|EDUCATION AND EMPLOYMENT
|We go to elementary school in order to acquire basic, minimal education. We then decide whether we will build on elementary education by continuing secondary education in grammar schools and then in vocational colleges or universities, or whether we will complement elementary education with secondary vocational schools, which nevertheless does not preclude higher vocational education. Our choice is mainly influenced by our affinity towards certain vocations and by family and economic circumstances. Only occasionally is our choice determined by the demandsof the social community for certain professions and by employment opportunities. Whose fault is it that children finish schools but cannot find jobs in their chosen fields, while at the same time the society spends enormous sums of money on unnecessary things? School children, students and their parents are the least to blame. What role do the Ministry of Science, Education and Sport and the Ministry of Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship play here? What basis does the Ministry of Science, Education and Sport use to open new secondary vocational schools and new colleges and how does it determine enrolment quotas?
We are, naturally, particularly interested in the current state of the forestry profession. In the article by M. Skoko in this issue ofForestry Journal we learn that for the academic year 2011/2012the prescribed enrolment quota for forest technicians is 290 pupils in 11 (!) secondary forestry schools;at the same time,there are over 500 unemployed forestry technicians registered at the Croatian Employment Service. It would be interesting to seethe curricula and their fulfilment in some secondary forestry schools, and even more interesting to learn who teaches vocational subjects. We recall to mind a piece of information obtained accidentally several years ago; in one such school all specialized subjects were taught by one single forestry expert, a trainee. In other words, is the quality of our forestry schools open to comparison, and were not some of these schools opened only to alleviate the problem of the surplus of teachers of general subjects and to satisfy some unrealistic demands of local communities? Some time ago, a forestry school in Delnice of very high reputation was closed precisely because there was not enough employment for such a large number of technicians and because it was estimated that the school in Karlovac was sufficient. Yet, several vocational schools of inferior quality sprang up soon afterwards. We still maintain that the school in Karlovac is capable of satisfying the needs for the jobs of forestry technicians and that the other schools should be transformed into schools training forest labourers. From a professional standpoint, the school in Karlovac offers 25 specialized subjects, which are taught by 7 forestry experts – teachers, of whom three are mentors and one is a teaching adviser. These subjects range from botany, pedology, phytocoenology, forest genetics, ecology, wood anatomy and technology, silviculture, etc, to forest planning, forest economics and field practice. In a word, the school meets all the material, staff and spatial requirements.
The article in this issue of Forestry Journal by Professor Milan Oršanić, Ph.D., Dean of the Faculty of Forestry, highlights current topics discussed at the Days of Croatian Forestry: The Reform of the Teaching Programmes at the Faculty of Forestry of the University of Zagreb“. These topics include, among others, problems of organizingforestry study programmes throughout the country, of the shortage of space and of teaching experimental sites, as well as the questionable quality of scientific and teaching accreditations of the lecturers. According to the author, all this degrades the quality of the study and puts the students in the „original“ faculties at a disadvantage compared to those in „dislocated“ faculties, since their competences eventually carry equal weight despite seriousdifferences in the quality of studying.
The quality and the international recognition of the teaching plan, the inclusion into the knowledge society proclaimed by the „Bologna Process“, and the possibility of a large number of forestry experts to find employment in the forestry practice are guaranteed by the long history of the Faculty of Forestry, which investslarge financial means in the scientific-professional staff, premises and equipment. With regard to employment in forestry, as far back as 1999 the Croatian Forestry Association put on the agenda of the Days of Croatian Forestry, held in Ogulin (Bjelolasica), a topic entitled “Employment of forestry personnel and the development of entrepreneurship in forestry” (presented in Forestry Journal 7–8, pp 363–371). It would be opportune for decision makers to read this article again and to pay close attention to proposals for employment, and particularly to measures for the development of entrepreneurship in forestry, as one of the employment leverages. Wewill not even ask why valuable projects remain a dead letter on paper and who is responsible for this.
|IZVORNI ZNANSTVENI ČLANCI
|Jakovljević,T., M. Gradečki-Poštenjak, I. Radojčić Redovniković
| UDK 630* 232.3
(Pinus pinea L.) (001)
|Physiological, Chemical andAntioxidant Properties of Fresh and Stored Stone Pine Seed (Pinus pinea L.)
|Summary: The stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) is typically Mediterranean tree species found along the Mediterranean basin. In Croatia the stone pine is natively distributed on the island of Mljet, the locality Saplunara. The use of these seeds is extensive in the trade, the ecology, the landscape as well as in the nutrition. In the forestry it is used for the reforestation of degraded stands of the Mediterranean Karst region in Croatia. The umbrella shaped crown gives it very decorative form interesting in horticulture. The chemical composition is the reason for nutritive and health values. The seeds are rich in proteins, vitamins A, B, C, D and E, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc, unsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols. In this research qualitative properties of seed (germination capacity, 1000 seed weight, moisture content), the chemical composition and antioxidant properties of seed coat and the seed (amount of total sulphur, total nitrogen and crude protein, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc, iron, manganese and total polyphenols) were investigated.
