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HR  EN   

7-8/2015

WEB EDITION


Scientific-technical and professional journal
of Croatia Forestry Society
                         Issued continously since 1877.
       First issue of this web edition start with number 1-2/2008.
   ISSN No.: 1846-9140              UDC 630*https://doi.org/10.31298/sl
PAPER EDITION
DIGITAL ARCHIVE

HRČAK
Portal of scientific
journals of Croatia
   Issued by: Croatian Forestry Society

   Address: Trg Mažuranića 11, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
   Phone/fax: ++385 1 4828477
   e-mail: urednistvo@sumari.hr
   Editor in Chief: Josip Margaletić


     
 
RIJEČ UREDNIŠTVA
 
Uredništvo   309
WHAT CHARACTERISTICS SHOULD FORESTRY STAFF POSSES?      
In the first three issues of Šumarski list of the year 1895, forest estimator D. Ilijić gave answers to this question, emphasising that any management organism must have a precisely defined sphere of individual organs’ activities according to their capabilities. Otherwise an organism ceases  to properly perform its functions. It is a chaos and decline of economy, he says, and particularly devastating for the global economy, as it “represents bigger capitals”, while the consequences are revealed only later; this is precisely the case with forestry, the main principle of which is sustained forest management. In the first article Ilijić discusses the capacities of a county forester at the level of property districts, which are according to the size of the property treated as big economies that “compose the highest proportion of the national property” (today they would be equal to the territorial range of the enterprise Croatian Forests Ltd.), where a county forester is the “head of a property district forests. The properties that should adorn such an important person must not bejust seeming, but should emerge from the very nature of this person andhis deep beliefin this most high task and profession. Along with specialist education through practice, “ honest is the crown of this person to whom the millions ofthe national property have been trusted. Those who have not laboured hard in the forest while buildingup his theory will not enjoy thefruits of success. “ One’s specialist education should be adjusted to the practice and the knowledge taken from encyclopaedic information in those disciplines, “without which no intelligent man cannot afford to be”. “Arrogant behaviour and rude manners” are condemned, while civilised and helpful advice-offering attitude toward inferior staff is suggested. Steady honesty with full specialist education as well as diligence with consistency will certainly be a successful base upon which we shall be able to improve our already declining assets to at least some degree. Therefore, competence and honesty above all.
Another profile of a specialised forester dealt with in the author’s article is accountant “of management offices”, who also, according to law, has to be specialised in forestry and has passed the official examination required by the state. He substitutes the county forester in case of his absence. “No forest management, even the smallest one, can function without the manager taking care ofthe property. He must be perfectly conversant in the theory of national management and its principles ..., and also must try hard to achieve, with other already acquired skills, the same experience in this field that is equal to that ofa county forester, the head ofthe office.“  The question is whether today’s accountants/executives take into consideration the multiple benefits ofthe forest, and how they should be treated without only considering the profit. Why was a forestry accountant required to be a forestry engineer by education 120 years ago, while today a forestry executive need not know anything about forests.
The third profile is forester (in those times it was a district forester, while today it is chief forest manager). Both previously mentioned profiles were “much more free in their official status ..., because it is easier only to order than to listen andorder “. A forester must obey the orders of the management office, study them properly, establish their legal frames, and be careful not to do any damage. “The first really difficult side of a forester ‘s profession is based on the obligation that is prescribed by not understanding the individual local relations and needs, withfewer meansfor satisfying them “. It is difficult tofight against such anomaly, ...which is often defended by our law ... administrative sins mercilessly require their victims in theform of declining economy and unhappy staffwhich, though innocent, must accept the responsibility for all tragical consequences of the unsuccessful administration. “ The question is, “if he cannot win it and sove the forest goods, how should a forester act in this struggle, in order to at least save his personal honour? “ The author then points at the relation between the forester and his staff (in the first place forest rangers, whose profile is also discussed, as well as other employees).
This short foreword may encourage the readers of Šumarski list to read the whole text of about fifteen pages and learn more details of what the forestry profession once implied, and to compare it with today’s practice; to define their standpoints toward the future of forestry and forest as the most complex of ecosystems. Under today’s circumstances of both nature and society, this ecosystems needs even more knowledge than in the past, as well as a change of today’s attitudes toward them.
Editorial Board


