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HR  EN   



Scientific-technical and professional journal
of Croatia Forestry Society
                         Issued continously since 1877.
       First issue of this web edition start with number 1-2/2008.
   ISSN No.: 1846-9140              UDC 630*https://doi.org/10.31298/sl

Portal of scientific
journals of Croatia
   Issued by: Croatian Forestry Society

   Address: Trg Mažuranića 11, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
   Phone/fax: ++385 1 4828477
   e-mail: urednistvo@sumari.hr
   Editor in Chief: Josip Margaletić

Uredništvo   309
Who is to blame for poor business results of wood processors?      
As usual, it is the company Croatian Forests Ltd, as the representative of the Požgaj Group from Veliki Bukovac has been claiming these days. In fact, the company Croatian Forests Ltd has refused to sign an annual contract on the sale of logs with two companies of the Požgaj Group, stating that they do not have the necessary technology. Bravo! From both the foresters’ and the business standpoint, this is the best sentence we have read in the last 20 years at least. The core of the matter is that they have not been allowed to “destroy” valuable raw wood material. This issue and market economy, contrary to business operations according to the principles of non-market economy, has been the topic of our column on several occasions.
Forests, waters and soil are the most valuable resources of the Republic of Croatia. No wonder, therefore, that they deserve its special protection. However, there is a difference between what has been set down in legal documents and what is happening in reality. Forests are ranked as production forests, protection forests and special purpose forests. Only three thirds of the increment on average is cut down in production forests in order to retain the “capital”. Consequently, there is no possibility to increase felling so as to satisfy the growing needs of all wood processors. Such limited quantities of wood assortments, particularly those of the highest quality, should be managed in a rational and economical manner, following the principles of demand and supply dictated by the market. Why? Obviously, because they are forest products of too high a value to be managed in a primitive way that does not respect their quality and the effort invested in the production and use for which they are intended. Let us just explain to non-professionals what the forestry profession is all about. 
Forestry is a branch of economy which, like any other economic branch, sets management goals. In the case of forestry, it is the production of the most valuable wood and non-wood products, followed by the production of all those products which provide non-market forest functions. Therefore, in addition to forestry, all users should also participate in the incurred costs. If we start from raw wood material as a forest product and the principle that a forest should be everlasting, let us take pedunculate oak, our most valuable and the most highly demanded forest species, as an example. After a seed cut, so-called seed trees provide a forest site with almost ten thousand young oak plants per hectare. Of course, there are also other species that are not desirable in an oak site, so the first silvicultural operation consists of their removal. What follows are multiple treatments of cleaning, tending, thinning and structuring a stand until a new seed cut should be performed in order to start forest regeneration anew. This cycle is repeated every 120 – 140 years, or in other words, through three to three and a half working lives of forestry workers and professionals. The number of trees is 150-170 per hectare, so the first tree logs, on condition that the treatments have been well performed, should be of the highest class, i.e., veneer logs or A class logs. So many years of highly expert work deserve better that what our wood processors most commonly do: instead of improving the wood raw material of the highest class and creating additional value, they transform them into the primary wood processing product, that is, sawn timber, and then they brag about their export. Bragging about the production of parquet flooring is also questionable: it would be acceptable if parquet was produced from lower quality raw material, as its dimension allows it. Parquet can also be produced from the highest quality wood assortments, but then such assortments should be paid at a market price. Whether the product would then be competitive on the market is another story. Yet, even this product is only a “little step” away from sawn timber, since it does not require specialists, engineers and up-to-date machinery, nor does it require designers who in such a case have nothing to design. What we see on TV is upholstered furniture and kitchen cabinets made of board material, while the oak wood mentioned above is nowhere to be seen. This is not just an assumption: it is a confirmed fact coming from a relevant source.
Boasting about export in Večernji List of July 23, 2021, the new president of the CEA Wood and Paper Industry Association says that “a part of the finished goods industry is competitive”, in the first place parquet manufacturers, whereas “unfortunately, there are no foreign investors in the furniture manufacture … the Croatian furniture industry has been doing so-called toll manufacturing for large international trade chains for decades“. Well done! After having furniture factories such as “ŠAVRIĆ”, TVIN, RADIN, TROKUT, GAJ, DIP Delnice, FLORIJAN BOBIĆ, ­MOBILIJA and some others, this is nothing but a disgrace.
Let us conclude! According to the text by the EUROPEAN FORESTRY INSTITUTE AND THE WORLD BANK entitled “A survey and recommendations for the wood raw material sale system in Croatian Forests”, it is stated that in Croatia 93 % of wood products are sold administratively on the basis of long-term contracts, and only 5 % are sold on the market (Poland 89-90 %, Czechia 96 %, and Estonia and France about 100 % on the market). Croatia sells wood raw material at prices which are 20 – 30 % lower compared to European prices and prices in neighbouring countries, which incurs a loss of about 316 million kuna annually (oak 163 million kuna, beech 105 million kuna, spruce and fir 48 million kuna). Taking into consideration the principles of sustainable management, as well as the quality and naturalness of Croatian forests (which has earned them the FSC certificate – of which it is the wood processors who reap the highest benefits) in relation to the environment, we believe that the losses are even higher than the ones mentioned above. So, gentlemen responsible for the issue, put your heads together and start thinking!
<br>Editorial Board