Physiological, chemical and antioxidant properties were investigated on fresh seed (3 provenances) and stored seed (1 provenance). Fresh seed was collected in 2009 and stored seed was collected in 1995 on the area of Forest Enterprise Split. The germination capacity was higher than the standard value. The provenance Mljet had low germination energy and the highest percentage of empty seed. The reason for this was the age of trees. The percentage of fresh ungerminated seed has shown seed dormancy, and the average was 9%. It was the type of mechanical dormancy. The provenance Dubrovnik had the highest percentage of fresh ungerminated seed. The seed health of all investigated provenance was good (Table 2). The average of germination capacity of stored seed provenance Zadar in the period from 1995 to 2010 was 74% (Table 3). Significant amount of nitrogen and sulphur gives the embryo the power to growth. The total amount of nitrogen, sulphur, crude protein and phosphorus was higher in the seed than in the seed coat. The high amount of crude protein shows that the stone pine seed is good source of proteins (Table 4). Stone pine seeds are rich in minerals, the most abundant element was potassium than phosphorus and magnesium. The other element abundance was as follows: calcium, iron, manganese, zinc and copper. Provenance Mljet (natural stand) had the highest amount of all investigated elements except phosphorus because it was an old stand (Table 5). There is no significant difference of mineral composition in the seed and in the seed coat. The amount of total polyphenols and the antioxidant capacity were investigated in the seed and in the seed coat. From the obtained results of total polyphenols it could be seen that seed from different provenances had different amount of polyphenols. The concentrations of total polyphenols were two times higher in the seed coat that in the seed (Figure 3). Antioxidant capacity i.e. ORAC values were significantly higher in the seed coat than in the seed (Figure 4). The linear correlation with high coefficient of determination was found between total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity (Figure 5). Total polyphenols are responsible for antioxidant activity. Research results are in good agreement with the reported values in other Mediterranean countries.
The use of stone pine seed in Croatia is negligible therefore its production should be increased. Physical, physiological, nutritive and health properties of stone pine seed indicates that the foundation of multifunctional seed orchards would be necessary for seed production.
Key words: antioxidant capacity; chemical composition; Pinus pineaL.; polyphenols; seed coat; seed quality; stone pine seed
GRADEČKI, Marija ŠL
Radojčić Redovniković, Ivana
|Mihoci, I., M. Franjević
|UDK 630* 453
|Rare and Threatened Geometrid Moth Erannis ankeraria in Croatia: Historical Review, data Analysis & Perspectives
|Summary:A “winter moth” Erannis ankerariais one of the most threatened geometrid moths in Europe, listed on both Annex II and Annex IV of the EU Habitats Directive and assigned as strictly protected taxa in Croatia. There is a great lack regarding distribution, population trend parameters and conservation status of this moth in Croatia. According to historical data, an Angoran Umber occurred in Pula (Istria) and Kaštel Stari (Dalmatia), and current field research in potentially suitable habitats resulted without records. Therefore, future research should focus on an active involvement of lepidopterists and foresters in long-term monitoring of the species, where beside light trapping, more successful attracting methods as pheromone traps should be used. Obtained results could lead to management guidelines proposal on sites where the Angoran Umber occurs. Management guidelines or future species action plan should focus of maintaining structure and function of Angoran Umber habitat - light Pubescent Oak and Sessile Oak forests and forest edges, in order to fulfill ecological requirements and subsistence of the species.
Key words: monitoring; Natura2000; occurrence; winter moth
FRANJEVIĆ, Milivoj ŠL
|Kajba,D., J. Domac, V. Šegon
|UDK 630* 537 + 238
|Procjena potencijala brzorastućih nasada u Republici Hrvatskoj: Primjer razultata u sklopu FP7 projekta Biomass energy Europe
|Summary: The overall objective of the FP7 Biomass Energy Europe – BEE project is to improve the accuracy and comparability of future biomass resource assessments for energy by reducing heterogeneity, increasing harmonisation and exchanging knowledge. One of the main results within the project is the development of the Methods Handbook for biomass potential assessment, which contains detailed description of the proposed methodology based on type of biomass and type of analysis (statistical, spatially explicit, integrated and others).