    authors:
    Uredništvo
 
 
IZVORNI ZNANSTVENI ČLANCI
 
Ivica Papa, Tibor Pentek, Kruno Lepoglavec, Hrvoje Nevečerel, Tomislav Poršinsky, Željko Tomašić  UDK 630*383+686 (001) 311
METHODOLOGY OF DEVELOPMENT OF DETAILED PRIMARY FOREST TRAFFIC INFRASTRUCTURE REGISTER AS THE BASIS FOR FOREST ROADS MAINTENANCE PLANNING AND OPTIMIZATION      
Summary
Forest roads, civil engineering facilities that enable traffic to motor vehicles all year round, should be regularly maintained after construction to be able to meet, during their life cycle, all tasks provided by Forest Management Plans. High quality and timely maintenance prolongs the life of forest roads, reduces the costs of motor vehicles and frequency of their repair, makes forest roads trafficable throughout the year and increases the safety of all traffic participants. It is especially important to know the current state of the primary forest road infrastructure when optimizing the maintenance of forest roads.
The research was carried out on 7.031 km of Mac Adam forest roads in mountainous selective forests in the management unit „Belevine“, of the educational and experimental forest site of the Faculty of Forestry in Zagreb – Zalesina. Analysis was made of the development methodology, prescribed content and possibility of application of the current register of primary forest road infrastructure. The methodology for developing a detailed (complete/new) register of primary forest road infrastructure (gathering, processing and interpretation of data) was prepared. The most frequent types and intensity of damage of forest roads of mountainous relief area were defined. A detailed register of primary forest road infrastructure was established with all road facilities. All damages of forest roads were classified, quantified and photodocumented. The possibility and feasibility of application of a detailed register of primary forest road infrastructure in operational forestry was analyzed.
The results of research can be applied in operational forestry, and considering the current and especially future share of maintenance costs in the total costs associated with forest operations, their use is recommended. By the development of high quality, methodologically uniform studies of maintenance of forest roads, based on the new methodology of development of a detailed register of primary forest road infrastructure, the most suitable technology can be selected and the dynamics of maintenance services can be planned, along with the control and rationalization of the related costs.

Key words: forest roads; maintenance of forest roads; register of primary forest traffic infrastructure; type of damage; degree of damage; study of forest roads maintenance

    authors:
    Ivica Papa  
    PENTEK, Tibor      ŠL
    Kruno Lepoglavec  
    NEVEČEREL, Hrvoje    ŠL
    PORŠINSKY, Tomislav      ŠL
    TOMAŠIĆ, Željko    ŠL
 