Damir Ugarković, Ivan Seletković, Ivica Tikvić, Mladen Ognjenović, Krešimir Popić, Marko Orešković, Nenad Potočić  UDK 630* 111.8 + 228 (001)
Relationship of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) mortality in the area of Fužine with climatic and structural parameters      
Tree dieback is a complex process involving negative impact of various abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors. Climate change, comprising all those effects, is generally considered as the largest threat to forest ecosystems in Europe. Although the scale of climate change impacts on forests is not yet fully understood, especially on the regional or species level, significant damage seems to be caused by weather extremes, such as drought and strong winds. With the expected increase in the number, length, and/or intensity of extreme weather events in Croatia, research into the causes of tree mortality is both important and timely.
Silver fir is the most damaged and endangered conifer tree species in Croatia. The dieback of silver fir can be attributed to various factors, therefore the goals of this research were to determine the mortality of silver fir trees (by number and volume) for various causes of mortality, among which the climatic and structural parameters were of most interest. The twenty-year data for tree mortality in pure silver fir stands in the area of Fužine (Gorski kotar, Croatia) were collected and analysed. The largest number and volume of dead trees was caused by complex (multiple causes) dieback in the overstorey (0,75 N/ha, 2,35 m3/ha), and the smallest (0,17 N/ha, 0,02 m3/ha) by dieback of supressed trees. No significant differences were determined regarding the timing of tree death for different causes of mortality. Climatic parameters (drought, air temperature, PET) and structural parameters of the stands (tree DBH, social position, crown diameter, shading, physiological maturity) as well as plot inclination were found to be the factors of a significant influence on the mortality of silver fir trees.

Key words: temperature; precipitation; drought; wind; stand structure

    UGARKOVIĆ, Damir    ŠL
    SELETKOVIĆ, Ivan      ŠL
    TIKVIĆ, Ivica      ŠL
    Mladen Ognjenović  
    Krešimir Popić  
    Marko Orešković  
    POTOČIĆ, Nenad      ŠL
Marina Popijač  UDK 630*180 + 181.4 (001)
Distribution of 137Cs and 40K in the tissue of silver fir trees (Abies alba Mill.) from Lika (Croatia)      
The research on activities of 137Cs and 40K, which was conducted on the silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) from Lika has included sampling of the trees in the field (rings of the bole from three different heights separated into bark, growth rings, roots, needles, shoots, and the soil surrounding the cut down trees), laboratory analysis of samples using the gamma-ray spectrometry and the statistical analysis of the collected data. The radial and vertical distribution of cesium (137Cs) in trees was investigated. 137Cs has contaminated forest ecosystems by remote atmospheric transport and radioactive precipitation as a result of nuclear test including the nuclear accident in Chernobyl. On a longer time scale, the variability of the 137Cs distribution determined in the organisms of the silver fir depended on the half-life, while the seasonal dynamics were influenced by the degree of physiological activity and the characteristics and functions of plant tissues. The highest activity of 137Cs was determined in the bark and the physiologically most active parts of the silver fir (shoots and needles). The highest activity concentration of the 137Cs in the growth rings was measured in the lowest parts of the silver fir trees. This research contributed to understanding the behavior of 137Cs, which entered the organisms of dominant tree species in the forest ecosystem, as well as its distribution in time and space.

