|RIJEČ GLAVNOGA UREDNIKA
|AT THE END OF THE YEAR
|In every developed country, the end of the year is the time of evaluating successes and failures. Croatia, with over 2 million ha or high quality natural forests, definitely belongs to these countries. Successes of Croatian forestry include strict adherence to nature-based forest management, attainment of biological diversity similar to that in virgin forests, high quality of raw material, large quantities of biomass energy and the achievement of very important non-wood forest functions. All these successes are due to the application of special silvicultural treatments.
On the other hand, we experience enormous losses of forest areas due to various infrastructural facilities constructed without any consultation with the forestry profession. Such practice, involving political pressures and disgracefully low prices, has especially endangered lowland forests of pedunculate oak and Mediterranean forests. The objective price of forests, forest raw materials, energy and other non-timber functions far exceeds the value of transmission lines, roads, waterways and hydropower stations. To make matters worse, such developments are allowed by hastily passed by-laws.
In addition to Croatia’s efforts to join the European Union, we should also point out the establishment of the National Ecological Network as part of the European Ecological Network and the NATURA 2000 network. Nature-based silviculture is considered to provide good protection for forests. In the case of Croatian forests, in which silvicultural treatments are applied according to the above method, no additional protection is necessary.
On behalf of Petar Jurjević, MSc., president of the Editorial Council of “Forestry Joural”, Hranislav Jakovac, BSc, technical editor, all members of the Editorial Council, Damir Delač, BSc, secretary of the Croatian Forestry Society and myself, I would like to take this opportunity to wish a Merry Christmas and Happy New Year to all readers of “Forestry Journal”.
Professor Branimir Prpić, PhD
PRPIĆ, Branimir ŠL
|IZVORNI ZNANSTVENI ČLANCI
|Anić, I., S. Mikac
|UDK 630* 907 : 569 + 221 + 231 (001)
|Structure, Texture and Regeneration of Dinaric Beech-fir Virgin forest of Čorkova Uvala
|Summary: Not so very long ago (the end of the 19th century) a large part of the Dinaric Mountain range in Croatia was covered by beech-fir and beech virgin forests. These forests have since been gradually converted into natural managed forests (Prpić et al. 2001). Nevertheless, several Dinaric beech-fir virgin forests have remained until the present day, including Čorkova Uvala, Devčića Tavani, Nadžak-Bilo, Plješivička Uvala, Javorov Kal and Štirovača (Prpić et al. 2001, Vukelić and Tomljanović 2001). Their total area amounts to 360 ha.
The best investigated of these is Čorkova Uvala. The first scientific forest research in this forest dates back to 1957. Its structure has since been analyzed on several occasions: in a permanent sample plot of one hectare (Tikvić et al. 2006, 2004, Prpić and Seletković 1996, Prpić 1979, 1972), in 12 sample plots of 2,500 m2 each, systematically placed in the form of a network at a distance of 250 m from each other (Kramarić and Iuculano 1989) and in 153 sample plots, each sized 200 m2 and systematically set up in the central part of the old growth stand in the form of a network 50 m from one another (Mayer et al. 1980). In addition, several inventories have also been conducted as part of the management program for the management unit of Čorkova Uvala (1987), and the structure of a wider area of Čorkova Uvala – Čudinka reserve has been analyzed (Cestar et al. 1983). Most of these investigations and inventories provide an average picture of the old growth stand structure. Apart from the results of Mayer et al. (1980), there have been no in-depth analyses of its structure and regeneration.
More recently, research into natural regeneration in the old growth stand of Čorkova Uvala has been intensified and initial results have been published (Roženberger et al. 2007). This work presents the results of initial comparative research into the structure, texture and regeneration in the old growth stand of Čorkova Uvala.
This research was undertaken in the Dinaric beech-fir virgin forest of Čorkova Uvala in Plitvice Lakes National Park in the period 2004–2005. The research involved a systematic sample of 68 plots of 805 m2 each. The plots, set up in the form of a network, were placed 100 m from one another. The activities in each plot included measuring the terrain slope, describing the relief, assessing the canopy, identifying life stages of the virgin forest, measuring breast diameters on all trees (d1.30 > 3 cm) and classifying them by tree species. Dead trees were recorded separately. A height sample was measured in the plots and in their immediate proximity. The young growth was measured in each plot over an area of 80 m2 and classified by tree species and height.
