PORŠINSKY, Tomislav ŠL
|Linda BJEDOV, Petra SVOBODA, Ante TADIN, Josipa HABUŠ, Zrinka ŠTRITOF, Nikolina LABAŠ, Marko VUCELJA, Alemka MARKOTIĆ, Nenad TURK, Josip MARGALETIĆ
|UDK 630* 451+ 232.3 (001)
|INFLUENCE OF BEECH MAST ON SMALL RODENT POPULATIONS AND HANTAVIRUS PREVALENCE IN NACIONAL PARK „PLITVICE LAKES“ AND NATURE PARK „MEDVEDNICA“
The European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) is at present considered to be the most common economically important and widespread tree species in Europe. In contrast to other tree species and economically important species in Croatia European beech has the largest areal and can be found in variety of plant communities. As the most specious and widely distributed mammalian group, rodents are the wildlife reservoir for many zoonoses which can infect humans and other wildlife. Rodent outbreaks tend to follow years with increased seed production of oak and beech. Many authors have linked fluctuations in abundance of rodent reservoirs with increase of human zoonotic infections. Aim of this research is monitoring of rodent populations and hantaviruses in beech forests. At two locations (National park Plitvice lakes and Nature park Medvednica) seven trapping plots were set, each containing 1 or 2 grids size 100m x 100m (100 traps). Rodent capturing was done from year 2011 until 2014 in summer and autumn. Beech mast was recorded in NP Plitvice lakes each year in autumn. Trapped rodents were screened for hantaviruses. Results show two dominant rodent species, yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) and bank vole (Myodes glareolus) in beech forests of NP Plitvice and NP Medvednica. Both species make 99 % of total captures. Rodent abundance showed increase in year 2012 and outbreak in year 2014 measuring on one grid max abundance of 45 animals/ha, whereas year 2011
and 2013 had lowest abundance. In beech forests of National Park Plitvice lakes and Nature Park Medvednica 3 different hantaviruses were found within their typical rodent host species: Puumala (PUUV) in bank voles (Myodes glareolus), hantavirus Dobrava (DOBV) in yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) and Seewis (SWSV) in common shrew (Sorex araneus) which makes first molecular evidence of shrew-borne Seewis virus in Croatia. Highest infection rate was found in bank voles with 50 % of Puumala positive individuals. Dobrava was found in 5 % of trapped yellow-necked mouse. In 2011 there was slight increase in beech seed production reported in comparison to year 2012 and 2014. In year 2013 beech seed production was the highest with mean beech seeds/m2 23x higher than in year 2012. From the rodent abundance and beech mast data we see the trend of mast years being followed with high rodent abundance. Highest proportion of hantavirus positive rodents was found in year 2014 when their abundance was also reported highest. From this data the connection of beech mast year and rodent abundance following next year as well as high infection rates of rodents is confirmed. In same years with increased rodent abundance there was high number of human HFRS cases (hemorrhagic fever with renal failure syndrome).
Key words: small mammals; European beech; beech mast; hantaviruses
LABAŠ, Nikolina ŠL
MARGALETIĆ, Josip ŠL
|Krunoslav SEVER, Matija HRUST, Željko ŠKVORC, Saša BOGDAN, Ivan SELETKOVIĆ, Nenad POTOČIĆ, Jozo FRANJIĆ
| UDK 630* 160
(Quercus robur L.) (001)
|ESTIMATION OF NITROGEN NUTRITION OF PEDUNCULATE OAK (Quercus robur L.) USING A PORTABLE CHLOROPHYLL METER CCM-200
In this paper we investigated potential of portable chlorophyll meter CCM-200 (Opti-Sciences, Tyngsboro, MA, USA) to estimate total nitrogen concentration in different types of Pedunculate oak leaves. Research was conducted on 30 plants grown in field trial, during two vegetation periods (in years 2009 and 2010). Fertilization treatment (carried out in early spring in 2009) and meteorological conditions caused differences between investigated years regarding third-flush shoots (that can be considered as potential trigger for translocation of nitrogen in leaves and branches of investigated plants). Eight calibration curves was constructed based on spring and second-flush leaves, sampled in July and September in 2009 and 2010. These equations shown to be are reliable (p < 0,001) in describing relationship between chlorophyll content index, measured with chlorophyll meter, and total nitrogen concentration in spring and second-flush leaves, regarding moments of sampling (July and September 2009 and 2010). Influence of leaf flush type on homogeneity of equation parameters (i.e. slope and intercept), regarding moment of sampling, was tested using ANCOVA. Leaf flush type (spring or second-flush) did not have significant influence on slope, but did influenced intercepts in three moments of sampling (July 2009, and July and September 2010). Homogeneity of equation parameters was observed only for one moment of sampling, e.g. September in 2009, when third-flush shoots occurred which resulted in levelling of total nitrogen concentration in sampled leaves.
