|Why do we lag behind in the green transition and energy independence?|
It is the middle of summer marked by unprecedented heat. The heat waves, caused by climate warming, are pushing the planet Earth in an unfavourable direction for life, compared to that until now, especially in the region of the planet’s temperate zone. Temperatures have reached new records, fires are raging, and frequent strong winds and intense, abrupt changes in rainfall are inflicting extensive damage. The beds of rivers and lakes have reached the lowest points due to droughts; there are ongoing water reductions, and agricultural yields are reduced. In addition to all these misfortunes, Russia’s unjustified and brutal war aggression against Ukraine continues for the sixth month with no signs of stopping. The situation is further complicated by the efforts of the European Union to gain instantaneous energy independence from Russia, which has already begun to reduce gas and oil supplies. At the end of July, the Government of the Republic of Croatia announced that it would propose reducing the VAT rate from thirteen to five percent for firewood, pellets, wood chips and briquettes, as well as thermal energy from thermal stations.
Could we have achieved energy independence and reoriented our own economy in the green direction much earlier? We already addressed this topic in the volumes 3-4 of this year, but due to the pertinence of the issue, we shall refer to it once again. We wish to remind you of what we have done and proposed within the forestry sector and beyond for the past 17 years. You can read about it on the pages of the Forestry Journal.
Thus, with the view of organising professional potential in the best possible way, the Croatian Forestry Association founded the “Croatian Biomass Association” section at its 109th regular session held in Karlovac on June 17th, 2005, within the Croatian Forestry Day … According to the 2006 activity plan, we organized a three-day professional excursion in Austria – Gradišće, from May 18 to 20. The Croatian Forestry Association, as the founder of the Croatian Biomass Association, organized a visit to this Austrian province where the use of bioenergy is most prevalent. It can be said that fossil fuels have been almost completely replaced with renewable resources, such as energy wood for thermal energy and electricity production, rapeseed oil for biodiesel production and the use of windmills for electricity production (Forestry Journal 5-6/2006).
The professional visit to Gradišće mentioned above was described in the Forestry Journal 9-10/2006. “Then we visited the Güttenbach (Pinkovac) biomass heating plant, with a biomass boiler power of 1 MW and a reserve heating oil boiler with a power of 1.35 MW. Franz Jandrisitz, BSc, introduced us to the Pinkovac Central Heating System, where under a 10-year contract, about 240 households have been supplied with heating energy through a 12-km long hot pipe for the past 7 years.
In the editorial of Forestry Journal 1-2/2007, we discussed the positive effect of forests on global climate warming. A recent gathering of scientists in Paris confirmed that the cause of global warming on Earth is attributed to unreasonable human behaviour. Excessive use of fossil fuels enriches the atmosphere with carbon dioxide, leading to the greenhouse effect.
It is well known that numerous excursions by various associations, companies, and local government and self-government units have been paid to Gradišće in order to admire the results achieved in the field of energy independence of this once least developed Austrian province. It turns out that almost twenty years were spent on tours that never led to the application of the results in their own regions. The hilly-mountainous area of Croatia abounds in forest resources, which means that the majority of the settlements in the area could solve the issue of heating by building biomass plants. In addition to the heating itself, there would also be many other benefits, such as the employment of the local people and the economy, not spending funds on fossil fuels, a cleaner environment and the retention of the rural population in the area. The results of using forest biomass in Croatia are reflected in the cogeneration plants along the motorways, which bring profit to their owners with a preferential price for the delivered electricity, but do not contribute to the local community by ensuring thermal energy, which would appease worries arising from the uncertainty related to the supply and price of gas, oil and electricity. Haven’t we foolishly created yet another accumulation of capital by which financial resources, including a large part from EU funds, line the pockets of a small number of private investors, while the local population living surrounded by forests has a hard time getting firewood, at a price that, instead of being social, unlike that of other assortments, it closest to the market price. The Government’s recent reduction in VAT on firewood was soon annulled by an increase in its price.
|ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPERS|
|Damir Ugarković, Ivica Tikvić, Ivana Grgurić, Ivan Perković, Nataša Hulak, Vibor Roje, Petar Šutalo, Krešimir Popić|| UDK 630* 114.7 (001)
|Enzymatic activity of forest soil in damaged forest ecosystem of silver fir with hard fern|
With the decline of trees, habitat conditions change, resulting in changes in the microclimate and microbiological activity of the soil. The aim of the research is to determine the differences in the microclimate of habitats and in the enzymatic activity of forest soil in three forest gaps and three forest stands of silver fir with hard fern (Blechno-Abietetum Ht. 1950). Of the microclimatic elements, air temperature, soil temperature, relative air humidity and volumetric soil moisture were measured. Composite soil samples from a depth of 0 to 10 cm were collected to determine the chemical properties of the soil and the dehydrogenase and proteolytic activity of the soil. Significantly higher values of air and soil temperatures and significantly lower values of relative air humidity and volumetric soil moisture were found in forest gaps. The research did not reveal any differences in the chemical properties of the soil between forest gaps and stands. Due to insignificant changes in soil chemical characteristics, no significant changes in soil enzymatic activity were found in the gaps in relation to forest stands. Air temperature and soil temperature are related to soil dehydrogenase activity, while volumetric soil moisture is associated with proteolytic soil activity in forest gaps. Soil chemical characteristics also had a significant effect on enzymatic activity. By increasing the share of organic matter, nitrogen, humus and carbon in the soil, the enzymatic activity of forest soils also increases. The highest correlations between enzymatic activity and soil chemical characteristics were found for proteolytic activity of forest soils. The enzymatic activity of forest soils was highest at the beginning of the vegetation period under conditions of optimal soil temperature and soil moisture.
