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HR  EN   



Scientific-technical and professional journal
of Croatia Forestry Society
                         Issued continously since 1877.
       First issue of this web edition start with number 1-2/2008.
   ISSN No.: 1846-9140              UDC 630*https://doi.org/10.31298/sl

Portal of scientific
journals of Croatia
   Issued by: Croatian Forestry Society

   Address: Trg Mažuranića 11, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
   Phone/fax: ++385 1 4828477
   e-mail: urednistvo@sumari.hr
   Editor in Chief: Boris Hrašovec

Uredništvo   421
STATE AWARD FOR SCIENCE FOR THE YEAR 2010 - Lifetime Achievement Award is conferred to Emeritus Professor BRANIMIR PRPIĆ, PhD      

Lifetime Achievement Award is conferred to

Emeritus Professor BRANIMIR PRPIĆ, PhD

The State Awards ceremony for the year 2010 was held in the Croatian Parliament on the eve of Croatia’s IndependenceDay. The Lifetime Achievement Award,the State Award for Science in the field of biotechnical sciences,was conferred to Emer­itus Professor Branimir Prpić, PhD. The expert commission for biotechnical sciences, adhering to the principle of presentingscience awards only to most distinguished scientists who have achieved outstanding results in their scientific field, based itsproposal for the candidate on the reviewers’reports of individual candidates. The proposal was accepted by the Selection Com­mittee forState Awards in Science. Due to Professor Prpić’s health problems, the award was received on his behalf by ProfessorMilan Oršanić, PhD, Dean of the Faculty of Forestry of the University in Zagreb. After the awards competition had been an­nounced, at the initiative of the Croatian Forestry Society the Scientific Council of the Faculty of Forestry of Zagreb Universityput forward the laureate, the professor at the Faculty of long standing.
A more detailed overview of the teaching, scientific and editorial work of our distinguished professor and longtime editor-in-chiefof Forestry Journalis given in the Awards column of this issue. We shall only briefly comment on several introductorytexts from the Editorial, a column which Professor Prpić as editor-in-chief launched in 1975 as a periodic column,but whichbecame a permanent feature in1994. The choice of topics has been very varied and has almost exclusively focused on the con­dition ofthe forestry profession at a given moment and on the main problems it faces. In a way, the columnrepresents a histori­cal survey of important events and turning points in the profession. Sometimes, the Editorial has given food for thought toeveryone trying to solve a particular problem, but most often it has actually provided a solution to the problem. The solutionmay sometimes have reflected the editor’s personal belief, but most often, it has been the joint effort of the scientific-specialistprofession, whose port-parole Professor Prpić was and which he openly advocated in his column, regardless of occasional di­vergent political dictates.
In the first text (FJ 1-3/1975), At the Threshold of Jubilee, the editor announces the forthcoming 100th anniversary of theForestry Journal and highlights its significance for the forestry profession. He urges specialist readership to read and subscribeto the Journal, but first and foremost to participate in its creation by writing contributions. The theme of 1975 dealing withforestry in Dalmatia would be very topical today if the financial means for non-market forest functions were reduced or, Godforbid, revoked. Let us quote the final sentence from the text: “It is even more unrealistic, to say the least, and indeed untenable,that forestry on karst should be perceived as an economic-productive activity, and that it should depend on itself, on the rent forgoat pasture and on small services for tourism, as well as on the understanding or non-understanding shown by municipal ex­ecutive bodies to forestry organisations”.
A significant topic from 1976 relates to the celebration of the 130thanniversary of the Croatian Forestry Society, an impor­tant institution for the forestry profession, where the need for its promotion is particularly stressed in its work programme:“Begin by explaining the role of the forestry profession in the preservation and improvement of forests and by stressing the im­portance of non-market forest functions, whose value can only be raised by forestry experts. I would also leave it to the profes­sion as a competent institution to deal with important priority relationships “between the raw material basis and timberprocessing industries”. In one of the articles from 1986 he writes: “In a time of crisis, such as today, there is often strong pres­sure on cheap raw material which cannot cover all the costs of simple and expanded biological reproduction of forests”.In thesame article, in addition to the forest fund encumbered by ever-growing needs for good quality raw material, he warns of forestdecline caused by changed chemical climate. In the last article of that year he concludes:“The timber processing industryshould strive to further improve the precious material from our forests and to do business successfullyin order to be able to alsoacquire raw material from abroad”, because the annual yields of our forests are limited.
In the issue 3–4/1988, Professor Prpić writes about the endangered status and decline of some tree species and points to adifferent attitude towards the forest compared with that of “30, but also 10 years ago”. The relationship between its raw mate­rial and energy value and its ecological and social value is constantly changing in favour of the latter. There is a well knownsaying that “man can do without timber, but cannot do without a forest”. Here is another important sentence: “Every attempt toinvest in modernisation of timber processing from the already exhausted forest fund leads to rapid devastation of forests andloss of their ecological, social and direct economic (raw material) functions”.
Space does not allow us to mention all the other topics of high interest, such as changed water relations in the sites, theDunav-Sava canal, organisation of forestry, participation of forestry experts in the planning of infrastructural projects, calcu­lating non-market forest functions, and many others.
We hope that the readers will be encouraged by the above topics and citations, and particularly by a more detailed overviewof Professor Prpić’s work to try and compare problems of the profession in the past and today, and possibly even answer thequestion what, if anything, has changed. The working opus of Professor Prpić will be even more extensively presented in a spe­cial book which the Croatian Forestry Society is preparing to mark 40 years of his activity as editor-in-chief of Forestry Journal.
In the end, on behalf of our readers and on our own behalf, we warmly congratulate Professor Prpić on his well deservedaward.