Željko Zgrablić, Zdenko Tkalčec, Armin Mešić, Hrvoje Marjanović, Danko Diminić  UDK 630*443 (001) 329
DO ECTOMYCORRHIZAL FUNGI REDUCE AUSTRIAN PINE (Pinus nigra J. F. Arnold) SUSCEPTIBILITY TO Sphaeropsis sapinea (FR.) Dyko et Sutton INFECTION?      
Summary
Mycorrhizal macrofungi play an important role in plant physiological condition and help protecting their hosts from biotic and abiotic stress and pathogens. At the research area in Istria, western Croatia, pathogenic fungus Sphaeropsis sapinea (Fr.) Dyko et Sutton has caused substantial damage in Austrian pine (Pinus nigra J. F. Arnold) plantations through the last 25 years. During the previous research activities on predisposition to S. sapinea infections, site and stress conditions are determined as key factors. Back then, existing differences in fungal communities at disturbed and healthy Austrian pine plantations were observed. We hypothesized that Austrian pine plantations with higher ratio of ECM species and their sporocarps (minimum 40% of ECM species) are less susceptible to S. sapinea infection. It is the first research on linkage between ECM species and S. sapinea infection rate on Austrian pine needles.
Fungal samples were collected on three different permanent research plots of 400 m2 each, for three consecutive years (2011–2013) from week 36 to week 50, every fortnight. All samples were recorded with digital camera. Each fungal species and all its sporocarps on the plot represented one sample. They were collected in a wax paper bags, assigned and processed in laboratory on the same day. Sporocarps were counted and dried for 48 hours at 35–40 °C. Afterwards, they were packed in plastic bags and deposited to Croatian National Fungarium (CNF) for further identification. For all plots we analyzed soil samples and recorded soil profiles. Symptomatic branches and needles were taken from one tree per plot to analyze S. sapinea presence and number of pycnidia. Plantations were assigned, according to ECM fungi share, to different degrees of disturbance (latent, acute or lethal).
Soil analyses defined three different soil types: Tera Rossa (plot Mali Golji), Calcocambisol (plot Trstenik) and Eutric Cambisol on flysch (plot Previž) (Table 1.). In total, 2814 sporocarps (2288 ECM) and 88 species (47 ECM) were recorded, belonging to 37 genera. The maximum species richness was found at plot Trstenik (44 species) (Figure 1.), while the highest sporocarp richness was recorded at plot Previž (Figure 2.). Kruskal-Wallis test showed statistically significant difference between plot Previž and two other plots based on sporocarp number (H = 9,38, df = 2, p = 0,0092). Share of ECM species at plot Previž was 64,10% and 96,42% of sporocarps, respectively. Plot Mali Golji had the least share of ECM species (43,33%) and sporocarps (23,49%) (Figure 3.). S. sapinea pycnidia were not found at plot Previž, while at plot Mali Golji an average of 17,73 pycnidia per needle were recorded. On analyzed needles, together with S. sapinea, we found present Truncatella hartigii (Tubeuf) Steyaert. Kruskal-Wallis test showed statistically significant differences between all plots in term of pycnidia presence on pine needles (H = 121,5206, df = 2, p = 0,0000). Shares of ECM species and sporocarps were strongly related to an average number of S. sapinea pycnidia on a single needle. Regression trend indicate that in case when number of pycnidia on needles reaches 34 and more, we could expect an absence of ECM community (Figure 4.). An opposite scenario indicates that in case when share of ECM species reaches 74% or more, we could expect complete absence of pycnidia from needles. Similar trends were observed for sporocarps-pycnidia dependence (Figure 5.). Nevertheless, regression trends were not statistically significant (p<0,05). Correlations between average pycnidia number, share of ECM species and sporocarps in relation to potassium, nitrogen, carbon, C : N ratio and humus in organic soil layer are shown in Table 3.
Several ECM species with assumed mycobioindication value were recorded at plot Previž only, e. g. Tricholoma caligatum (Viv.) Ricken (Figure 6.), Suillus mediterraneensis Jacquet. & J. Blum) Redeuilh (Figure 7.), Hydnum albidum Peck, Hydnellum ferrugineum (Fr.) P. Karst., Phellodon niger (Fr.) P. Karst. (Figure 8.) and Cantharellus lutescens (Pers.) Fr. (Figure 9.) Characteristic ECM species at plot Trstenik were Clavulina cinerea (Bull.) J. Schröt., C. coralloides (L.) J. Schröt., C. rugosa (Bull.) J. Schröt., Inocybe bongardii (Weinm.) Quél., I. geophylla (Sowerby) P. Kumm., Ramaria gracilis (Pers.) Quél. and Russula chloroides (Krombh.) Bres. At plot Mali Golji, characteristic ECM species were Chroogomphus rutilus (Schaeff.) O.K. Mill., Lactarius atlanticus Bon, L. aurantiacus (Pers.) Gray and Russula delica Fr.
Acording to obtained results, plots Previž and Trstenik were characterized as not disturbed, while plot Mali Golji was at latent stage of disturbance. Considering a very low share of ECM sporocarps at plot Mali Golji, we predict a possible scenario of its transition to a more severe (acute) stage of disturbance. This research continues on previous research at the same Austrian pine plots on predisposition to S. sapinea infections, where site and stress conditions are determined as key factors. Our results confirm the assumption that stands with higher S. sapinea infection rate have impoverished mycorrhizal community and reveal potential indicator species of more resistant and healthy habitats. Since this research was focused on correlation between only two factors (share of ECM species and number of S. sapinea pycnidia on needles), we must interpret obtained results with precaution. To gain more reliable and precise results, further research based on higher number of plots and more detailed analysis of habitat factors is needed.