Research provided the condition of the structure, texture and regeneration in the old growth stand extending over 80.50 ha. The old growth stand is made up of 440 trees per hectare on average. Common beech and other hardwoods (OHW) account for almost half of the trees (49 %). There are 45 % of fir trees (Abies alba Mill.) and 6 % of common spruces (Picea abies Karst.). The total tree number declines with an increase in breast diameters. The coefficient (q) of tree distribution by breast diameter is 1.20. Stand volume is 671.23 m2/ha, of which fir accounts for 52 %, broadleaves account for 42 %, and the remaining 6 % relates to spruce. 7.55 % of the total volume is accumulated among thinner trees with breast diameters up to 30 cm. Trees with mean breast diameters between 31 and 50 cm contain 19.92 % of the total stand volume. The remaining volume of 72.53 % is accumulated on trees with breast diameters above 50 cm. Different developmental stages have been identified, albeit over small areas, allowing us to conclude that the stand profile has the selection form. The initial developmental stage was determined in 9 % of the cases, the optimal stage in 18 % of the cases, the terminal stage in 65 % of the cases (ageing and decomposition), and the typical selection developmental stage in 8 % of the cases. The late optimal stage and the ageing stage are the most common due to the depression-like relief of Čorkova Uvala, which protects it from severe winds and allows mature and dead trees to remain standing for long periods. The decomposition stage occurs over small areas as a consequence of fall of singe trees or small groups of trees. In the area of the old growth stand the typical initial stage is relatively modest. It occurs in gaps but also under the canopy. The typical selection stage was found in the smallest number of cases. It is the densest (548 trees/ha), with a volume of 434.70 m3/ha and the highest participation of the silver fir. There are on average ten dead (dry and rotten) trees per one hectare of the old growth stand, of which seven are trees of silver fir. The highest number of dead fir trees was recorded in the 11–20 cm diameter class. The total abundance of the young growth was found in the localities in which a transitional initial/selection developmental stage was recorded. These localities are the least represented. There are 6,190 seedlings on average per one hectare of the old growth stand. Fir accounts for 60 %, beech for 28 %, spruce for 2 % and sycamore for 10 % of the total number of the young growth. Two thirds of the seedlings are up to 50 cm tall. On average, a fir taller than 50 cm is found on every 12 m2 of the area and one taller than 100 cm on every 30 m2 of the area. Unlike beech and sycamore, no fir taller than 300 cm was found up to the taxation limit. Of the total number of the young growth up to 100 cm in height, beech accounts for 15 %, spruce for 2 % and sycamore for 9 %. Beech and sycamore prevail in height classes above 100 cm. The young growth of spruce has a secondary role and occurs sporadically, reaching a height of up to 175 cm.
Key words: beech-fir virgin forest; Croatia; Čorkova uvala; Plitvice Lakes; regeneration; structure; texture; virgin forest
ANIĆ, Igor ŠL
MIKAC, Stjepan ŠL
|Matošević, D. M. Pernek, M. Županić
|UDK 630* 453 (001)
|Leafminers as Pests on Oaks (Quercus Spp.) in Croatia
|Summary: Leafminers are defined as insects which larvae are endophagous i.e. they feed inside the leaf, between two laminae, hollowing out a mine (hyponomium) that is visible as an area of discoloration.
The aim of this research was to identify the leafminer species on oaks (Quercus robur, Q. petraea, Q. pubescens, Q. ilex) in Croatia. The research lasted three years. Leafminers were collected on several locations in continental and submediterranean part of Croatia. Leafminers were collected with mines in different larval developmental stages, reared to pupae and adults when needed for identification. The species were identified by the main diagnostic characteristics: adults, pupae, shape and colour of leafmines, its position on leaves, frass-lines and host plant. In total, 15 leafminer species from 3 insect orders (Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera and Coleoptera) on 4 oak species were found, order Lepidoptera being the richest by the number of species found. The following species were found: Acrocercops brongniardella, Phyllonorycter roboris, P. heegeriella, P. harisella, P. quercifoliella, P. lautella, P. parisiella, Tischeria ekebladella, T. dodonea, T. decidua, Coleophora kuehnella, Stigmella roborella, S. samiatella, Profenusa pygmaea, Orchestes quercus.