Key words: forest ecosystem; radionuclides; distribution; bioindicators; silver fir

    POPIJAČ, Marina    ŠL
Ivan Tekić, Charles Watkins  UDK 630* 902 (001)
‘Sacred groves’- an insight into Dalmatian forest history      
The French administration in Dalmatia (1805-1813) was short but is often praised by foresters as advanced in terms of woodland management because of their establishment of so-called sacred groves or sacri boschi. Based on archival sources and 19th century maps, this research explores the establishment and demise of sacred groves and places them within the broader forest history of Dalmatia. It reveals that the literal translation of the term sacro bosco as sacred grove (sveti gaj) by the 19th century foresters was not precise which caused misrepresentation and misunderstandings of what sacro bosco actually meant. The more appropriate translation would be forbidden groves (zabranjen gaj) as this also reflects the nature of these woodlands, which were in fact woodland sections where exploitation was prohibited. Establishment of forbidden groves was not a French invention since the practice was widely used before the French and during the Austrian Empire (1814-1918). In the second half of the 19th century and with the change of official language, the Italian term sacro bosco was replaced with the Croatian term protected area (branjevina).

Key words: sacro bosco; sveti gaj; sacred grove; forbidden grove; forest history; Dalmatia

    Ivan Tekić  
    Charles Watkins  
Arzu Ergül Bozkurt, Kamil Coşkunçelebi, Salih Terziog˘lu  UDK 630* 164 (001)
Population variability of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Turkey according to the needle morphology      
In the present study, needle variation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L., Pinaceae) populations in Turkey was investigated. From selected eight populations, a total of 1314 needles belonging to 206 trees were examined. Four morphological needle traits were measured and analyzed to describe the population diversity and differentiation. Analyzed morphological traits showed significant variability. The trees within populations differ significantly in all analyzed needle characteristics, while the differences between populations were significant for the three of four studied characteristics. Present findings revealed that needle length, needle width and the ratio of needle length to needle width showed clinal variation in response to altitudinal gradients. Populations from higher altitudes were characterized with the smaller and wider needles as compared to the populations from lower altitudes. The results of this study could be valuable baseline data for the development of more efficient management plans for this forest tree species.

Key words: Scots pine; population variability; needle characteristics; morphometric analysis; clinal variation

    Arzu Ergül Bozkurt  
    Kamil Coşkunçelebi  
    Salih Terziog˘lu  
Askin Gokturk, Ethem Kara, Murat Sabri Sadiklar  UDK 630* 232.3 + 111 (001) https://doi.org.10.31298/sl.145.7-8.5 355
The effects of storage temperatures and pretreatments on the germination of azarole (Crataegus azarolus var. pontica) seeds      
In this study, which aimed to determine the effects of storage temperatures on the germination of azarole (Crataegus azarolus var. pontica) seeds, pretreatments were applied to the seeds and were dry-stored for 10 months at four storage temperatures (-5, 5, 15 and 25ºC) for various periods in floating water and in an ash solution (2, 4 and 6 days), scarification in sulfuric acid (1, 3 and 6 hours), and combinations of scarification in sulfuric acid and floating in ash solution pretreatments. Also, the scarification rates in the seed coats that were corroded in sulfuric acid for 1, 3 and 6 hours were determined. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replications. As a result of the study, higher germination percentages (p<0.05) were achieved (20.95%) in seeds stored at 15ºC. The results show that the scarification in sulfuric acid is more effective (p>0.05) on the germination percentage of azarole seeds. The diameters of the seeds that were corroded in sulfuric acid for 1, 3 and 6 hours decreased by 6.15%, 10.47% and 11.51%, respectively. To achieve higher germination percentages, azarole seeds should be kept at 15ºC, and exposed to sulfuric acid for 3 hours with 4 day ash solution for sowing in August.

Key words: Azarole; storage temperature; germination barrier; scarification; ash solution

    Askin Gokturk  
    Ethem Kara  
    Murat Sabri Sadiklar  
Osman Mujezinović, Mirza Dautbašić  UDK 630* 453
First record of Cacopsylla pulchella (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Bosnia and Herzegovina      
This research is first record of Cacopsylla pulchella in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The insect was determined on a Judas tree Cercis siliquastrum at four localities in the june 2020 year.
The examined material is kept in the laboratory, Department of Forest Protection, faculty of Forestry, University of Sarajevo, Bosni and Herzegovina.
We have determined adults of C. pulchella an olive-drab or brownish green colour and nymphs green colour.
Since this is a foreign and potentially invasive species, its spread throughout the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina can be expected, Herzegovina especially.

