|SOMETHINGABOUT THE CLASSICAL COMMERCIAL VALUE OF FORESTS
|When we talk about the value of forests, we always stress that, in addition to classical commercial values, forests also have non-market values. In principle, non-market forest values are up to fifty times higher than classical commercial forest values, depending on the ecological (hydrological, water protective, anti-erosion, climatic and antiemission), social (aesthetic, health, recreational, tourist) and ecophysiological (genetic, biodiversity, physiological) function of forests. Non-market forest roles are evaluated on the basis of estimates; yet, the majority of the users of these forest roles are reluctant to accept and pay for this value, although it is, in the words of some authors, as priceless as a mother’s love for her child. The classical commercial value can be determined in a much more exact manner, since evaluations are based on measurable parameters: quantity, quality, use of timber depending on the species, manner and degree of finalization, market demand, and finally, market prices of forest timber products to highly finalized products of the wood processing industry.
The management plan prescribes management tasks and goals, while the necessary amount and quality of silvicultural treatments govern the quantity (increment) and quality of forest timber products. The aim is, naturally, to produce as many and as high quality products that a given forest tree species can offer, and place on the market not only some forest wood products but all of them, with the final objective of achieving the highest possible market price. It would stand to reason, with regard to the proximity of the product unburdened with high transport costs, that the buyer should be, conditionally said, a home wood processing company, which would finalize and adequately use a good quality forest product in line with the set management goal. This would create additional value and ensure job opportunities. A buyer who pays a realistic price for a forest wood product will not make parquet out of a veneer log, because it will simply not be profitable.
Almost 80% of forests in Croatia are state-owned; therefore, those who engage in such unprofitable businesses, or allow and even stimulate others to participate in wasting national wealth and devalue the work of several generations of forestry experts, should be sternly cautioned. Wood processing companies, on the other hand, by manufacturing and exporting semifinal products, open the door for others to create additional value. There are currently very few serious final product producers; the number of semi-product manufacturers is slightly higher. On the other hand, there are “innumerable” sawmill operators. Are we at all aware of the basic facts: who are the producers, what kind of products are produced from our high-quality raw material, how many jobs are opened and how many are “frittered away”, does the work force receive legal pay or are they paid underhand, is profit invested in personnel, equipment and new technologies in order for the producer to become competitive, or does the producer, lured by extortionate interest invest in, for example, apartments? Now that the housing market is declining, they pay for raw timber with apartments. Incidentally, most of them find raw timber too expensive, although it participates in overall production costs with less than 20%. The price is not even market price, because it is not dictated by the market but by, conditionally said, the state (so much for market-oriented economy!). Payment dates are another story altogether: 60 to 90 days on average, which implies that the coefficient of claims due is only four, which should seriously worry not only every manufactur, but particularly the state. It is wood processing companies that rely on the certified status of Croatian forests in the sale of their products, but they are not concerned at all that this status is the result of investment in silviculture and forest protection. In addition to the issues relating to cost rationalization and reorganization in forestry, there is the question of final products: why is no effort put into finding a more profitable method of harvesting unused wood biomass from forests instead of selling chips (which should be the job of local financial services)?. Finally, why do we not produce and sell the final product – energy, instead of biomass (like Austria, the example). What about wood products from private forests? Who addresses this issue, since the Law on Forests and all other laws apply to all forest owners?
As we can see, there are many questions on both sides, and if we could find objective answers to them, we would find a solution that would be beneficial for all. The main question here is: can we do it, and even more importantly, do we want to do it?
