|AT THE END OF THE YEAR
|The 250th anniversary of forestry in Croatia was marked by a number of events and activities set down in the Minutes of the 4th meeting of the CFA Managing and Supervisory Board and published in Forestry Journal 11-12/2014. Our column has also tried to give a contribution to this grand anniversary.
In the double issue I-2/2015, the text „Disorientation in private forest management” highlights some problems in the management of these forests. Some tests from the history of forestry were also used to reinforce the problem matter. It could almost be said that the problems are treated as if the area in question was almost negligible, while in fact private forests account for one fifth of the forested area in Croatia and are governed by the Law on Forests, a fact often forgotten. We particularly pointed to uncontrolled felling operations and „pillage” and to lack of efficient supervision, measures of preventing such activities and clear legal bases for the punishment of perpetrators. A renewed plea was made for small private forest owners to unify in order to avoid management at the level of a plot, make management easier in line with the Law on Forests and ensure the possibility of more efficient use of EU funds.
The double issue 3-4/2015 is concerned with a growing shift away from the principle of sustainable management and planning of forests as a renewable resource and the most complex ecosystem, as well as with the treatment of this system as a „factory hall“. In order to achieve the best quality and quantity of wood assortments, it is necessary to make maximum possible use of forest site potential, at the same time taking care that the principles of sustainable management are strictly adhered to, since its degradation would lead to catastrophe. It is therefore essential that the entire process of management and field work is undertaken and supervised by „highly educated management personnel who posses theoretical and practical knowledge for useful and sustainable management of forests“. If the proclaimed goal of management is to produce the most valuable wood mass, then its use should also be rational and directed primarily to domestic highly finalized product, which guarantees not only financial gains but also high employment.
In the double issue 5-6/2015, drawing on the text „State exams for independent management of a forest enterprise“ from Forestry Journal of 1880 and 1881, we tackled the importance of expert forest planning and management and advocated professionally based rather than politically based selection of personnel. It is not sufficient to possess adequate school credentials: what is necessary it to gradually gain practical knowledge and experience for the management of a forest enterprise. Even forest personnel trained in such a way have their limits. Not everybody is capable of being what he wants to be; try as hard as one might, one’s own natural abilities tell you: you can get no further than this. Needless to say, it is the forest that suffers the most in the aftermath of such errors“.
The double issue 7-8/2015, also using the text from Forestry Journal of 1895, draws a parallel with the present time and highlights expert and organisational abilities of the forest personnel in the most responsible work places in forestry institutions. This refers primarily to county foresters, accountants and foresters (chief forest managers). As in the past, gradual specialized education through practice, combined with „honesty as the crown virtue of a person who has been entrusted with the wealth of national property“, should constitute the ethical profile of a forestry expert today as well.
The Editorial „Have we learnt something from history” in the double issue 9-10/2015, as we hear, has „stirred up the ghosts“; however, what we only attempted, just to be on the safe side, was to use some historical examples to warn of what might happen if a major private company Hrvatsko Drvo Ltd is founded, with 25% share of Hrvatske Šume Ltd as a co-founder. Clearly, the topic hit the target.
As we all know, „hope dies last“, so we truly hope that the forestry profession will be improved and adequately evaluated at all levels in the year to come. With this in mind, we would like to wish all the readers of Forestry Journal Merry Christmas and Happy and Successful New Year 2016.
|IZVORNI ZNANSTVENI ČLANCI
|Ivica PAPA, Tibor PENTEK, Hrvoje NEVEČEREL, Kruno LEPOGLAVEC, Andreja ĐUKA, Branimir ŠAFRAN, Stjepan RISOVIĆ
|UDK 630* 383 +386 (001)
|THE ANALYSIS OF THE TECHNICAL FEATURES AND DRAINAGE SYSTEM FOR EXISTING FOREST ROADS IN ORDER TO ESTABLISH THE NEEDS OF THEIR RECONSTRUCTION – A CASE STUDY
Technical features of forest roads in the Republic of Croatia are presented in Technical Conditions for Economic Roads (Šikić et al., 1989). Pentek et al. (2007) gave a proposal of new technical conditions in which the basic criterion of categorization of forest roads is traffic load. According to the Regulations (Anon. 2015), in Annex IV. “Technical conditions of forest roads”, the proposal of improvements to the existing Technical Conditions for Economic Roads is accepted (Šikić et al., 1989) (Table 1).
The objectives of the research are: 1. Measurement and analysis of selected technical features of forest roads and comparison with the current technical conditions in the Republic of Croatia (Šikić et al., 1989; Anon, 2015), 2. Recording and analysis of ground and underground drainage elements; road facilities and assessment of construction material categories and 3) Definition of technological process for reconstruction of forest roads in order to achieve current technical conditions and optimization of drainage systems (“zero”/optimal state).