Editorial Board

Čavlović,J., K. Teslak, A. Seletković  UDK 630* 622 + 653: 231
(Quercus roburL.)(001)
Application and Comparison of Different Models for Regeneration Planning of Pedunculate Oak Stands (Quercus roburL.) – a Management Unit “Josip Kozarac” Case Study      
Summary: Continuous stand regeneration is one of the most important prerequisites of sustainable forest management. In relation to the planning of regeneration intensity at the forest level, a more complex and challenging part of planning is the selection of appropriate stands for regeneration. This is particularly expressed in conditions of undesired and spatially heterogeneous structure of the forest and stands, the large number of potentially mature stands for regeneration and the multi objective approach of forest management, where ranking of stands according to regeneration priority should be based on objective criteria. The planning of appropriate regeneration dynamics and selection stands for regeneration is particularly (emphasized) stressed in lowland pedunculate oak forest management planning, where tree dieback is a significant ecological and management problem. In such circumstances stand age and its relation to rotation are not sufficient criteria for stand selection. In the study a previously obtained model of rent difference (Eq. 1, Table 1) as a consequence of the decision of regeneration (prompt or adjournment) of a potentially mature pedunculate oak stand (Figure 2, Figure 3),was used for stand ranking according to regeneration priority. Based on the obtained results and analysis, the aim was to compare and discuss qualitative and quantitative characteristics of stands planned for regeneration, according to three different models (E_DEL_REN, E_DOB, E_OG), define the influence on sustainable forest management and to indicate limitations and possible future improvements of pedunculate oak forest management planning. The forest research site was the management class of pedunculate oak within the management unit “Josip Kozarac”. Total area of the oak forest (3,690.8 ha) is divided into 321 p. oak stands (11.5 ha average area). Mostly old stands, and a few young and middle aged stands, with intensive regeneration during the last 20 years are the characteristics of age class distribution (Figure 1).
Based on the model of rent difference (Eq. 1, Table 1), potentially mature oak stands (older than 100 years) were classified in six categories of regeneration priority (Table 2, Figure 4, Map 2). Stands to be regenerated in the next 10-year period (265 ha planned regeneration area) were selected on the basis of the rent difference model and stand age model in relation to forest management plan and spatial distribution (Map 3, Map 4), and the structural-qualitative characteristics of the selected stands (Table 3) were compared.
Results showed that under stocked stands, younger than 120 years and on average smaller areas, have greatest priority, while stands with high-quality structure, older than 135 years and larger average areas, have least regeneration priority. Regeneration of 21 of the oldest and structural highest quality stands would lead to the highest yield of 73 million kuna, but also to the highest indirect and long term losses. On the other hand, yield of 47 million kunas and at least long term and indirect losses would the result of an approach based on the rent difference model, while actual planning partly considers the demands of long term sustainable management.
The characteristics of the situation and management in the studied forest site represent similarities which exist (on a wider scale ) in the entire pedunculate oak forest area in Croatia. With regard to planning and management, due to the large share of mature stands with unfavorable structure and quality, comprehensive and complex demands of stand regeneration are necessary on the one hand, in order to ensure gradual and long term improvement of the forests, and, on the other hand, to ensure essential income for current management. Although, there are considerations of long term sustainability on the operative level of stand regeneration planning, open questions should be answered: what is the minimal level of achieving long term forest management demands, and to what extent the level is obtainable and sustainable, as well as what the projections are for future management periods. New information on mature pedunculate oak stands obtained from the rent difference model could be applied as supplement and support for the current approach of stand regeneration planning. Further development of the complex and dynamic spatial-temporal projection model would provide abundant information describing the current state of forest resources and management, relations between influencing factors, limitations and demands of management, as well as possible future developments. Application of the system would improve planning and management efficiency, as prerequisites of sustainable forest management, within the framework of a wider, strategic, level of decision making and its appropriate transfer to the operative levels of forest management.