|IZVORNI ZNANSTVENI ČLANCI
|Ugarković, D., I. Tikvić, Z. Seletković, M. Oršanić, I. Seletković, M. Blažinkov, M. Mrkonjić Fuka, S. Redžepović
| UDK 630* 114.2 + 231
(Abies alba Mill.) (001)
|Microbiological Characteristics of the Soils and Natural Regeneration of Forest Gaps within Damaged Forest Ecosystems of the Silver Fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Gorski Kotar
|Summary: Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) is the most damaged forest tree species in Republic of Croatia. As a result of changes in natural biotope factors tree degradation and sudden decline is manifested. Intensive tree decline leads to canopy degradation and creating smaller or larger forest gaps. These advents cause changes in microclimatic and microbiological conditions, and regeneration problems. Researchers are carried out in Gorski kotar, in beech-fir and fir forest areal. The main aim of this research was to determine changes in chemical and microbiological composition of forest gap soil, and natural regeneration within gaps. Chemical and microbiological analyses of forest soil were done. Soil microbiological analyses included determination of total fungi and bacteria count, and presence of microorganism functional groups. According to chemical parameters higher values were found in control plots (canopy) than in large forest gaps. Exception was small forest gap where values of chemical variables were higher than in corresponding control plot (table 2).
In large beech-fir forest gap was found smaller number of asymbiotic nitrogen fixators and cellulose decomposition fungi than in control plot (table 3).
Small forest gap in beech-fir forest had higher value of individual soil functional microorganism groups than corresponding control plot, except cellulose decomposition fungi. The highest soil biogenity was found in small forest gap (table 4).
In large fir with hard fern forest gap regarding control plot was found significantly smaller total fungi count and amount of cellulose decomposition fungi (table 5).
Comparing gaps between themselves total fungi count in O1 and O2 beech-fir forest gaps was significantly higher than in O3 fir with hard fern gap. Amount of asymbiotic nitrogen fixators and ammonia forming bacteria was significantly the highest in small gap O2, then in large gap O1 in beech-fir forest, and the lowest in O3 fir with hard fern forest gap (table 6).
Amount of asymbiotic nitrogen fixators, cellulose decomposition fungi and ammonia forming bacteria was significantly higher in beech-fir forest than in fir with hard fern forest (table 7).
The highest number of seedlings was found in gap O1, while other two gaps have had equal plant number. Regarding control plots gap O1 had two times more plants than control. In gap O2 was found two times lower plants number regarding control, while gap O3 had equal plants number as control. Considering plants age in all gaps and control plots was found the highest number of biennial plants (table 8).
Considering percentage of tree species younger than three years, in gaps was found the highest proportion of silver fir, then mountain maple, and the lowest common beech (table 9).
Considering the number of older trees good regeneration with deciduous tree species was found within gaps namely with mountain maple and common beech (tables 10, 11 and 12).
Considering amount of different functional microorganism groups small forest gap O2 has medium, while large gaps have lower soil biogenity. Comparing large gaps in different forest associations, large gap O1 in beech-fir forest regarding large gap O3 in fir with hard fern forest has significantly higher total fungi count, amount of asymbiotic nitrogen fixatros and ammonia forming bacteria. In this research was found different amount of soil individual microorganism groups comparing beech-fir forest and fir with hard fern forest. As in larger forest gaps were found certain changes in soil microbiological characteristics regarding small gap it can be concluded that large gaps represent specific microbiotops. Namely in forest gaps are found young silver fir plants, while there is lack of older ones. According to height in gaps there are no silver fir plants higher than 50 cm. As large forest gaps are enlarging and not getting smaller, also are good regenerated with common beech and mountain maple plants, were are believe that forest gaps are biotops with exchanging tree species.
Soil chemical characteristics in small beech-fir forest gap had higher values, and large gap lower values than control plots. Soil chemical characteristics in large fir with hard fern gap had smaller values than in control plots, except soil pH value. In all gaps was found significantly lower amount of cellulose decomposition fungi than in control canopies. In large forest gaps was found low, and in small forest gap medium soil biogenity. Microbiological characteristics of soils in beech-fir forests have higher values than in fir with hard fern forest gaps.
Proportion of deciduous tree species (mountain maple and common beech) younger than three years was higher in large beech-fir forest gap, while in small gap was same. In large fir with hard fern forest gap dominate silver fir plants younger than three years.
According to number of plants younger than three years in forest gaps and control plots are dominating mountain maple and common beech plants, while proportion of silver fir plants was small.