Key words: forest gap; soil enzymes; soil chemical properties; silver fir
UGARKOVIĆ, Damir ŠL
TIKVIĆ, Ivica ŠL
PERKOVIĆ, Ivan ŠL
|Krunoslav Sever, Antonia Vukmirović, Luka Hodak, Saša Bogdan, Ida Katičić Bogdan, Daniel Krstonošić, Tomislav Karažija, Jozo Franjić, Željko Škvorc|| UDK 630*231 + 233 (001)
|Functional adaptation of natural sessile oak and common beech saplings on different habitat conditions|
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of climatic and edaphic conditions in two mixed stands (provenances) of common beech and sessile oak from eastern (Slavonski Brod - SB provenence) and northwestern (Karlovac - KA provenence) Croatia on the functional adaptation of growth and dry matter production of their natural saplings. The main differences between the provenances with regard to climatic conditions is reflected in the amount of precipitation. The amount of precipitation in the area of KA provenance is much higher than in the area of SB provenance (Table 1 and 2). In spite of, due to the unfavorable distribution of precipitation during the growth of the investigated saplings in the period 2016 – 2020, dry periods were more frequent in the KA provenance than in the SB provenance (Figure 1). Edaphic conditions (physical and chemical soil traits), did not significantly differ between the provenances. However, the soil of KA provenance was characterized by a slightly lighter structure (less clay and more skeletons) compared to the soil of SB provenance (Table 3 – 5 and Figure 2). Differences in growth and dry matter production, as well as in allometric growth relations between provenances and species were examined using two-way ANOVA. The obtained results indicate that the saplings from the KA provenance compared to the saplings from the SB provenance invested more dry matter in root growth (especially fine roots) and took root deeper. In addition, the saplings from the KA provenance developed a thicker and lower stem compared to the saplings from the SB provenance (Table 6 – 8). This indicates that the saplings from the KA provenance are functionally more adapted to the drought habitat. It could be the result of differently manifested phenotypic modification (drought response) and/or real genetic differences between provenances, which our research could not distinguish more accurately. The obtained differences in the growth and dry matter production between the sessile oak and the common beech saplings correspond to the already known patterns of their functional adaptation to the habitat humidity. It means that sessile oak saplings took deeper roots and invested more dry matter in the coarse roots compared to common beech saplings that took root more shallowly and invested more dry matter in the fine roots (Table 9).
Key words: Quercus petraea L.; Fagus sylvatica L.; drought; alometric growth relations; dry matter; fine roots; coarse roots; stem
SEVER, Krunoslav ŠL
BOGDAN, Saša ŠL
KATIČIĆ, Ida ŠL
KRSTONOŠIĆ, Daniel ŠL
FRANJIĆ, Jozo ŠL
ŠKVORC, Željko ŠL
|Vladan Popović, Darka Šešlija Jovanović, Aleksandar Lučić, Ljubinko Rakonjac, Sanja Jovanović, Aleksandar Vasiljević, Danijela Miljković|| UDK 630* 164 (001)
|Spatial variation of morphological needle traits of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) populations in the Balkan peninsula in relation to climatic factors|
Interpopulation and intrapopulation variability of three morphological needle traits (length, width and thickness) was investigated in 16 natural silver fir populations in the Balkan Peninsula. The populations represent refugial areas of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). This paper aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of the influence of climatic factors (mean annual temperature, number of days with temperatures < 0, > 5, < 18, > 18oC, Hargreaves climatic moisture deficit and De Martonne aridity index, on the pattern of morphological needle traits within each population. Populations showed variation in the analyzed morphological needle traits, which could not be clearly defined by any of the analyzed climatic factors. The De Martonne aridity index and Hargreaves climatic moisture deficit had the greatest impact on the trait values, whereas the mean annual precipitation had the lowest. Evolutionary ecology research of the silver fir needle morphology is a valuable contribution to the comprehention of the present genetic variability as a prerequisite for adaptation to the rapid climate change and conservation of the species area in the Balkan Peninsula region.
