|RIJEČ GLAVNOGA UREDNIKA
|DO WE USE BIOMASS AS AN ENERGY SOURCE? IF SO, HOW DO WE USE IT?
|In July and August of this year, the Croatian foresters and wood technologists had the opportunity to visit two very important trade fairs: “Holzmesse”, a forestry – wood technology fair in Klagenfurt, and “Interforst”, an international forestry fair in Munich (Messe Munich). Those who attended these events claim that both were dedicated to the procurement and use of forest biomass and woody debris from the wood processing industry for the production of thermal and electrical energy. Within the Fifth Croatian Biomass Days, there will be a Croatian-Austrian economic symposium in Našice on September 3, 2010, focusing on the topic “Biomass (electric and thermal energy), biogas and biofuels”. The papers presented at the symposium will be grouped into the following topics: Biofuels in Croatia, The Austrian Experience, Models of Project Financing and Enhancement in the Republic of Croatia. There will also be specialist lectures related to cogeneration plants and to new knowledge of biofuels in terms of legal regulations, markets and future strategies in Germany.
An insight into what the Croatian Forestry Association (CFA), the company Hrvatske Šume, the Government of the Republic of Croatia and the competent Ministry have undertaken in connection with the very topical issue of bioenergy can be obtained from the reports of the Fourth Croatian Biomass Days and of previous such events, (which we regularly publish in the Forestry Journal), as well as from the reports on bioenergy-related activities of the Croatian Forestry Association (CFA). These issues are regularly discussed at Management Board meetings, at annual conferences or within the CFA’s section established in 2005 under the name The Croatian Biomass Association (a member of the European Biomass Association). A framework has been provided for bioenergy use, stimuli have been put forth, the inclusion (sale) of biomass-based electrical energy into the electro-energy system has been legally regulated, pellet plants have been launched, cogeneration system projects have been drawn up and many other activities have been initiated. However, what we want to know is this: what role does forestry play here? Where is biomass as an available energy resource, whose structure and quantity have been discussed at a scientific symposium “Agriculture and Forestry as Producers of Renewable Energy Sources” organized by the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, or at a symposium entitled “Biological-Ecological Energy Characteristics of Amorpha in Croatia” organized by the Croatian Forestry Institute, Faculty of Forestry, the company Hrvatske Šume and the Croatian Chamber of Forestry and Wood Technology Engineers? Biomass from the realistically possible allowable cut, which has so far remained in the forest, and more vigorous silvicultural activities of stand cleaning, thinning and regeneration, which are becoming profitable in the form of new products and which are achieving a good market price, would provide biomass potentials of up to 4.5 million tons annually, an equivalent of 2.2 million tons of oil (which we import). From the specialist, forestry aspect, it goes without saying that these profitable activities, which are often lacking due to a lack of financial means, would substantially increase the quality of the forest, enhance the value of its non-commercial functions and ensure sustainability. Exceptfor the two plants in Gospić and Ogulin owned by the company Hrvatske Šume, which produce thermal energy for their own needs and for a smaller circle of other consumers, the majority of wood chips are soldmainly to foreign buyers via Hrvatske Šume’s daughter company “Biomasa”. Wood chips are mostly produced from fuelwood, an assortment which has already found its place on the market, instead from so-called “waste”, which continues to remain in the forest, not to mention biomass obtained from increased silvicultural activities. For example, the Austrian state forests have in their ownership 30 cogeneration system and they sell KWh as a finished product instead of as raw material. The wood industry of Gorski Kotar has been among the first to recognize the need for building pellet plants (Mrkopalj, Gerovo, Delnice); however, they, just as those in Spačva, Perušić and elsewhere, generally export their product. It is our opinion that the energy sector development strategy of the Republic of Croatia up to 2020 sets down too many restrictions to biomass use. We import fossil fuels, but we either produce too little or export these resources which could otherwise satisfy a large share of our own needs or fulfil our international commitments. Namely, Croatia is a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol and the Gradac Declaration recommendations, which unequivocally commit us to reducing greenhouse gasses. Finally, to answer the question from the headline: no, we have not yet made use of our possibilities. And yes, just like in everything else, we are making very sluggish progress in biomass use.
Professor Emeritus Branimir Prpić, Ph.D.