In the field, in the framework of the establishment of a detailed registry of primary forest traffic infrastructure, for each of the seven forest roads in MU “Belevine”, on each sampling plot of 20.00 m length, according to a newly developed methodology for the establishment of a detailed registry of primary forest traffic infrastructure (Papa et al. 2015), were measured/calculated the following selected technical features: pavement width, shoulder width, longitudinal alignment gradient and pavement cross fall slope (Figure 3 and 4).
Forest roads “587 B1 001”, “587 B1 004” and “587 B1 006” were, according to the criterion of Šikić et al. (1989), categorized as main forest roads, forest roads “587 B2 002”, “587 B2 003”and “587 B2 007” belong to the category of side forest roads and forest road “587 B3 005” is an access forest road (Figure 5). Due to the traffic characteristics on mentioned forest roads, characteristics of MU “Belevine” and of forest stands, it would not be justified to construct forest roads with two lanes; therefore on forest roads „587 B1 001“, „587 B1 004“ and „587 B1 006“ will apply technical specifications that apply to side forest roads, and for other forest road technical characteristics that are valid for the category of access forest roads.
As a minimum width of pavement for the category of side forest roads reference value will be 4.00 m, and for the category of access forest roads 3.50 m. Side forest road minimum width of shoulders is 0.75 m and for the access forest road is 0 50 m. Maximum longitudinal alignment gradient for side forest roads is 10%, and for the access forest roads 12%. The minimum permitted vertical alignment gradient for all categories of forest roads is 0.50%. The minimum value of pavement cross fall slope for side and access macadam forest roads amounts to 3%, and the maximum permitted value of 6%.
For each component of the primary forest traffic infrastructure in MU “Belevine”, by measuring surfaces, the spatial distribution and the current state of elements of the ground and underground drainage: drainage ditch, culverts, bridges, cross ditches and fords was recorded. The position of all road facilities and other elements of forest roads were recorded. For each sampling plot, according to the schematic representation in Figure 2, the basic components of four transverse sections at a distance of 5.00 m were recorded. The cross-sections were evaluated according to material categories. In assessing the current state of the elements of ground and underground drainage, road facilities and other elements of forest roads, used methodology developed within the whole methodology of a detailed registry of primary forest traffic infrastructure is shown in Table 2 (Papa et al. 2015).
Studies have been conducted on the components of the primary forest traffic infrastructure in MU “Belevine” within the Training and Research Forest Centre Zalesina, Faculty of Forestry, University of Zagreb. Seven macadam forest roads, of the total length 7.031 kilometers, were built in the period from 1968 to 1988. From construction to the present day, all the forest roads were regularly maintained, and maintenance was predominantly focused on repairing damages of road construction and drainage facilities.
Figures 6, 7, 8 and 9 are show the analysis of variance of measured and reference (prescribed) values for each selected technical features of forest roads. For two longest forest roads in MU “Belevine”, “587 B1 001” length 2207.48 m and “587 B1 004” length 2046.62 m, a comparison of selected current technical features to prescribed values of the same features of the Republic of Croatia (Anon, 2015) for each sampling plot (Figure 10 and 11) was done. All the selected technical features of forest roads in MU “Belevine”, to a lesser or greater extent, deviate from the prescribed/reference values. It is interesting to note that all forest roads categorized as side and access (with the necessary technical features of the side forest roads) have a higher mean value of the pavement width than those categorized as main roads (with the necessary technical features of the access forest roads). This is explained by the dynamics of the primary forest opening of the study area. The forest road “587 B1 001” and “587 B1 004” are the first forest roads built in MU “Belevine”, in time of less developed construction technology, different technical characteristics of forest transport vehicles and during the validity of different technical requirements for forest roads.
The smallest permitted vertical alignment gradient is not a problem at any of the sampling plots of the researched forest roads. The maximum longitudinal gradients were recorded only on shorter sections of forest roads and values were slightly higher than allowed, or in the framework of exceptional justified cases which in the technical documentation must be explained in detail (in hilly/mountainous area for side forest roads up to 12%, and for access forest roads up to 15%). The reported values for pavement cross-slope values were unsatisfactory on most of the sampling plots. Reconstruction of pavement cross fall slope should lead to optimal state (between 3 and 6% for the access and side forest macadam roads).
The spatial distribution and the existing state of the ground and underground drainage system elements on sampling plots of primary forest traffic infrastructure is shown in Figure 12. Table 3 shows first at the level of individual forest road and then at the level of entire management unit integrated information about ground and underground drainage system elements. There is no forest road on which intervention in the objects of ground and underground drainage system elements (in terms of enabling them to be fully functional) is unnecessary.