Out of 15 species found, 8 can be considered as new records in lefminer fauna on oaks in Croatia. Those are: Phyllonorycter roboris, P. heegeriella, P. harisella, P. lautela, P. quercifoliella, Tischeria dodonea, T. decidua and Profenusa pygmaea. Leafminers are specific in their choice of food, i.e. in the choosing tissue, organs and plant species on which they feed. Leafminers found during this research have varied in their choice of host plant, 1 species found is first degree monophag, 3 species are second degree monophags, 6 species are third degree monophags and 5 species are first degree olihophags. Relatively small number of leafminer species can be described as serious pests on woody plants. Tischeria ekebladella can be considered as forest pests in nurseries and on young oaks. Acrocercops brongniardella and Phyllonorycter lautella were found on oak seedlings and in higher population densities could influence the photosinthetic ability of oak leaves. Other species found during this research were regularly present on oak seedling and trees but none of these species caused neither ecological or economic damage.
MATOŠEVIĆ, Dinka ŠL
PERNEK, Milan ŠL
ŽUPANIĆ, Miljenko ŠL
|Ivanković, M., S. Bogdan, G. Božič
|UDK 630* 561 Fagus sylvatica L. (001)
|European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Height Growth Variability in Croatian and Slovenian Provenance Trials
|Summary: We present an overview of the first results on height growth variability of the European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) provenances in Croatian and Slovenian field tests. The field tests (one in each country) were established in the spring of 1998 with 2 years old plants. 36 provenances were planted in the Croatian trial and 38 provenances in the Slovenian one, in a randomised complete block design (RBD) in three replications with 150 seedlings per provenance. The Croatian trial includes provenances from 13 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Germany, Netherlands, Poland, Slovenia, Sweden, and Ukraine) while Slovenian trial includes provenance from 15 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Luxemburg, Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland).
The first results relate to the survival rate and heights in autumn 2005, at the plant age of 8 years. The Slovenian trial had a better survival rate and a larger average height. The P-13 provenance (Soignes – B) had the best survival rate of 94,0% (in Slovenian trial); the largest heights in Slovenian trial were recorded also for the local Slovenian provenance P-53 ( 242,80 cm, Postojna – Masun);
Provenance testing on two different sites showed that some provenances (P-05 Bretagne F, P-31 Urach D, P-17 Westfield GB) exhibited a general adaptedness and phenotypic stability, while other provenances were phenotypically instable, i.e. exhibited specific adaptedness (P-64 Nizbor, CZ, P-51 Horni Plana-Ce CZ).
Anova showed that provenances were statistically significant effect only in the Slovenian trial, while in the Croatian one as well as in combined analysis there were no between provenance differences. Block by provenance interactions were statistically significant in both trials, indicating strong micro site influences. However, blocks were not properly conducted in Croatian trial because they were perpendicular to slope, probably causing strong provenance by block interaction. Moreover, in Slovenian trial number of studied provenances was not the same, which was also cause for strong interaction effect. Our believe is that due to above mentioned reasons, provenance by block interactions in both trials were overestimated and consequently that was the reason for underestimating provenance effect.
Tukey-Kramer test did not show clinal geographic pattern of between provenance differences, so it can be concluded that results indicate ecotypic genetic differentiation of studied provenances. However, future studies which should include ecological variables of mother stands might put more light on the pattern of genetic variation.
These results shall be evaluated in the future for possible use in breeding and conservation of the European beech genetic resources.