Key words: forest gaps; microbiological characteristics of the soils; microorganism functional groups in the soil; natural regeneration; Silver fir; tree decline
UGARKOVIĆ, Damir ŠL
TIKVIĆ, Ivica ŠL
SELETKOVIĆ, Zvonko ŠL
ORŠANIĆ, Milan ŠL
SELETKOVIĆ, Ivan ŠL
Mrkonjić Fuka, Mirna
|Kutnar, L., A. Kobler
|UDK 630* 188 + 111.8 (001)
|Prediction of Forest Vegetation Shift due to Different Climate-Change Scenarios in Slovenia
|Abstract: By using an empirical GIS model, the potential spatial changes of forest vegetation driven by expected climate change have been analysed. Based on the three different scenarios predicting climate warming in Slovenia (the mean, pessimistic and optimistic scenarios), the simulation showed that the share of vegetation types will be altered under the impacts of climate change, and the shift of vegetation belts upwards might be expected.
By the year 2100, the share of mesic beech forests is likely to decrease. From ecological, – nature-conservation – and forest-management points of view, the predicted decrease of the share of Dinaric fir-beech forests is especially important. The model predicts an increase of the share of thermophilous forests from the present 14% to a range between 50% (according to the optimistic scenario) and 87% (according to the pessimistic scenario). A significant part of the coniferous forest with Picea abiesand Abies alba predominating might be converted to deciduous forests.
Key words: climate change; climate scenarios; forest vegetation; model; simulation
|Buzjak, N., S. Buzjak, D. Orešić
|UDK 630* 111 +120 : 164 (001)
|Floristic, Microclimatic and Geomorphological Features of Collapsed Doline Japage on the Žumberak (Croatia)
|Summary: Collapsed doline Japage is located in the western part of Žumberak Mt. (Fig. 1), formed in tectonically crushed Upper Cretaceous carbonate layers (limestone and breccia). Apart from karstification, which is evident in two speleological features, its development is today mostly affected by the slope processes (collapsing, landsliding and soil creeping). The length of the peripheral axis of the collapsed doline Japage is 64 m in the N-S direction, and 63 m in the E-W direction. In terms of dimensions, it is the largest such phenomenon on the territory of Žumberak. The depth between the lowest point of the periphery and the bottom is 15 m. The highest altitude difference is 37.7 m. The doline’s volume is 54.000 m3. The measurement of microclimatic parameters in Japage (carried out from 2007 to 2009) proved temperature inversion during the warm part of the year (Fig. 2). The relative air humidity is higher at the bottom, and lower towards the margins of the doline’s rim (Tab. 1). During the vegetation period in 2007 and 2008, the flora of Japage doline was also researched. Plants growing at various depths and expositions were registered, and a part of them was recorded in the profiles N-S and E-W (Fig. 5). The listed plants underwent the analysis of ecological indicator values and life forms. Altogether 59 plant taxa were registered (Tab. 2). Seventeen of them, i.e. 29% of the total number of the recorded taxa is protected by the Nature Protection Act, and three are listed in the Red Book of Vascular Flora of Croatia as near threatened (NT). The life form analysis showed the predominance of hemicryptophytes and geophytes, corresponding to the moderate climate zone Japage belongs to. Ferns were the predominant species, particularly in the lower part of the doline and at its bottom, which has less sunlight and higher air humidity and soil moisture compared to the doline’s upper marginal parts (Fig. 6). Based on the analysis of ecological indicator values of the doline’s floristic composition (Fig. 7), we came to the conclusion that the soil in Japage is moderately moist, mostly low acidic to alkaline. It is a shadowy habitat predominated by widespread plants that can grow in colline, mountainous and sub-alpine areas.