PRPIĆ, Branimir ŠL
|IZVORNI ZNANSTVENI ČLANCI
|Degmečić, D., T. Florijančić, K. Krapinec, D. Domić
|UDK 630* 156 (001)
|Roe Deer Antlers as a Guideline for Managing the Local Population
|Summary: The aim of this paper is to show the example of Baranja that development of roe-buck antlers depends on smaller areas within the wider area of management and that due to various factors, primarily habitat goodness, the manager can not expect equal development of the antlers across the Baranja. Research area is divided into three areas and 19 localities. Hunting records from the roe-buck hunting tourism (1964 to 1991) were used for research. The elements used for the survey were: antler weight in grams, CIC value, the length of the branch in centimeters and the assessment of antler beauty. Age was estimated based on the eight elements of the skull. Baranjsko podravlje (xmean= 280 g and 85 CIC points) is shown as an area with the greatest number of localities where the values of observed antler parameters were significantly higher than the area of the Baranjsko podunavlje (xmean= 240 g and 77 CIC points) and forests of central Baranja (xmean= 254 g and 77 CIC points). Roe deer management is necessary to adjust with the results achieved by roe-buck trophies. Baranjsko Podravlje is an area where it is cost-effective to wait to roe-bucks to grow old because habitat factors allow roe-bucks to reach the capital value of trophies as it is the case with localities Medrović (xmean= 304 g and 91 CIC point), Židopustara (xmean= 292 g and 88 points CIC), Prud(xmean= 292 g and 85 CIC points), while the localities of Baranjsko podunavlje is not profitable to wait because in 95 % of the roebuck will never grow a capital trophy. These are primarily sites of Bat-Siget (xmean= 219 g and 71 CIC point), Siget (xmean= 234 g and 76 points CIC), Dvorac (xmean= 221 g and 72 CIC points) and others. It was not confirmd that value of the roe-buck trophy is connected with age (antler mass tizr= 0,153, p<0,05 / CIC value tizr= 0,111, p<0,05).
Key words: antler; Baranja; hunting area; management; roedeer
DEGMEČIĆ, Dražen ŠL
KRAPINEC, Krešimir ŠL
DOMIĆ, Dražen ŠL
|Barčić, D., V. Ivančić
|UDK 630* 116 + 425 (001)
|Impact of the Prudinec/Jakuševec Landfill on Environment Pollution
|Summary: Unmanaged landfills are the basic problem of environment protection on Croatia. Municipal waste and landfills such as Jakuševac incur exceptionally high costs for many towns. Their impact on the environment is highly unfavourable since they pollute water, soil and air and represent a constant threat to human health. The solution to the problem begins with remediation of unmanaged landfills. To launch a remediation programme it is necessary to adopt a new attitude to waste management. The establishment of an integral waste management system is a constituent part of all legal measures and regulations. Such a system ensures the reduction of waste and increased recycling, which provides material and energetic benefits. In today’s circumstances, the implementation of the system at the level of the City of Zagreb and Croatia as a whole results in multiple benefits from both the ecological and economic aspect. The paper gives a survey of the Jakuševac landfill, a complex diffuse source of contamination which causes problems in the sense of possible harmful effect on all environmental elements. Consequently, its remediation was highly expedient. The main reasons for landfill remediation were the protection of groundwater and air. The Jakuševac-Prudinec landfill used to be a disposal site for municipal, non-hazardous and industrial waste of the City of Zagreb and its surroundings. Uncontrolled disposal of waste in the area of the current landfill began in 1965. In 1995, the size of the landfill reached 80 ha. In this period, 4.5 million m3 of waste was disposed inadequately. By the year 2000, the volume of the disposed waste had reached 8 million m3. The transformation of the unmanaged waste disposal site into a managed sanitary landfill was completed at the end of 2003. In the period from 1965 to the beginning of the 1990s, almost one million m3 of soil (soil material) in the Jakuševac-Prudinec landfill was contaminated, and the quality of drinking groundwater was seriously threatened. This research discusses the impact of the landfill on groundwater and the gradual spread of pollution eastwards, as confirmed by the shifting of the boundary pollution line from Jakuševac towards Mičevac, especially during changeable hydrodynamic conditions in the aquifer layer. The paper presents the results of research into the cause and effect relationship between the Jakuševac landfill and groundwater pollution (see Figures 1–5). The composition of organic pollutants in the Jakuševac landfill indicates that this was a disposal site not only for municipal waste but also for waste of industrial origin which contains numerous anthropogenic compounds that might have an adverse effect on groundwater quality. Permanent monitoring of dominant anthropogenic compounds in the disposed waste and leachate is necessary.