Key words: forest management planning; pedunculate oak; planning of regeneration felling; regeneration priority; rent; stand structure

    ČAVLOVIĆ, Juro      ŠL
    TESLAK, Krunoslav    ŠL
    SELETKOVIĆ, Ante      ŠL
Račko,V., M. Saniga, I. Čunderlík  UDK 630* 811 + 48: 249 (001) 437
The Impact of Silvicultural Treatments on the Structure and Red Heart Formation in Beech Forests      
Abstract: The issue of occurrence and size of red heart and the possibilities of its limitation in beech assortments have been researched in worldwide measures for a long time. There are many ecological, phenological, geological factors which more or less influence its formation. The results of a long-term research of different silvicultural treatment confirmed that a big crown of crop trees creates conditions to achieve the target diameter with a low assumption of red heart formation and so rises the quality and price of produced assortments. The different shaping of tree crowns on two investigated compartments had a significant impact on the size of dehydrated zone and subsequently on the frequency of red heart. On the contrary, it did not have a significant impact on the size of red heart, even though red hearts in the both investigated forest stands were small. We also found the different qualitative structure of assortments in both types of investigated compartments.

Key words: dehydrated zone; Fagus sylvatica L.; red heart formation; sapwood; silvicultural methods

    Račko, Vladimir
    Saniga, Milan
    Čunderlík, Igor
Stevanov,M., M. Böcher, M. Krott, S. Orlović, D. Vuletić, S. Krajter  UDK 630* 945.4 + 935 (001) 449
Analytic Model of Departamental Research as Science-Based Advising of Actors in Political Process - Analysis of Research Activity of the Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment from Novi Sad      
Summary: Many governments express a growing need for having a science that is “usable”, which means that research results should be useful for practical application. In Serbia and Croatia current strategies and laws addressing science and research see public research institutes as organizations with activities primarily oriented toward public interest, in a way that policy actors are provided with timely and adequate science-based information. In this paper we analysed scientific and research activities of public research Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment (ILFE) to see whether, how and to what extent this institution meets the needs of actors in policy processes, i.e. if it is in line with the requirements of “usable science”. The Model of departmental research (Böcher i Krott 2010), based on sociology of scientific knowledge and analytical theory, has been applied on total scientific and research activities of ILFE. The very Model consists of following spheres: research, integration, scientific and practical utilisation, whereas production lines connect them and stay for activities of research projects (Figure 1).
In total 51 research projects of ILFE for the period 2005–2010 have been analysed (table 1), based on project documentation, as well as semi-structured questionnaires and interviews with project leaders and management of the Institutes. Collected information was used in analysis of each project and graphically presented by production line on the model of departmental research. This was followed by synthesis and interpretation of the results.
Results showed five types of production lines:
(1) Preliminary research, starting in integration sphere, with the idea what will in the future be relevant for particular actor(s). However most activities remain in the research sphere, and foster results toward scientific utilization (Figure 2). In total 15 research projects of ILFE correspond with this type of production line.
(2) Research stopped in the integration discourse. This production line also starts in the integration sphere, continues to the research sphere, where project proposal has been made, but its implementation gets stopped by the actors in political process, i.e. in the integration sphere (Figure 3). Only three projects of ILFE correspond with this type of production line.
(3) Research oriented toward practical utilisation, where constant interaction between research and integration spheres, ends up in practical utilisation of results (Figure 4). Analysis showed 6 out of 51 projects fall into this group of typical science-based advising of actors in policy processes.
(4) Research projects oriented toward scientific and practical utilisation, with the main difference that results are meant not only for practice, but for the scientific community as well (Figure 5). A group of 18 projects can be presented by this production line.
(5) Consulting activities of public institutes. In ILFE seven out of 51 projects can be depicted by this type of production line, for which is typical that usually entire project is within the integration sphere with outputs in the practical utilisation discourse.
During the research we were able to present all projects of the ILFE by production lines on the model of departmental research. There is a strong connection between ILFE and users of its expertise, with more than half of research projects having practical application (table 1). There are also im portant consulting activities going on which confirms importance of their role and quality of connection with the practise and society.
The model proves to be advantageous over existing evaluation methods, while it makes transparent all aspects of departmental research, which is useful for both users of science-based expertise and founders of these institutions. It also makes a solid base for optimisation and quality management processes within institutions.