Key words: ecological indicatory values; flora; geomorphology; Japage; microclimate; Žumberak
|Sedlar, Z., V. Hršak, R. Šoštarić
|UDK 630* 187 (001)
|Numerical and PhytosociologicalAnalysis of the Junipero sibiricae -Pinetum dalmaticae Domac (1956) 1965 Association and Comparison to Mediterranean Forests Dominated by Pinus nigra Arn. s.l.
|Summary: This study analyses the ecological and syntaxonomical characteristics of theJunipero sibiricae -Pinetum dalmaticaeDomac(1956) 1965 association. This association is present only on higher altitudes of Biokovo Mountain situated on the eastern Adriatic coast. With its highest peak at an altitude of 1,762m, Biokovo is one of the hotspots of plant endemism in Croatia. It is highly influenced by the Mediterranean climate which is expressed up to the higher parts of the mountain, although, due to its height, it has weakened montane and alpine conditions on the peaks. According to the present syntaxonomical solution, the researched association belongs to the submediterranean alliance Ostryo-Carpinion orientalis in the Quercetalia pubescentisorder in the Querco-Fageteaclass. Numerical and syntaxonomical analyses suggest thatJunipero sibiricae -Pinetum dalmaticaeon Biokovo differs from all other Dalmatian pine vegetation types. Cluster analysis, Indicator species analysis together with Nonmetric multidimensional scaling used to compare it to forests dominated by Pinus nigras.l. from other Mediterranean areas (Greece, Iberian peninsula, Corsica and Sicily) suggested it should be classified in thePino-Junipereteaclass, theJuniperetalia haemisphaericaeorder, and the eastern Mediterranean Berberidocraeticae-Juniperion foetidissimae alliance. The resemblance of Junipero sibiricae -Pinetum dalmaticaewith eastern Mediterranean associations and its inclusion into mentioned syntaxa is confirmed phytosociologically and ecologically.
Key words: Biokovo Mountain; multivariate analysis; Pinus nigra subsp. dalmatica; syntaxonomy
|UDK 630* 272
|Garden of the Benedictine Monastery of St Mary on Mljet
|Summary: Desa, the Duke of Duklja, donated the island of Mljet, in 1151. to be exclusive property of Benedictines from Monte Casino, Pulia. Benedictines have built, in end part of 12thcentury, the Romanesque monastery and church of St. Mary on the islet of St. Mary. The monastery was redecorated and some new Renaissance parts were built in 15thand 16thcentury. The complex looked like a Renaissance villa and had a Renaissance garden. A tower and the wall around the monastery and the garden was built in 17thcentury.
This paper present possible renovation and decoration of Renaissance garden inside the monastery complex. Historical literature clearly shows us that ground plan of the garden has been shaped as two quadrates, bounded with grape wine and planted with fruit trees. The gravestone found in the garden is a memorial to the builders of the monastery, because they had legal right to be buried in the building. It is a known fact that at the end of 14thcentury, the monastery was used as a quarantine, the first one in Croatia. From this fact, we also know that friars were some kind of pharmacists.
The entire islet of St. Mary was olive grove in the past, as evidence we still have about hundred olive trees. During the time, it became a nice promenade for visitors, with maintaining olive grove and paths we get a nice place for long walks for both visitors and native population.
NODILO, KOLAREVIĆ, Marija ŠL
|Puača, B., Ž. Najvirt, A. Miličević
|UDK 630* 188 + 114
|Some Pedological-floristic and Economic Features of Forest Stands in Locality Otmanov Vis
|Summary: Forest stands on the Otmanov vis, area of 24,76 ha, with specific geological-lithological, pedological, floristic and economic characteristics are significantly different from its neighbouring, economic stands. Such habitats provide ecological conditions for the oncoming of a large number of rare and protected species. Intention of the authors was to draw attention to special sites with a desire to conduct detailed phytocoenological research. Further reseach is needed to accurately define the plant communities. In this phase of the study list of flora is incomplete and provisory, and can not completely define the plant communities.
Due to extraordinary biological diversity, habitat should be noted as permanently preserved. Forest stands in subdivisions 123c, 124d and 128f should be exempted from the regular management and determine the necessary protection category (a botanical forest vegetation reserve).
Key words: Eutric Rankers; Italian oak; Pubescens oak; Trachyandesite; village Gradište
PUAČA, Berislav ŠL
NAJVIRT, Željko ŠL
MILIČEVIĆ, Ante ŠL