The main objective of the Illustration case for Croatia performed within the BEE project is to estimate the energy and technical potential of fast-growing broadleaved species energy plantations on abandoned land or on land where agricultural production is not profitable. The methodology utilised is based on the BEE Methods Handbook. The main source of data used is contained within the Basic pedological map of the Republic Croatia, which forms the basis for the estimation of soil suitability for any kind of designated utilization.
The theoretical potential for short rotation energy crops production in Croatia was estimated as following:
• Forest area suitable for energy crops – a total of 51 200 ha was estimated to be suitable for SRC, producing in total 470 200 t DM/y or 8,7 PJ
• Agricultural areas with moderately suitable soils and limited soil suitability – a total of 617 000 ha was estimated to be suitable for SRC, producing a total of 7 404 000 t DM/y or 136,2 PJ
The technical potential for short rotation energy crops production in Croatia was estimated as following:
• Forest area suitable for energy crops – a total of 46 850 ha was estimated to be suitable for SRC, producing in total 430 000 t DM/y or 7,9 PJ
• Agricultural areas with moderately suitable soils and limited soil suitability – a total of 235 650 ha was estimated to be suitable for SRC, producing a total of 2 827 800 t DM/y or 52,1 PJ
In spite of the considerable potential for short rotation energy crops production, currently a very small amount of the available area is utilised in Croatia. The issues and problems to be addressed in order to increase this production include a change in policy approach, especially aimed at small landowners, introduction of incentives and subsidies, lack of knowledge and experience in growing energy crops and generally a lack of cooperation between relevant stakeholders.
Key words: Biomass Energy Europe; biomass potential assessment; short rotation crops
KAJBA, Davorin ŠL
|Kličić,H., S. Govorčin,T. Sinković, S. Gurda,T. Sedlar
|UDK 630* 812 (Pinus sylvestris L.)
|Macroscopic Characteristics and Density of Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) from Cazin, Bosnia and Herzegowina
|Summary: Plantation cultivation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestrisL.) in the world applies a longer period of time. The study of macroscopic properties and density of plantation grown Scots pine from the area of Cazin in Bosnia and Herzegovina was carried out in order to acquire knowledge about the macroscopic characteristics and density so grown pine. Plantation growth (Buckman, 1985) is primarily carried out for species of wood which, in short rotation, accomplish the greatest financial and general useful functions in a given area.
Under the provisions of ISO 3129 from year 1975, 76 test trees for studying were selected. From department 30 of unit Gata 40 test trees were taken, and from department 26 of unit Gata 36 test trees were taken. All relevant parameters were collected on selected test trees: geographical position, diameter at breast height, ground plan projection of tree top, tree orientation toward cardinal points, total tree height, height to first living branch and stump height (Kličić, 2006). Test trees were classified into three diameter classes: (1) 11 to 20 cm of diameter at breast height, (2) 21 to 30 cm of diameter at breast height and (3) 31 to 40 cm of diameter at breast height. From each test tree test sample of about 70 cm length was made, beginning at breast height. Following macroscopic properties were measured: ring width, latewood width and latewood percentage was calculated. Density was measured in oven dry condition and also basic density.
The range of ring width of studied Scots pine is large and ranges from 0.3 mm to 16.6 mm, with mean value for all three diameter classes of 3.6 mm. The range of ring width can be also seen through the variance of 4.28. Mean values of ring width for each diameter class mutually differ significantly. Distribution trend of ring width in radial direction is downward, with no major signs of achieving more constant values for all diameter classes.
Latewood percentage ranges from 1.7 % to 90 % with mean value of 38.6 % for all three diameter classes together. Distribution trend of latewood percentage in radial direction is growing. Density in oven dry condition ranges from 0.308g/cm3to 0.690 g/cm3, with mean value of 0.469 g/cm3for all three diameter classes.
Wood in trees of diameter at breast height from 11 to 20 cm has mean value of density in oven dry condition of 0.482 g/cm3, in trees of diameter at breast height from 21 to 30 cm mean value of density in oven dry condition is 0.481 g/cm3, and in trees of diameter at breast height from 31 to 40 cm is 0.453g/cm3. Mean value of density in oven dry condition for all three diameter classes is significantly different. Distribution trend of density in oven dry condition is growing for all three diameter classes, without any indication of achieving more constant values.
Basic density ranges from 0.283 g/cm3to 0.644 g/cm3, with mean value of 0.419g/cm3 for all three diameter classes together. Mean values of basic density for all three diameter classes mutually differ significantly.