Key words: ectomycorrhiza; macrofungi; bioindicators; mycocoenosis; Austrian pine plantation

    authors:
    ZGRABLIĆ, Željko    ŠL
    Zdenko Tkalčec  
    Armin Mešić  
    Hrvoje Marjanović  
    DIMINIĆ, Danko    ŠL
 
Ida Katičić Bogdan, Karla Švorinić, Saša Bogdan, Davorin Kajba  UDK630*164+165 (001) 339
GENERATIVE AND VEGETATIVE ACTIVITY OF WILD CHERRY (Prunus avium L.) IN A CLONAL SEED ORCHARD      
Summary
Wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a valuable forest tree species, discontinuously distributed in mixed forests of southern, central and western Europe. Several countries established long-term breeding programs for Wild cherry, to improve the quality and production of its wood. In Croatia, 27 wild cherry trees were selected, on eight phenotypic criteria. These were cloned by grafting and a clonal seed orchard was established in the area of the Forest Office Kutina. For this research, we monitored 14 clones presented with four ramets. Selected ramets were measured over two years; 2010 and 2011. To estimate the vegetative growth we measured the 50 cm height diameter. To estimate the generative activities, one exemplary branch was marked on each ramet. Each selected branch was measured in full length, including the length of its flower and fruit bearing shoots. In April 2010 and 2011 all the flowers were counted on each exemplary branch. In May, all the fruits. The number of flowers and fruits was reduced to 100 cm length (Figure 1, Figure 3). Fruit set was calculated as the ratio of flowers and fruits (Figure 4). For all the traits average coefficients of intraclonal variability are shown for both years (Figure 2). Based on meteorological data for station Kutina in 2009, 2010 and 2011 we calculated parameters for winter inactive temperatures (Winter chilling), and spring temperatures, necessary for the beginning of the vegetation period (Forcing). We used The Chilling Hours model and the Utah model for "Winter chilling" and Growing Degree Days Model for "Forcing" (Luedeling et al. 2013), (Table 2)). The aim of this study was to determine the diversity of some reproductive traits in a sample of wild cherry clones in clonal seed orchard Kutina, correlation between these traits and correlation with vegetative growth. Another aim was to put these relationships into context of the environmental conditions at the time of flowering and fruiting. Statistically significant differences between clones were found for Number of fruits per 100 cm and Fruit set, viewed cumulatively for two years (Table 1). The statistical significance was caused by
differences between clones with extreme values, while most other clones did not differ significantly (Tukey Kramer test). Overall adverse environmental conditions in 2011 (insufficient amount of winter chilling, excessive temperatures and drought in the spring) resulted in lower average fruit set then in 2010, when all of these conditions were more favourable (Table 3). The values ​​of fruit set for 2010 and 2011 were in line with other research, or better, which indicates a satisfactory yield potential of these clones in case of favourable weather conditions, presence of pollinators and pest control. We found statistically significant correlation between Number of flowers per 100 cm and the Number of fruits per 100 cm, and between Fruit set and the Number of fruit per 100 cm for 2010 and 2011. In this study we found no statistically significant correlation between the vegetative growth of the diameter of the whole plant and reproductive characteristics estimated using exemplary branch (Table 3).

Key words: Intraclonal and interclonal variability; Number of flowers and fruits; Fruit set; Winter chilling; Forcing

    authors:
    KATIČIĆ, Ida    ŠL
    ŠVORINIĆ, Karla    ŠL
    BOGDAN, Saša      ŠL
    KAJBA, Davorin      ŠL
 
Janez Krč, Uroš Vranešič, Boštjan Košir  UDK 630*323+363 (001) 351
COMPARISON OF MECHANIZED AND MOTOR-MANUAL CUTTING OPERATION IN MIXED STANDS OF SOUTHERN SLOVENIA      
Summary
By increasing the diversity of conditions influencing the forest operation we are often faced with the dilemma of combining Motor manual and Cut to length technologies. The results of time study and productivity of cutting and skidding operation in mixed stands with a substantial proportion of deciduous trees are presented. Older pole stand was divided into four homogeneous strata in which forest operation was executed by applying two different technologies (motor manual and cut to length), each on two research areas. The objective of this study was to identify the influential factors which could be used as guidelines in the decision support system evaluating the suitability of both technologies. The results show that the mechanized cutting productivity is statistically significantly different for different tree morphological characteristics. In order to set up general guidelines it was established that the productivity in stands with single-trunked, short crown and thin branches processed with Cut-to-length technology is 25% higher than in the comparable stands consisting of multi-trunked trees, deep crowns with thick branches in terms of diameter at breast height structure.