For the ground drainage system to be optimized, the total of 3520 m classic and 1680 m lined drainage ditches on seven forest roads in MU “Belevine” should be constructed, as well 860 m classic drainage ditches, of which 240 m translated into lined drainage ditches should be repaired. It is necessary to construct 47 new and repair 41 existing cross-ditches. 45 concrete pipe culverts were recorded. With regard to the developed hydrograph conditions close to forest roads, existing climatic and geological features of soil in MU “Belevine”, and with the aim of diminishing/reduce the negative impact of water on forest roads, pipe-culverts, drainage ditches and cross-ditches of the right shape, size, and type should be constructed. The elements of an optimized system of ground and underground drainage, along forest roads as well as and for the entire MU “Belevine” are given in Table 5.
Damaged road construction and the proposed method of repairing macadam pavement structure at the level of individual forest roads and for the entire MU “Belevine”, are shown in Table 6. Macadam pavement structure of forest roads is in good condition and does not require any intervention on 4.01% of sampling plots. At 23.98% of sampling plots, pavement can be repaired with mending method. Most of sampling plots (51.40%) show that repair pavement method should be aligning, and for 20.62% of sampling plots the most expensive method of pavement repair – material outspreading is necessary.
In future studies it is recommended that to the technological process of reconstruction of forest road network in MU “Belevine”, and it is bringing to so-called “zero”/optimized state, analysis of associated costs should be included.
Key words: forest road; technical features; drainage system; reconstruction of forest roads; mountainous relief area
PENTEK, Tibor ŠL
NEVEČEREL, Hrvoje ŠL
RISOVIĆ, Stjepan ŠL
|Dalibor BALLIAN, Benjamin JUKIĆ, Besim BALIĆ, Davorin KAJBA, Georg von WÜEHLISCH
|UDK 630* 181.8 (001)
|PHENOLOGICAL VARIABILITY OF EUROPEAN BEECH (Fagus sylvatica L.) IN THE INTERNATIONAL PROVENANCE TRIAL
Common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) is the most important species of forest trees in Bosnia and Herzegovina. This research provides the results of investigation into the phenological variability of 22 common beech provenances in the international trial near Kakanj (Bosnia and Herzegovina), both for the properties of autumn coloration and winter leaf retention. The experiment included eight provenances from Bosnia and Herzegovina, four from Germany, three from Serbia, two from Croatia, Romania and Switzerland each and one from Hungary. The experiment was established in a randomized block system with three repetitions.
The goal of this research was to establish whether there were differences in variability between the investigated provenances and what features would be important for future management and regeneration of beech forests, as well as for increased production and adaptability.
Based on the investigated phenological properties, statistically significant variability was found between all the studied provenances. The established differences included the beginning, duration and end of particular phenophases. There are considerable statistically significant differences in flushing among the studied provenances. Provenances from Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina flush earlier than foreign provenances. April the 10th can be considered as the beginning of common beech vegetation in this international trial, because this is the date on which bud opening occurred in twelve out of 22 provenances.
The analysis of leaf colour of different common beech provenances revealed variations in the presence of different groups of colours with varying shades in a particular period. Current differences in winter leaf retention indicate that 65.92 % of the plants in the entire experiment do not retain the leaves. The highest proportion of leaf non-retention, amounting to 91.05 %, was manifested by the provenance from Germany (Hoellerbach). It can be concluded that common beech is genetically differentiated according to ecological and vegetation areas and that it shows different morphological and physiological characteristics from different provenance areas. This proves that morphological and physiological properties of common beech are influenced by a number of factors and that each of the investigated properties is determined by a large number of genes.
The obtained results can be used in the breeding programme of common beech, as well as in the activities related to the conservation of genetic variability using the in situ and ex situ methods.
Key words: European Beech; provenance trial; phenology; coloration and winter leaf retention
KAJBA, Davorin ŠL
Georg von WÜEHLISCH
|UDK 630*272 + 934 + 468 (001)
|ANALYSIS OF THE RELATION BETWEEN VISITORS AND PROTECTED NATURAL AREAS IN THE ZADAR COUNTY
The aim of the research was to gain insight in the components of the model human-ecosystem (Human ecosystem model) on the specific example of protected natural areas in the Zadar county on one side and promotion and design of tourist offer in protected areas on the other side. In the period of June 1st to December 31st in the area of the NP Paklenica, the NaP Telašćica and the NaP Vransko Jezero, which are legally protected by the Act on Nature Conservation (NN 70/05, NN 80/13) and have a high national level of conservation, the research was conducted using the method of questionnaires and analysis of visitor attitudes, demands, motivations for visit and satisfaction with the services and offer in protected areas. For all three parks the same questionnaires printed in nine languages were used, which allowed an integral analysis of all data collected as well as the comparability of data between the parks. One part of the questionnaire was also answered by the staff of the respective parks and staff of local tourist organisations in order to gain insight in the value orientations of decision makers. The comparison of the answers were analysed by χ2 tests or Fisher’s exact test. For the analysis of the main categorical variables, Correspondence Analysis (CA) was used. In this way, a basis for future continuous research was created. The results obtained have been compared to the results of research in other National and Nature Parks in Croatia (Marušić et all. 2007) and they present one of the entries to the models that enable the formulation of recommendations for management that is at the same time focused on nature conservation and visitor satisfaction.