Key words: departmental research; forestry; model of departmental research; production lines; public forest institutes; public institutes; research activities; usable science

    Stavanov, Mirjana
    Böcher, Michael
    Krott, Max
    Orlović, Saša
    VULETIĆ, Dijana      ŠL
    KRAJTER, Silvija    ŠL
Kirin,T., J. Kralj, D. Ćiković, Z. Dolenec  UDK 630* 152 + 907 (001) 467
Habitat Selection and Similarity of the Forest Songbird Communities in Medvednica and Žumberak – Samoborsko gorje Nature Parks      
Abstract: The effect of floristic and structural characteristics of vegetation on the forest songbird communities in two Nature Parks: Medvednica andŽumberak – Samoborsko gorje was studied. The point-count method was used for analyzing songbird communities and circular plot method for habitat mapping, on 101 points at both sites. Non-parametric test were used (Kruskal– Wallis and Kendal Tau). The tree basal area was used to classify studied points into five forest types (beech, oak, mixed deciduous, coniferous and mixed coniferous forests) and as indication of the stand maturity. The total of27 and 32 songbird species were recorded on Medvednica and Žumberak –Samoborsko gorje respectively. Diversity was higher on Žumberak – Samoborsko gorje due to greater habitat fragmentation, while population density of songbirds was greater on Medvednica. Among structural characteristics, those related to forest age (average tree basal area and number of the small trees) had the most pronounced effect to the total songbird density and densities of different ecological groups of birds. Sorensen index showed that in spite of the differences in floristic composition between particular forest types in two studied areas (0.475 ± 0.120), songbird communities showed high similarity (0.872 ± 0.070). The highest similarity of songbird communities between Parks was recorded in beech and oak stands. Oak stands showed the lowest similarity in tree species composition and no significant difference in structural characteristics, while beech stands had many different structural features and several differences in densities of ecological groups of birds. The greatest difference of bird densities in the particular forest type between two Parks was found in beech and mixed coniferous stands. High structural differences between these two forests were the result of the forest age; bird populations had higher densities in older stands.

Key words: forest habitat; Nature Parks; songbird communities; vegetation structure

    Kirin, Tamara
    Kralj, Jelena
    Dolenec, Zdravko
Uhlíková,H., O. Nakládal, P. Jakubcová, M.Turčáni  UDK 630* 453
(Lymantria monacha) (001)
Outbreaks of the Nun Moth (Lymantria monacha) and Historical risk Regions in the Czech Republic      
Abstract: The paper, based on a literature review, presents an overview of the nun moth outbreaks in Czech forests from 1784 to 2010. A database of outbreaks was created and presently contains 2,557 records. The oldest written record dates from 1784. The greatest calamity of nun moth outbreaks occurred during the years 1917–1927. The last nun moth outbreaks appeared in the years 1993–1996. A map of high-risk areas in the Czech Republic was created based on this historical data.

Key words: Czech Republic; historical outbreaks; Lymnatria monacha

    Uhlíková, Hana
    Nakládal, Oto
    Jakubcová, Pavla
    Turčáni, Marek
Hodić,I., Z. Jurušić  UDK 630* 630 383 487
Analysis of Primary Opennes of Forest Managed by Hrvatske Šume Ltd. as Basis for Disigning of Future Policy Forest Roads Construction      
Summary: This paper analyzes the primary forest openness as an important factor of quality and economy of forest management. Based on the analysis of the existing openness level of forests managed by Hrvatske šume Ltd. (state-owned forests), the aim was to suggest the necessary frame of road construction, up to the level of proposed goals by respective Forest Administrations. Special attention has been paid to the relief conditions and forest function. All forests have been sorted out according to the relief conditions into the following cathegories: lowland forests, hilly forests, mountainous forests and Karst forests. According to the stated cathegories, goals have been determined (on the minimal and so far optimal level): (Tabel 1).
Basic analysis of the existing primary openness has been made on the basis of the management unit, whereby special attention was paid to the relief conditions, and the results are shown by Forest Offices and Forest Administrations. For the openness calculation, the dana of the Forest roads registry of HŠ d.o.o. were used, according to the current methodology proscribed by the Rulebook on Forest Management.
In order to achieve these targets, HŠ Ltd. should construct these figures in management forests:
– Minimum 4354 km
– Optimum 8517 km
In Karst forests (up to the target of 15 km/ 1000 ha):
– 8830 km
The paper also gives a review of forest openness on the level of basic organisational units (Forest offices), which is a very useful piece of information for the company’s investment policy.

    HODIĆ, Ivan    ŠL
    JURUŠIĆ, Zlatko    ŠL