Key words: Cacopsylla pulchella; alien pest; Judas tree; Cercis siliquastrum; chlorotic spots; Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Osman Mujezinović  
    Mirza Dautbašić  
Atinç Pirti, Ramazan Gürsel Hoşbaş  UDK 630* 641
Evaluation of the performance between post process kinematic and static technique in the forest environment      
A GNSS involves a constellation of satellites orbiting Earth, continuously transmitting signals that enable users to determine their three-dimensional (3D) position with global coverage. The positioning principle is based on solving an elemental geometric problem, involving the distances (ranges) of a user to a set of at least 4-5 GNSS satellites with known coordinates. These ranges and satellite coordinates are determined by the user’s receiver using signals and navigation data transmitted by the satellites; the resulting user coordinates can be computed to an accuracy of several metres. However, centimetre-level positioning can be achieved using more advanced techniques (kinematic). GPS/GLONASS technique is becoming compulsory for many applications concerning forest management and inventory. This paper aims to comparing the coordinates resulted from Post Process Kinematic with the resulted coordinates for the same points resulted from static technique. Nonetheless, it appears that forest measurements with ± 1 cm accuracy cannot be guaranteed on all occasions, since difficult situations may lead to greater errors (about ±10 cm accuracy for horizontal components and about ± (20-100) cm accuracy for vertical components).

Key words: Post Process Kinematic; Static; Forest; Accuracy; Precision

    Atinç Pirti  
    Ramazan Gürsel Hoşbaş  
Matija Landekić, Ana Gajšek, Gabrijela Seletković, Mario Šporčić  UDK 630* 907
The role of ecological certification in the context of sustainable forest management in the Republic of Croatia      
The unsustainability and disproportion between available resources and demands of market economy, as well as the persistent degradation of the environment, resulted in the emergence of a politically supported global concept of »sustainable« development. In the business world widely accepted form of behaviour which business organizations have accepted and implemented in response to the need for sustainable development is »corporate social responsibility«. Definition of corporate social responsibility and its connection, through the social and environmental aspect, with the most important management standards such as SA8000, ISO 14000, FSC, eco-labels, etc. is shown in the introduction part of this paper. In addition, the introduction provides a brief overview and the role of the two umbrella organizations, the International Social and Environmental Accreditation Alliance (ISEAL) and the Global Ecologging Network (GEN). Key information about ecological certification of products and ten national eco-labels from Europe and the World are also shown.
Companies in the forestry sector implement the environmental aspect of corporate social responsibility in practice through (a) forest certification as a mechanism for improving forest management and (b) through the certification of ecological products. Accordingly, the legislative framework and the system of ecological certification and control within the European Union with the case study of the Republic of Croatia are presented in the central part of the paper. The process of environmental certification of products by the control body is presented and explained through five key steps: (a) introductory interview with the entity, (b) tour of the production unit, (c) control of documentation, (d) report writing and (e) final comment of the expert control. The certification of non-wood forest products as a neglected niche of the forestry sector of the Republic of Croatia is additionally emphasized, where special accent is placed on the need for transition from log-oriented traditional management to multifunctional sustainable management under the motto »from log to berry«. In addition, the paper presents examples of good practice in the management and certification of non-wood forest products through FSC standards and environmental certification of products. An overview of certification models of non-wood forest products by scope is also shown in the paper.
As part of the discussion and conclusions, the key reasons / limitations for the low interest in ecological certification, but also in the collection and processing, of non-wood forest products in the Republic of Croatia are stated. In conclusion, the paper states the need for (a) development of methodology and tools for production possibilities quantification of non-wood forest products, (b) formation of non-wood forest products database, (c) development of national ordinances that will regulate and control the collection and processing of non-wood forest products, and (d) encouragement of non-wood forest products certification process (through the FSC model, environmental certification, etc.) with the aim of achieving added value in the promotion and sale of products in the domestic and foreign markets.

Key words: forestry; environmental protection; certification; eco-labels; FSC

    Matija Landekić  
    Ana Gajšek  
    Gabrijela Seletković  
    ŠPORČIĆ, Mario      ŠL