Key words: protected natural areas; visitors; tourism; Correspondence Analysis; Zadar county
KRPINA, Vesna ŠL
|Omer KUCUK, Ertugrul BILGILI, Paulo M. FERNANDES
|UDK 630* 431 (001)
|FUEL MODELLING AND POTENTIAL FIRE BEHAVIOR IN TURKEY
Description of fuel characteristics is an essential input to fire behavior models that can provide decision-support for fire management. Fuel models describe fuel characteristics for fire modeling systems based on Rothermel’s fire spread model. In this study, fire behavior data collected in field experiments in different fuel complexes in Turkey is used in the process of fuel model development. Nine fuel models were built for low and tall maquis, Anatolian black pine (P. nigra J.F. Arnold subsp. nigra var. caramanica (Loudon) Rehder), litter, and slash variable in age and load. BehavePlus simulations of fire rate of spread, flame length and fireline intensity for typical summer weather conditions highlight the quite different fire potential between the studied fuel types. The difficulty in dealing with fuel complexes dominated by live fuels was evident from the simulations. On the contrary, the model correctly predicted the observed temporal decrease of fire behavior in slash. This study shows the crucial importance of experimental fire data to parameterize fuel models.
Key words: Fuel modeling; experimental fires; fire behavior; fire modeling systems; Turkey
Paulo M. FERNANDES
|Julije DOMAC, Stjepan RISOVIĆ, Velimir ŠEGON, Tibor PENTEK, Branimir ŠAFRAN, Ivica PAPA
|UDK 630* 537 + 831
|CAN BIOMASS TRIGGER AN ENERGY-WISE TRANSITION IN CROATIA AND REST OF SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE?
Through the history of mankind, until the mid-19th century, biomass, particularly wood, represented the most important source of energy. In many countries of Europe, the awareness of the importance of forest biomass as fuel has been closely connected to the general understanding and the realization of own and world energetic situation. Forest biomass represents an important source of energy, whose use should be paid more attention to in the future. In its traditional forms, biomass is still a very significant source of energy in most countries of the southeast Europe and it will continue to be so in the near future. However, it is more and more used not just for thermal energy production, but also for the production of electric and cooling energy which is considered as an important part of the energetic transition which is a promising model with high economic and ecological advantages. The use of biomass energy offers significant possibilities for opening new jobs, thus having a significant positive impact on the local and national economy. This paper describes the present stage of the energetic transition in the south-eastern European countries and the role of forest
biomass in its implementation. Examples and events in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Kosovo and Serbia are analysed. Rural development projects as well as the use of bioenergy biomass has a great potential for income generation, increase of productivity and opening of small village companies. From the macroeconomic perspective, the use of biomass contributes to all the important elements in the development of the south-eastern European countries.
Key drivers as well as the obstacles which can be encountered in the energetic transition in local government units can be structured as follows; potential stimulus, refers to the most south-eastern European countries regarding their significant afforestation and forest biomass potential, market stimulus due to cost-effective accessible plants and equipment for biomass, as well as the adequate support of manufacturing firms, the use of commercial and business connections: where most of biomass trades among the south-eastern European countries and EU is carried out in integration with the forest product trade, to be first or the local pride, is an important driver in the south-eastern European countries to keep money at home is another important link with the positive perception in the use of the forest biomass.
The paper recognised a significant number of potential groups of obstacles for using the forest biomass; economic limitations more favourable price of the forest biomass energy in relation to fossil fuels, financial limitations as a serious obstacle for each form of the renewable energy, social limitations are very specific for each form of the renewable energy, human resource limitations since most local governments do not have sufficient human potential, limitations due to transparency are a very frequent problem, primarily depends on the democratic power, technical limitations mostly belong to the fact that most of the equipment for using renewable energy sources and the increase in energetic efficiency from the import, has not been produced on the local level.
Key words: Bioenergy; South-East Europe; Socio-economic drivers; People; Energy transition
RISOVIĆ, Stjepan ŠL
PENTEK, Tibor ŠL