Key words: ecotypes; genetic variation; quantitative traits
IVANKOVIĆ, Mladen ŠL
BOGDAN, Saša ŠL
|UDK 630* 156
|Reintroduction of Chamois in Northern Velebit
|Summary: In tribute to the 30th anniversary of the successful reintroduction of chamois in northern Velebit, the first part of the article presents the monograph “Chamois”, written by the forester Milan Knežević and published in Sarajevo 70 years ago (1938). The book, based on the author’s own study of the Balkan chamois subspecies and imbued with love of the true hunter for the game, has not lost any of its significance and interest. The second part of the article is dedicated to the life and work of Milan Knežević (Bihać, 1879 – Zavidovići, 1944), an exceptionally talented game writer. He graduated from the Forestry Department of Technical High School in Sarajevo in 1898. Shortly after passing the state exam in 1911, he became a forest administration manager and worked in a number of forest offices across Bosnia and Herzegovina. From 1925 to 1935 he was in charge of the hunting and fishing department within the Forestry Directorate in Sarajevo. This period of his life, marked by his passionate love for hunting, nature and wildlife, proved to be the most fruitful. Despite his rough life, frequent dismissals from the service and the inability to affirm himself as an intellectual, he was a prolific hunting writer. In addition to the monograph “Chamois” and a number of articles published in Zagreb-based “Hunting-Fishing Journal”, he succeeded in completing, in cooperation with his son Ratko Knežević, his most valuable work “The Wolf – Life, Harmfulness and Extermination”, which was only published in 1956 by the Institute of Forestry and Wood Industry of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The last part of the article deals with the successful reintroduction of chamois in northern Velebit. Organized by the Republic Institute for Nature Protection in Zagreb and Forest Administration in Senj, the reintroduction was conducted on two occasions: the first time in the autumn of 1974 with 9 introduced chamois from Prenj (Bosnia and Herzegovina) and the second time four years later, on 10 October 1978, with 5 adult animals from the Kamnik Alps (Slovenia). The newly established population inhabiting the National Park of Northern Velebit and the hunting grounds “Sveti Juraj” and “Jablanac” is estimated at about 400 animals and is subjected to game management (hunting).
However, despite these encouraging numbers, we cannot be satisfied with the current status of chamois in Croatia from the game hunting aspect. In the Croatian part of the Dinaric mountain range, from Gorski Kotar to the hinterland of Dubrovnik, there are vast areas that are very suitable for successful breeding of chamois; yet, these areas are completely under-utilized in this respect. According to some calculations made by competent experts who are thoroughly acquainted with the conditions in the terrain, about 70,000 ha would suffice for successful chamois breeding programes on Mt. Velebit. The major part of this area is chamois habitat of the first site class. In terms of animal number, this area could support about two thousand chamois, with an annual income of 480 animals and harvest of 250 animals (Car, 1972). The same number of chamois that were released in northern Velebit should also be released in central and southern Velebit for this purpose (Mikulić, 1982).
Key words: Milan Knežević; monograph “Chamois”; northern Velebit; reintroduction of chamois
FRKOVIĆ, Alojzije ŠL
|UDK 630* 945
|Digitization of Journal of Forestry
|Summary: Journal of Forestry, a scientific, technical and professional periodical of the Croatian Forestry Society and Croatian forestry as a whole, has been coming out continuously for 132 years. During this time it has published an impressive amount of scientific and technical material, as well as a detailed history of the Croatian Forestry Society. The entire material is available in the library of the Croatian Forestry Society, while part of the material is also contained in two incomplete collections at the Faculty of Forestry and in the National and University Library. Modern information and computer technology allows improved access to valuable material and enables better logical and physical availability of the items. By stepping into the field of new technologies, the Croatian Forestry Society has made it possible for their members and the entire forestry profession to access the extensive fund of scientific, technical and historical information, which have for over 130 years been presented on the pages if this renowned periodical.
Digitized material, which includes over 75,000 pages (currently over 1020 PDF documents of almost 13 GB), shows the overall content in the form identical to that published in the Journal (or in the state in which it has been preserved). At the same time, computer-recognized text allows computer access to the content. This includes search by full text, the possibility of copying parts of the text and their use in citations, etc.
All materials can be used free of charge, but their sources must be cited. Commercial use is not allowed without permission from the publisher.
Key words: digitization; history of HŠD; Journal of Forestry; library
MEŠTRIĆ, Branko ŠL
|Domac, J., Z. Benković, T. Starčić
|UDK 630* 867
|Development of a sustainable charcoal industry
|Summary: The single industrial charcoal producer in Croatia is located in Belisće, eastern Croatia. There are also several small to medium charcoal producers in Croatia using traditonal charcol production techniques. Namely, all producers apart from Belišće have traditional facilities and equipments with low productivity and conversion efficiencies. Thus, this sector require renovation and modernization in order become competitive with other international vendors. Croatia also has around 400 small-scale charcoal producers scattered in forest areas. Those producers are responsible for around half of the national charcoal production (approximately 3.000 tonnes per year). Outdated technology of charcoal production and low conversion efficiency of wood into charcoal is forcing both small and large-scale charcoal producers out from the market. They are losing competitiveness in both input (wood) and output (charcoal) markets on national and international scale due to rapidly increasing demand for biomass. The consequences are reduced incomes for people involved in this industry and increased number of unemployment in rural areas.
