|ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPERS|
|Krešimir Krapinec, Miroslav Nikolić, Miljenko Bujanić, Dean Konjević|| UDK 630* 156 (001)
|Considerations in the study of trophies: The effect of skull cutting on the real value of roe buck trophies|
Roe deer is Laurasiatherian mammal from the family of Cervidae. It is autochthonous and one of the most valued trophy game species in Croatia (Zorić 2014.). Antlers (left and right branch) with complete or part of the skull are regarded as trophy. Despite the fact that roe deer antlers are easily accessible trophies, formulas for their evaluations are still largely debated. It is a consequence of large number of elements that need to be evaluated, possible use of coefficient instead of measuring volume and mass, and potential differences in trophy preparation. Guidelines of the International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation (CIC) instructs that skulls should be cut through the eye cavities leaving intact nasal bones on the trophy. If otherwise cut or left intact with maxillar teeth, deduction of 65 or 90g is foreseen. Considering the fact that weight and density of bones varies between populations, we hypothesize that above mentioned deductions do not represent real values. Therefore the aim of this research was to determine the deviations from actual mass. A total of 40 roe buck skulls originating from the area of Central Croatia were analysed. All skulls were weighed 3 times, initially when intact, after shallow cut and after proscribed cut. Obtained data were statistically analysed. Following the shallow cut, skull is lighter for 25 to 52 g, which is 11 g less than proscribed 65 g. In other words application of shallow cut will result in the loss in trophy value. In cases of intact skulls loss in weight is related to gross skull mass. In this case even 68 to 70% of variability are explained by gross skull mass (R2=0.680; p<0.0001 – linear function, or R2=0.699; p<0.01 – potency function). According to the intersection of the lines (obligate deduction of 90 g and dependence of mass loss due to the cutting) milestone in the mass is at 310 g gross. In other words trophies lighter than 310 g should be cut according to proscriptions as they will lose less than 90 g, while heavier skulls should be left intact as they will lose more than proscribed 90 g. Regardless of the skull preparation, all obtained masses show statistically significant relation to volume. With increase in volume density of trophies decreases (R2=0.813; p<0.001), with the fact that cutting of the skull results in removal of denser, heavier parts of the trophy. Application of the coefficient 0.23 depends on the density of the trophy, meaning that its application in the case of heavier antlers with lower volume will increase the trophy value. In the case of porous antlers the real coefficient should be higher, as application of 0.23 results in lower trophy values. In the case of intact skulls we do not advice application of 0.23 coefficient as this will decrease the trophy value.
Key words: antlers; relative weight; weight; trophy evaluation; CIC; roe deer buck
KRAPINEC, Krešimir ŠL
|Milivoj Franjević, Zoran Šikić, Boris Hrašovec|| UDK 630* 453 (001)
|First occurrence of Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford, 1894) – black steam borer in pheromone baited panel traps and population build up in Croatian oak stands|
During the first decade of 21st century in Croatian oak stands series of experiments concerning integrated oak timber protection were conducted. In the focus of this research was olfactory manipulation with native ambrosia beetles from genus Trypodendron and Xyleborus. Pheromone baited panel traps were used completed with different attractive components (lineatin, ETOH, GLV, Domowit-Trypowit D®) . During these experiments in trap catches new species of scolityd for Croatian lowland oak stands entomofauna was discovered. Occurrence of Xylosandrus germanus was first time registered in a second season of field experiments and its numbers had since continuously grown in trap catches. In 2011. monitoring of flight period for ambrosia beetles was conducted from beginning of January till early June. During this period six species of ambrosia beetles were caught among them most numerous species was T. signatum while X. germanus was second although only present in trap catches for four years.
Key words: ambrosia bark beetles; integrated oak timber protection; CEN EN 1316-1; FSC certified forests; invasive alien species
FRANJEVIĆ, Milivoj ŠL
ŠIKIĆ, Zoran ŠL
HRAŠOVEC, Boris ŠL
|Nikola Šušić, Martin Bobinac, Siniša Andrašev, Mirjana Šijačić-Nikolić, Andrijana Bauer-Živković|| UDK 630* 232.3 + 815 (001)
|Growth characteristics of one-year-old Hungarian oak seedlings (Quercus frainetto Ten.) in full light conditions|
In silviculture, the characteristics of growth of seedlings in relation to light conditions are an important indicator of the success of natural regeneration. The paper shows the growth characteristics of one-year-old Hungarian oak seedlings in full light conditions in a field experiment conducted in 2016 in the nursery of the Faculty of Forestry in Belgrade. Four hundred seedlings were analyzed and classified according to the number of shoot growth flushes into three growth types: one-flush growth, two-flush growth and three-flush growth type. Within the analyzed four hundred seedlings, 39.8% belonged to the one-flush growth type, 58.2% to the two-flush growth type, and only 2.0% of the seedlings to the three-flush growth type. The one-flush growth seedlings have less leaves and lower values of height, root collar diameter and total leaf area, but they are characterized by a higher mean height of the primary axis (the height of the first growth flush), compared to the multi-flush growth seedlings. This is pointing out to different growth characteristics in the initial stage of development and during the growing season between different types of seedlings.