Key words: City of Zagreb; landfill gas; leachate; waste management system
BARČIĆ, Damir ŠL
|Jakovljević, T., G. Pánczél, M. Manninger, N. Potočić, I. Seletković, T. Dubravac, M. Gradečki-Poštenjak
|UDK 630* 160 (001)
|Beech Leaves (Fagus Sylvatica L.), Reference Sample of ICPForests and itsApplicability in Determination of Total Nitrogen and Carbon in Leaves
|Summary: Within the framework of International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests), research and chemical analyses of plant material has been carried out in Croatia on seven intensive monitoring plots with typical forest communities. In order to monitor the reliability of methods of laboratory analyses, as well as to ensure operational quality of analytical methods that can be applied in leaves and needles analysis, each year Inter-laboratory testing on samples prepared in laboratories of countries taking part in ICP Forest is organised.Croatian forest research institute, prepared leaves of common beech as reference sample for this programme that is now used also as the laboratory reference material.
In this work, the interlaboratory measurements and repeatabilty and reproducibility were tested between results of determination total nitrogen and carbon in the reference sample of common beech leaveves on elemental analyser CNS 2000 (Method A) in the laboratory of Croatina forset reserach institute and on the elemental analyser EA 300 (Method B) in the labratory of Hungarian forest institute involved ICP Forests programme.Statistical analysis included comparative description of results for determination of total nitrogen and carbon, descriptive statistics for 2 methods, Boxplot analysis, F test, T test, Regression analyses and Control charts for method B. The comparation of the results showed big oscilations of the results of Method B for nitrogen and some of them were out of specification limits. For carbon, the values were higer then in Method A (Figure 2). Furthermore, F values were over critical but variance of Method A was smaller than of Method B.Therefore, metod A was more accura-ted.For carbon, F was over critical values.Variance of method A was more significant than of method B with probability of 95 % (Table 5). Coefficient of corelation, r in regression analysis for methods (Table 6) gave positive correla-tion.With t-test (Table 7) was proved that results of these methods for determination of total nitrogen and carbon with probability of 95 % were significanty different. Control chart for nitrogen showed difference in repetability, also more than 30 % of results were out of specification limits. Repetability of reuslts forcarbon was good (Figure 4). Chemical analysis of leaves are reduced for choise of instruments and methods for determination of elements because of specificity of samples from forest. Therefore this kind of testing confirmed better applicability of element analyser such as CNS 2000 than EA 300 for determination of total nitrogen and carbon.
Key words: CNS 2000; common beech leaves; EA 300; elemental analyser; ICP Forests; interlaboratory testing; reference sample; total nitrogen and carbon
POTOČIĆ, Nenad ŠL
SELETKOVIĆ, Ivan ŠL
DUBRAVAC, Tomislav ŠL
GRADEČKI, Marija ŠL
|Ballian, D., M. Memišević, F. Bogunić, N. Bašić, M. Marković, D. Kajba
| UDK 630* 164
(Quercus robur L.) (001)
|Morphological Variability of Pedunculate Oak (Quercus robur L.) in the Region of Croatia and Western Balkans
|Summary: The paper presents a research study into the intrapopulation and interpopulation variability of morphological traits of pedunculate oak leaf in Western Balkan countries (Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro). A total of 65 populations and 650 trees were analyzed. Morphometric analysis included 14 morphological traits in all. Descriptive analysis, analysis of variance, discrimination analysis and multiple tests were used for statistical processing. Significant differences were found both in interpopulation and individual intrapopulation variability. Intrapopulation variability were statistically more significant than interpopulation variability. The highest variability was exhibited by the length of leaf petiole, the incision of leaf to the central nerve, and the incision of leaf blade. Variance analysis, discrimination analysis and multiple testing for the investigated traits, which were grouped according to the country of origin, indicate the existence of statistically significant differences among the studied populations. Consequently, the studied material from each country represents a separate group. Accordingly, forest reproductive material should exclusively consist of autochthonous material. No leaf hairiness was registered in the studied leaf material, which points to the absence of hybridization with pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens). This research may be viewed as a starting point for the selection of seed stands, improvement and preservation of genetic diversity of pedunculate oak, as well as for discriminating individual species, hybrid swarms and lower pedunculate oak taxa.
Key words: intra- and interpopulation variability; morphometric leaf analysis; Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.)