Key words: needle morphology; climatic factors; silver fir; Balkan Peninsula
Darka Šešlija Jovanović
|Vojislav Dukić, Miroslav Mirković, Branko Stajić, Danijela Petrović, Marko Kazimirović, Srđan Bilić|| UDK 630* 111.8 (001)
|Comparative analysis of the influence of climate factors on the radial growth of autochthonous pine species (Pinus spp.) in central Bosnia and Herzegovina|
In central Bosnia and Herzegovina, in the Zavidovići-Teslić area, the study of the radial growth of Austrian and Scots pine (autochthonous pine species) trees was conducted using the dendrochronological method in order to identify the differences between the species in terms of the influence of climatic variables on the tree ring formation. Trees were sampled in five experimental areas or five sites. The first site had a Scots pine stand, while the second had an Austrian pine stand, and the other three sites had mixed stands of Scots and Austrian pine. Cross-dating was conducted using visual on-screen techniques of CDendro software and statistical methods using Cofecha software. The tree ring series were standardized using the Arstan program and cubic smoothing spline. It produced Scots pine regional chronology, 145 years long (1870-2014), and Austrian pine regional chronology, 180 years long (1835-2014). Correlation analysis of the relationship between the index of tree-ring width and precipitation and temperature in the characteristic periods of the year showed a negative effect of temperature (except in winter months) and a positive effect of precipitation on the tree ring formation. The statistically significant dependence of the tree-ring width index on the SPEI indices indicates a significant impact of moisture deficiency on the tree ring formation in the period from June to August (r = 0.33 in June, r = 0.45 in July and r = 0.47 in August) for Scots pine and in the period from June to September (r = 0.36 in June, r = 0.43 in July, r = 0.47 in August and r = 0.30 in September) for Austrian pine. The analysis of the relationship between climatic parameters and the chronologies of Scots and Austrian pine shows similar relationships between radial growth and climate but the influence of climate is somewhat more pronounced in Austrian pine. In the study area, the radial growth of both tree species is significantly determined by climate conditions. In other words, the chronology of these species has a good climatic signal, especially the drought signal in the summer months.
Key words: dendrochronology; tree-ring width; Austrian pine; Scots pine; climate; Bosnia and Herzegovina
|Abdullah E. Akay, H. Hulusi Acar, Buse Kalkan|| UDK 630*907.1 (001)
|Using GIS techniques for modeling of anthropogenic noise propagation generated by a chainsaw in forest harvesting|
Noise is an environmental pollution that negatively affects human health and reduces the performance of employees. Forest harvesting activities are one of the working environments where noise effect is intense. The most common equipment used in forest operations is chainsaw whose noise affects not only the operator but also the wildlife in the territory. The noise maps showing noise propagation can be effectively used in evaluating and controlling the noise effects. In this study, it was aimed to measure the anthropogenic noise levels resulting from the chainsaw used in tree felling and to map its noise propagation with SPreAD-GIS (System for Prediction of Acoustic Detectability) which is a GIS (Geographical Information Systems) based noise prediction software. The study was conducted in Karacabey Flooded Forest within the city of Bursa in Türkiye. The results indicated that the average noise level from the chainsaw was above the danger limit (90 dBA) that causes increased physiological reactions and headache on the workers. According to the noise propagation map, the noise exposure of the employees exceeded the warning limit (85 dBA) and the maximum noise level was 95.96 dBA during the harvesting activity. In some parts of the study area, the noise level was 45 dBA or above, causing negative effects on bird species. It can be concluded that the noise maps can be effectively used to determine noise propagation generated by a chainsaw and evaluate the noise effects on the operators and as well as on the bird species in the perimeter.
Key words: anthropogenic noise; noise propagation map; SPreAD-GIS; chainsaw
Abdullah E. Akay
H. Hulusi Acar
|Alptug Sari|| UDK 630*156 (001)
|Maximum Entropy Niche-Based Predicting of Potential Habitat for the Anatolian Leopard (Panthera pardus tulliana Valenciennes, 1856) in Türkiye|
The Anatolian leopard (Panthera pardus tulliana Valenciennes, 1856) is the largest surviving cat species in Türkiye. Despite the adversity they face, leopards still exist in Türkiye. In this study, using the maximum entropy model (MaxEnt), potentially suitable habitats for the Anatolian leopard in Türkiye was surveyed. When evaluating leopard habitat preference, the fact that the species can easily adapt to its habitat and live anywhere with sufficient vegetation and sufficient prey animals was taken into account; only data on climate which affects the geographic distribution patterns and population structures of flora and fauna were examined before. When the climatic variables affecting leopard’ distribution were examined, the following had the highest values: isothermally, seasonal temperature, average temperature of the coldest season, minimum temperature of the coldest month, and annual precipitation. Except for the Central Anatolia Region and coastal areas, almost every region in Türkiye contains habitats suitable for the leopard. There are scarce data on leopards’ populations and habitats in Türkiye. Therefore, even though ecological niche modelling (ENM) may generate important results when determining potentially suitable habitats, it is clear that this model cannot yield accurate results without considering the areas that the species is known to inhabit but in which no studies were previously conducted. The results that were obtained in the present study can also provide background information related to the long-term conservation of this species.
Key words: Bioclimatic data; Conservation; Habitat suitability; Leopard; MaxEnt; Türkiye