Key words: density; macroscopic characteristics; plantation growth; Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)
GOVORČIN, Slavko ŠL
SINKOVIĆ, Tomislav ŠL
|Barčić, D., N. Panić
|UDK 630* 907
|Ecological Valorisation of the ProtectedArea of “Kopački Rit” Nature Park
|Summary: With its specific features, high diversity, and a multitude of exceptional ecological systems, the nature park of Kopački Rit is one of the most important areas in the east of Croatia. According to the National Habitat Classification and Map of the Republic of Croatia, there are 25 habitat types in the area of the nature park. Five of these are endangered at the European level and protected by the Habitats Directive. Kopački Rit Nature Park has been included on the Ramsar list as valuable natural heritage within the international framework. The floodplain area of Kopački Rit is essential due to the coherence and diversity of terrestrial and aquatic ecological systems. The paper addresses the need for ecological and spatial valorisation of the protected area as an instrument for discriminating between primary and secondary protection. Kopački Rit is a floodplain area resulting from the activity of two large rivers: the Danube and the Drava. Spatial analysis of Kopački Rit Nature Park was made on the basis of the existing spatial plan (2006) of the area. Comparative methods, as well as the analysis and synthesis method were used for the process. A qualitative analytical method with element gradation within four analysis fields was used – strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT analysis). A structural area analysis (Figure 1) was made according to Lynch (1972). The effect of the activities on biological and landscape diversity was analyzed in the results. The analysis included the effects of forestry, water management, agriculture, game management, traffic, and war events (Table 1 and 2). Based on the management plan, zonation was performed by defining the main zones and determining the sub-zones (Figure 2). The zones were described and the zonation criteria and management goals were provided. In doing so, the difference between the zones of strict protection and active protection was accentuated. The goal of management is to ensure a sustainable use of floodplain valleys and allow visits, recreational fishing, hunting, forestry and agriculture. In order to improve habitat quality, use of the area should be limited by management measures. Ecological and spatial analyses of the protected nature park area were used to determine the difference between individual units within Kopački Rit. Special zones of the basic phenomenon were highlighted, which coincides with the zoning concept within the nature park. In this sense, primary and secondary protection was discriminated.
Key words: diversity; habitat; nature protection; sustainable development; zoning
BARČIĆ, Damir ŠL
|UDK 630* 232 (Juglans nigra L.)
|Establishing Cultures of Black Walnut (Juglans nigra L.) by Generative Propagation
|Summary: Black walnut (Juglans nigraL.) belongs to the genus Juglans, the hickory family (Juglandaceae A. Rich. EX Kunth 1824), which is a representative of the Juglandales order. It is a species that is native to eastern North America that was brought to Europe in 1629. In 1899 the foresters of the great land owner Count Eltz introduced the seed of black walnut to the area of Eastern Slavonia and Syrmia, because of the deterioration of pedunculate oak (Quercus roburL.) and because of the price that the wood of black walnut reaches on the market. Till 1925 the forest management technique applied was the forest-field technique. Already in 1925 black walnut cultures covered around 860 ha. The Counts Eltz from Vukovar planted the seed of black walnut until the Second World War, when they left their land possessions. The cultivation of black walnut cultures continued after the war and intensified in the seventies, when the seed was planted in agricultural areas that were gained by reparcelling and consolidation of holdings. 500 kg of seed per ha is planted in rows with the spacing of 4 and 6 meters. Between the rows agricultural cultures are sown, and after three to four years black locust (Robinia pseudoacaciaL.) is planted. At the end of the twentieth century the growing of black walnut cultures continued and it goes on today. 500 kg of black walnut seed is planted per ha in the same year after the felling of the old-growth forest. The spacing between furrows drawn by disc-plough is four meters, and the seed is planted with a spacing of 25 cm within the row.A kilogram of seed contains around twenty grains on the average, which makes 10.000 grains per hectare. In the next year up to 65% of the grains sprout, and in the second year there are up to 55% or around 5.000 saplings of black walnut on the planted surface. This can guarantee that in the 80th year by efficient management we shall gain 100 to 120 quality trees of black walnut. Since the planting is done immediately after the felling, after a year or two between the rows there is a sufficient number of some of the indigenous or allochthonous tree species, so there is no need for subsequent planting so as to gain a mixed stand. The forestry office of Vukovar currently manages around 1.300 ha of black walnut cultures and the gross growing stock amounts to ca. 200.000 m3. The cultures of black walnut with a rotation period of 80 years reach an average breast height diameter of ca. 42 cm and an average height of ca. 33 m.
Key words: Black Walnut; Eastern Slavonia; North America; planting; tending
MAYER, Željko ŠL