Key words: Chlorophyll content index; leaf third-flush; leaf nitrogen dynamic; the parameters of the calibration equations
SEVER, Krunoslav ŠL
ŠKVORC, Željko ŠL
BOGDAN, Saša ŠL
SELETKOVIĆ, Ivan ŠL
POTOČIĆ, Nenad ŠL
FRANJIĆ, Jozo ŠL
|Luka KASUMOVIĆ, Boris HRAŠOVEC, Anamarija JAZBEC
|UDK 630* 453 (001)
|EFFICIENCY OF DRY AND WET FLIGHT BARRIER THEYSOHN® PHEROMONE TRAPS IN CATCHING THE SPRUCE BARK BEETLES Ips typographus. L. and Pityogenes chalcographus L.
Efficiency of dry and wet flight barrier Theysohn® pheromone traps in catching the spruce bark beetles Ips typographus L. and Pityogenes chalcographus L.
Eight toothed spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) and six toothed spruce bark beetle (Pityogenes chalcographus L.) are most imported pests of mature spruce forests in whole Europe. When the populations are low they usually attack the trees which are weakened by snow, wind, highlight or some other biotic or abiotic factors. When the populations increase higher they can attack and kill living standing trees and-thus become primary pests. Monitoring of populations with pheromone traps is an important tool in integrated forests protection. During the last two decades the foresters in Croatia mainly use the classic black Theysohn® flight barrier pheromone traps for monitoring of spruce bark beetle populations in spruce forests.
The aim of the study was to investigate is there any significant difference in catches between dry and wet flight barrier pheromone traps, is there any possibility that bark beetles can escape from pheromone traps after they fall down in plastic box at the bottom of pheromone traps, and is there any difference in selectivity of compared traps to predator species (Thanasimus formicarius L., Nemozoma elongatum L.).
In 2014. a field experiment was set up in spruce stands in two sites, one in higher elevation and one in lower elevation. In each site three black Theysohn® flight barrier pheromone traps using water in collecting box were compared with three traps with dry boxes, for each bark beetle species. The holes on the bottom of collecting boxes on wet traps were sealed with silicone. Also new made holes at the side of collecting boxes were covered with plastic net to stop the loss of captured bark beetles with water overflow. The traps were loaded with pheromone lures – Pheroprax® lure for I. typographus and Chalcoprax® for P. chalcographus.
Totally for each species were set up six pairs of dry-wet pheromone traps, three pairs on lower and three pairs on higher elevation.
The experiment started 17th of May and was finalized in the last week of September. The traps were emptied every eight days. The caught beetles were kept in 60% ethanol until the moment when they were determined and counted. Except the two main bark beetle species, also the predator species T. formicarius and N. elongatum were counted. In total 73.994 specimens of I. typographus were caught in dry, and 71.212 specimens in wet traps. In dry traps 214.950 specimens of P. chalcographus were caught, and 179.146 specimens in wet traps. There was no significant difference between dry and wet pheromone traps for both bark beetle species. It can be concluded easily that I. typographus and P. chalcographus could not escape from traps after they fall down in collecting box at the bottom of traps, what isn’t case with Tomicus species (Hrašovec & Pernek, unpublished results).
In both case bigger number of bark beetles (no statistically significant) were caught in dry traps. The reason may be the production of 1-hexanol and verbenon in wet traps. More dead bark beetles was found in wet pheromone traps what is logical because after they fall down in plastic hunting box which is full of water they get drown after some time, what is no case with bark beetles in dry pheromone traps. Increasing the number of dead beetles can reduce the efficiency of pheromone traps (Kretschmer, 1990; Bakke et al, 1983). The smell of dead bark beetles significantly reduce the efficiency of pheromone traps, but in the moment it wasn’t known which component were responsible for it. Lower efficiency of pheromone traps is consequence of production 1-hexanol and verbenon from dead bark beetles (Zhang et al., 2003).
Pernek (2006), Pernek & Lacković (2011) had a better monitoring results of silver fir bark beetle species (genus Pityokteines) with wet traps compared to dry traps. The classic black Theysohn® traps were used like in this experiment. The reason why the wet pheromone traps had shown a better results in previous research (Pernek, 2006; Pernek & Lacković, 2011) probably is consequence of different factors: biology and pheromone communication, swarming time, weather conditions and different type of stands. All this factor could have a important impact on pheromone trap catches.