Key words: cut-to-length; motor-manual; hardwood; time study; working techniques; productivity

    authors:
    Janez Krč  
    Uroš Vranešič  
    Boštjan Košir  
 
Korhan Enez, Burak Aricak, Temel Sariyildiz  UDK 630*312+285 (001) 361
EFFECTS OF HARVESTING ACTIVITIES ON LITTER DECOMPOSITION RATES OF SCOTS PINE, TROJAN FIR, AND SWEET CHESTNUT      
Summary
This study aims to investigate the possible effects of harvesting activities on litter decomposition in micro ecologic areas belonging to 3 different species (Trojan fir (Abies nordmanniana subsp. Equi-trojani (Aschers & Sint. ex. Boiss) Coode & Cullen), scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller)). To this end, litter decomposition experiments were carried out on these three species. The litter decomposition specimens were placed on their own stands where there were harvesting activities in previous years and in neighboring stands where there were no harvesting activities for control purposes. Theses micro ecologic areas are nonharvesting activity areas (control) (C), intra-forest skidding roads (Skidding road) (SR), under logging residues (Logging residue) (LR) and areas with a 20% slope and top-soil damaged during harvesting activities and scalped mineral soil (SMS). The decomposition processes were observed for 18 months, mass change values were calculated every six months and their mass loss and decomposition values were calculated. At the end of eighteen months, it was seen that the effects of intra-forest activities on litter decomposition showed differences among micro ecologic areas. According to the study results, forest harvesting activities (C, SR, LR and SMS) affect litter decomposition in various micro ecologic areas that occur in the remaining stand in great extent. As well as this, it is seen that the effect of forest harvesting activities on the litter decomposition is not in the same direction for every species. This study revealed that on micro ecologic areas decomposition sorting in ascending order was LR > C > SMS > SR for scots pine needles, LR = SR > C > SMS for Trojan fir needles, and C > SR > LR > SMS for sweet chestnut leaves. It has been concluded that forest harvesting activities influenced litter decomposition rates significantly.

Key words: litter mass loss; logging; skidding road; scalping; logging residue

    authors:
    Korhan Enez  
    Burak Aricak  
    Temel Sariyildiz  
 
Burak Aricak, Alper Bulut, Arif Ogˇuz Altunel, Oytun Emre Sakici  UDK 630*537+425 (001) 369
ESTIMATING ABOVE-GROUND CARBON BIOMASS USING SATELLITE IMAGE REFLECTION VALUES: A CASE STUDY IN CAMYAZI FOREST DIRECTORATE, TURKEY      
SUMMARY
Forest ecosystems which contain half of the terrestrial carbon deposits; play a significant role in shaping the global climate. Two different methods are used to determine the above-ground carbon stock capacity of forestlands. Direct measurement method takes a long time and requires both extensive as well as expensive field and laboratory work. One of the more indirect methods, satellite imaging on the other hand, costs less, is easier and practical compared to direct methods. It is also easier to integrate into geographic information systems (GIS). This paper provides a regression equation between the reflection values from RapidEye high resolution satellite image and sample areas where terrestrial aboveground biomass (AGB) carbon stock capacity was calculated by direct measurement method. As a result of the calculations made, using the RapidEye imagery and a “Band 4” devised equation producing R2=0.71 depending upon the data from Erzurum Camyazi Forest Directorate encompassing 9,917 ha study area, the amount of carbon stored within stands was found 285 208 tons. From this value, we can conclude that average carbon stock of the study area is 28.8 tons/ha.

Key words: aboveground biomass; carbon sequestration; remote sensing; RapidEye

    authors:
    Burak Aricak  
    Alper Bulut  
    Arif Ogˇuz Altunel  
    Oytun Emre Sakici