KAJBA, Davorin ŠL
|Mešić, A., T. Gotlin Čuljak, T.Miličević
|UDK 630* 145.7 + 153 + 453 (001)
|Population Dynamycs of Invasive Species Cameraria ohridella Deschka et Dimić (Lepidoptera: Gracilariidae) in Central Croatia
|Summary: The paper deals with the biology of horse chestnut lefminer in central Croatia in three different towns within a circle of 150 km – Sisak, Zagreb and Čakovec. The data were collected by using pheromone traps and visual examinations of horse chestnut leves during the period of 2001–2008. Opposite to earlier assumptions, the horse chestnut leaf miner moth develops four and more seldom three generations annually in central Croatia. This is clearly presented in graphs 1–3, that show the horse chestnut male moth’s flight dynamics. The first generation moth’s flight starts in the last decade of April and lasts until the end of May; the second generation’s moths fly during June and the first two decades of July. Third generation of moths appear from the end of July until the end of August, and fourth generation from the middle to the end of September. During the eight years research, the fourth generation wasn’t recorded only in one year in two of three towns. Average duration of each developing period of horse chestnut leaf miner in Zagreb is presented in table 2. The second generation of horse chesnut monts is more numerous thent the first and the third one, while the fourth generation is even smaller. It was observed that the first generation’s females lay their eggs mainly on the upper sides of leaves of the lower third of the horse chestnut tree crown. Females of the second, third and fourth generation laid eggs on higher parts of the crowns, although their eggs can also be found on lower levels of the foliage.
Key words: duration of development stages; flight dynamics; horse chestnut
Gotlin Čuljak, Tanja
|Vasić, V., Z. Galić, M. Drekić
|UDK 630* 232.3 + 441 (001)
|Efficiency and Selectivity of some Herbicides in Nursery Production of Poplar Seedlings
|Summary: During 2005 and 2006. year on a good sample of the Institute for Lowland Forestry and Environment investigated the efficiency and selectivity of herbicide combinations acetoklor + flurokloridon, acetoklor + metribuzin and acetoklor + prometrin in production of poplar seedlings. Tests are set at two systematic unit of soils, with different physico-chemical properties. Investigated soils have different the reaction of soils, the content of CaCO3, P2O5and organic matter (Table 2).
The different physical and chemical characteristics of soils influenced the composition of different weed vegetation (Table 3), and the conduct and operation of the tested herbicides. At both study sites were the dominant broadleaf species while grass were represented to a lesser extent.
All investigated combinations of herbicides reduced the number of weeds in the investigated sites. Best efficiency in weed control on both studied surfaces is achieved by applying combinations of herbicide acetoklor + prometrin. Flurokloridon herbicide on both studied surfaces caused a transient damages on poplars seedling. Herbicide metribuzin is fitotoxic function manifested on the soil with a greater involvement of the total sand and its application to land lighter texture not recommended.
Key words: herbicides; nursery; poplar; weeds
|UDK 630* 442 (001)
|Parasitoids and Hyperparasitoids of Erannis Defoliaria CL. (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) in Oak Forests
|Abstract: The research on biology and ecology of Mottled Umber Moth–Erannis defoliaria Cl. (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) was carried out in the period 1985–2009 in oak forests in Serbia. Mottled Umber Moth was mainly in the latency during the investigation. Only at the locality Miroč in East Serbia and in Forest unit Zlatica (National Park Djerdap), it was dominant in the complex of early defoliators. Natural enemies ofE. defoliariaand especially parasitoids and hyperparasitoids are important mortality factors.
Egg parasitoidTrichogrammasp. (Hym., Trichogrammatidae) was recorded at few localities in the vicinity of Belgrade and in the wide area of National Park Djerdap. They are nonspecific parasitoids. Somewhat more specific Telenomus minutus(Hym., Scelionidae) was recorded from East Serbia – locality Miroč. Larval parasitoids are Protapanteles immunis, Cotesia limbata, C. jucunda( Hym., Braconidae); Casinaria ischnogaster, Casinaria moesta, Phobocampe crassiuscula, Phobocampe pulchella, Phobocampe sp. (Hym., Ichneumonidae), Euplectrus bicolor, Eulophus larvarum (Hym., Eulophidae), Blondelia nigripes,Phryxe magnicornis,P. nemea,Peribaea fissiconis(Diptera, Tachinidae). There are 16 parasitoids recorded. Five species of hyperparasitoids recorded on E. defoliariaare following: Gelis areator,Bathythrix lamina (Hym., Ichneumonidae), Perilampus ruficornis (Hym., Perilampidae), Habrocytus chrysos. (Hym., Pteromalidae), Tetrastichussp. (Hym., Eulophidae).
Key words: Erannis defoliaria; hyperparasitoid; Mottled Umber Moth; oak; parasitoid; Quercus spp.