The demand for charcoal is fairly large and it is increasing rapidly. Worldwide consumption is estimated at 40.5 million tonnes annually, with 19.8 million tonnes just for Africa according to FAO statistics. Charcoal consumption in Croatia, used only as a barbecue fuel in households and restaurants, has been rising steadily over the last few years. Export possibilities for charcoal produced in Croatia are expanding but the price competition with producers from Asia, Latin America but also Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia makes the export aspirations rather challenging. From the long term perspective, the key issue for a sustainable industrial charcoal production is the possibility of paying a higher price for feedstock (wood residues from wood processing industry and forestry waste). This can be achieved by increasing the price of charcoal sold on the market and by increasing the efficiency of charcoal production.
Project activities were divided into six modules. The Module on Information includes the preparation of CROWEIS and WISDOM. The Module on National and International Market analyzed, examined and evaluated the costs of raw materials, production costs and prices for charcoal. The Module on Technology and Technical Aspects assessed the technical, economic, and environmental competitiveness of existing charcoal production technologies and industries. The Module on Economics and Environmental Aspects prepared technical, economic, environmental and socio-economic studies to determine the viability of the different charcoal production options being promoted. The Module on Legal Framework and Institutions carried out the analysis of the roles to be played by different national organizations in the implementation of integrated charcoal and wood energy policies and programmes. The Module on Training and Extension consisted in the preparation of specific training and extension material and the organization of international study tour and training courses in the country.
The results and conclusions from the project and the identification of future action lead to the following recommendations:
• The State Office for Standardisation should draft out the charcoal quality standard according to relevant European norms implementing their positive effects into our standards.
• The State Office for Standardisation should form a Technical Committee for wooden biomass that would also be in charge for charcoal.
• The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management should provide translation of relevant EU norms (especially EN 1860-2:2005) within the FAO project and submit that to the producers of charcoal who could then be able to implement them in their own production.
• The Ministry of Regional Development, Forestry and Water Management should create legal framework to form market of wooden products (wood bourse) in order to make that raw material more available on the market. The Wood Processing and Use Act has been in the parliamentary procedure which will create a legal basis for formation of the said bourse.
• The Ministry of Regional Development, Forestry and Water Management should promote and organise inspection of wooden products trade to ensure transparent trading in accordance with marketing terms.
• The Ministry of Environmental Protection, Physical Planning and Construction should issue a legal obligation for deposing of biomass – wooden residual of wood processing industry and forestry in order to further incite energetic use.
• The Ministry of Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship should implement the system to encourage new charcoal production technologies which will increase the efficiency of the production.
• The Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund, in cooperation with the respective ministries, in accordance to the operational programme for 2008, 2009 and 2010 shall carry out a tender for modernisation and expansion of the existing and starting up of the new charcoal production facilities.
• The Ministry of Environmental Protection, Physical Planning and Construction, should issue guidelines for selection of location of the new facilities in accordance with the existing legal regulations regarding building due to avoid misinterpretation of regulation by the local/regional self-governance units.
• Forestry Extension Service should organise education on advantages, possibilities and limitation of the charcoal producers associations and the possibilities to secure financing for modernisation of this production which would include the preparation of the guidebook.
• Charcoal producers should form regional cooperatives and establish the national association of charcoal producers at the Croatian Chamber of Economy or independently in order to gain easier and more quality market appearance. The Croatian Chamber of Trades and Crafts should definitely be included in this process.
• The referral centre should be formed either at the Forestry Extension Service or regional energy agencies that would provide information regarding new technologies, financial options, and mediate in the appearance of domestic producers on foreign markets.
BENKOVIĆ, Zlatko ŠL
STARČIĆ, Tomislav ŠL