There is no significant difference in selectivity of compared traps to predators. The dry pheromone traps catch less individuals of T. formicarius L. and more individuals of N. elongatum compared to wet traps. It had been observed the escape possibility of T. formicarius from dry traps. During the analysis of some samples just the eaten bark beetles had been found in dry traps, and there wasn’t any Thanasimus specimens. N. elongatum couldn’t escape from dry traps, and there was some reduction of caught six tooth bark beetles in dry pheromone traps by this predator.
The results support the use of both type of traps in monitoring of spruce bark beetle species. Although, dry trap setting in the field, collecting and analyzing of dry catches is much easier.
Key words: monitoring; Thansimus; Nemozoma
KASUMOVIĆ, Luka ŠL
HRAŠOVEC, Boris ŠL
|UDK 630* 375 + 114.7
|THE EFFECTS ON SOIL COMPACTION OF TIMBER SKIDDING BY TRACTOR ON SKID ROAD IN PLANTATION FOREST IN NORTHERN TURKEY
In this study, degree of soil compaction and rutting caused on the skid road by rubber-tired tractor was investigated in northern pine plantation forest in Turkey. In research area, the cross sections were selected in every 20 meter along the skid road. Penetrometer measurements were made in each cross section. Also, the soil samples were collected to on the skid road and forest site. The rutting was measured in each cross section. The results of in this study, on the skid road had shown changes of soil depth and soil compaction during skidding operations. The major soil compaction was also more occurred in the first four passes. The rutting has been less by increasing the number of passes on the skid road. Rut depth became significant after 4th, 8th, 12th, 16th and 20th passes, reaching an average 2.6, 3.5, 4.1, 4.6 and 4.9 cm, respectively. The values penetrometer were found on skid road for every cross section (5 different points) and also, on forest soil at edge of skid road (1 point). The soil compaction values were evaluated due to penetrometer measurements.
Key words: soil compaction; rutting; skidding; skid road
|Nevenka GALEČIĆ, Jelena TOMIĆEVIĆ-DUBLJEVIĆ, Mirjana OCOKOLJIĆ, Dragan VUJIČIĆ, Dejan SKOČAJIĆ
|UDK 630* 582
|QUALITY AND UTILIZATION POTENTIAL OF URBAN PARKS: CASE STUDY TAŠMAJDAN PARK, BELGRADE, SERBIA
In order to develop a sustainable urban environment, the modern approach to landscape design emphasizes the importance of environmental quality which promotes health and amenity and in which all members of a community can equally meet their needs. An important prerequisite for the design of high-quality parks in landscape design is respecting the needs and expectations of users. The quality of an urban area is the intensity with which open areas are used for the purposes of different activities and it is referred to as the utilization potential of an area. As a result of the extensive research of literature, the quality criteria for city parks are defined as: accessibility, activity / diversity of facilities and equipment, amenity and sociability. This study aims to determine the importance of the proposed quality criteria which are effective in assessing city parks as places for a successful design. The utilization potential is evaluated by using the quality criteria in the case of urban park Tašmajdan in Belgrade. The method of a structured survey was conducted on the sample of 300 randomly selected users. The research results show that the four tested criteria are very important for assessing the utilization potential of a park. Also, the obtained results are important for establishing the principles and recommendations that can be implemented in the process of landscape design, aimed at improving the quality of parks to meet the needs of its users for certain types of activities and achieve the appropriate use of parks.
Key words: landscape design; urban parks; quality criteria; Tašmajdan Park; Belgrade
|Hac Ahmet YOLASIGˇMAZ, Snan GÜNER
|UDK 630* 231 + 232
|THE PROCESS OF SILVICULTURE PLANNING IN TURKEY: HSAR CASE STUDY
Forestry resources are managed by long, middle and short term national, regional and local scale plans, programs and special arrangements to consider international and national purposes. The smallest administrative and planning units of forest area in Turkey are the Forest Administration Chief Offices. Planning units are managed by forest management plans prepared in accordance with Ecosystem-based Multiple Use Forest Management principles. The application steps of forest management plans are the silvicultural plans. Although the preparation of silviculture plans in the last five-year period in Turkey is included in the planning process as a legal challenge, a definite standard cannot be formed in the preparation and application of the silviculture plans. In this article, silvicultural plan of Hisar Administration Chief Office selected as the pilot area in order to find solutions to the specified problems were prepared. The process of preparing silviculture plan has been introduced comprehensively. The process begins after the completion of forest management plans. Silviculture plan preparation process, the measurement and evaluation on the forest land, geographical database design, the preparation of silvicultural treatment prescriptions, the production of output such as table, graph and maps, and application, monitoring and evaluation are composed of stages.
Key words: Forest management plan; silviculture plan; geographic information systems; Pinus sylvestris.
Hac Ahmet YOLASIGˇMAZ