Key words: seedling growth types; single flushing; multiple flushing; root collar diameter; leaf area
|Ayhan Usta, Murat Yilmaz, Selvinaz Yilmaz, Yavuz Okunur Kocamanoglu, Esengül Genc, Ibrahim Turna|| UDK 630* 242 (001)
|The effects of thinning intensity on the growth of oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) plantations in Trabzon, NE Turkey|
In this study, the effects of first thinnings having different intensities in oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) plantation areas were investigated in terms of diameter and height growth of trees. Sample plots were chosen from oriental beech plantation areas which are within the boundaries of Maçka–Yeşiltepe and Vakfıkebir districts of Trabzon province, Turkey. With removing of 0%, 10%, 25% and 40% of basal area in a hectare of stands which are in sapling stage, sample plots were established by applying thinnings which are in four different intensities (control, light, moderate, strong). After the thinning applications, basal areas were calculated by measuring diameters and heights of trees in established sample plots in order to reveal stand growth. The effects of thinnings were revealed related to some stand characteristics (average diameter, basal area, average height, relative diameter increment, etc.) and determined chosen trees. The effect of thinning intensity on average diameter, basal area, and volume values is statistically important in every two plantations. 2-year results showed that thinning increased the diameter increment significantly, and the increase in diameter increment was positively correlated with the thinning intensity in both experiments. Moreover, increments of diameter, height, basal area, and volume were higher in Maçka-Yeşiltepe experiment than in Vakfıkebir experiment. But, the values of moderate and strong thinning intensities applied in Vakfıkebir were close to each other. When all the results are evaluated, application of strong thinning intensity for Yeşiltepe sample plot, the moderate thinning intensity for Vakfıkebir sample plot is seen appropriate by us in terms of both stand development.
Key words: Oriental beech; thinning intensity; growth; plantation; increments
Yavuz Okunur Kocamanoglu
|Yilmaz Turk, Murat Yildiz|| UDK 630* 377 + 424 (001)
|The effects of wood chips and slash usage on skid trail sheet erosion caused by log skidding using a farm tractor|
This study investigated the sheet erosion that occurs as a result of log skidding operations using a farm tractor on skid trails and the use of wood chips and slash in order to minimize the soil loss. A total of four blocks (sample fields) were formed in four designated skid trails in the study area and three runoff plots were established in each block. One of the runoff plots was left empty as a control (CNT). Wood chips (C) was placed in the second plot and logging residue slash (S) in the third. A total of 108 water samples were taken from the test sites, 36 from each of the control, wood chips and slash plots. The water samples were brought to the laboratory and placed in an heating oven. After the runoff water was evaporated, the remaining sediment was weighed on a sensitive scale. The specified value was calculated according to the total amount of runoff accumulated in the storage tank and the total suspended sediment it carried. As a result, the amount of the average runoff in the CNT was determined as 6.32 mm/m2, in the C as 6.13 mm/m2 and in the S as 6.03 mm/m2. The average amount of suspended sediment transported in the CNT was found as 2.58 g m-2, in the C as 1.61 g m-2 and in the S as 2.13 g m-2. Therefore, the amount of soil loss in the control plots was about 1.2 times higher than in the slash plots and 1.6 times higher than in the wood chips plots. In this study, variance analysis results showed a statistically significant difference between the suspended sediment quantities carried from the plots (p <0.05). This study demonstrated that logging residues can be used to reduce the sheet erosion that occurs in skid trails after log extraction.
Key words: skid trails; log skidding; sheet erosion; logging residues; rehabilitation; Turkey
|Kenan Zahirović, Osman Mujezinović, Mirza Dautbašić|| UDK 630* 453
|First record of parasitod (Platygaster robiniae) on black locust gall midge in Bosnia and Herzegovina|
Acacia is an allochthonous tree species that has been introduced into our region 400 years ago. Although the invasive species of Obolodiplosis robiniae in this region was first determined in 2007, significant damages have not been recorded on the acacia trees. Average number of galls on black locust leaflet were from 1,04 to 1,48. Average number of larvae in galls were from 0,42 to 0,77. In June of 2018, the first record of a parasitoid of black locust gall midge (Platygaster robiniae) was determined, although it is likely that was occured earlier, but this is the first record and represents a new species in the entomological complex in the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Parasitism of larvae of Obolodiplosis robiniae were from 6,66 to 14,28% on different localities.
Key words: black locust gall midge; parasitoid; Hymenoptera; Platygastridae.
|Ivana Plišo Vusić, Irena Šapić, Joso Vukelić|| UDK 630* 181.6 + 187
|Identification and mapping of Natura 2000 forest habitat types in Croatia (I) – 91E0*alluvial forest with black alder Alnus glutinosa and common ash Fraxinus excelsior (Alno-Padion, Alnion incanae, Salicion albae)|
Habitat type 91E0 in Croatia extends to approximately 80,000 ha. It contains 16 types according to the National habitat classification of Croatia (NHC). They are based on phytosociological principles and are aligned with the level of association. They are:
E.1. Riparian alluvial willow forests (Salicion albae Soó 1930), poplar (Populion albae Br.-Bl. 1931) and white alder forests (Alnion incanae Pawl. in Pawl. et al. 1928)
Riparian alluvial willow and poplar forests (Salicion albae, Populion albae)
E.1.1.1. – Salicetum albae-fragilis Soó (1930) 1958
E.1.1.2. – Salicetum albae Isller 1926
E.1.1.3. – Salici-Populetum nigrae (R. Tx. 1931) Meyer Drees 1936
E.1.2.1. – Populetum albae (Br.-Bl.) Tchou 1947
E.1.2.2. – Populetum nigro-albae Slavnić 1952
Alluvial white alder forests (Alnion incanae)
E.1.3.1. – Equiseto hyemali-Alnetum incanae M. Moor 1958
E.1.3.2. – Lamio orvalae-Alnetum incanae Dakskobler 2010
E.2. Floodplain forests of pedunculate oak, black alder and narrow-leaved ash (Alnion glutinosae Malcuit 1929, Alnion incanae)
Swamp and floodplain forests of black alder narrow-leaved ash (Alnion glutinosae)
E.2.1.4. – Frangulo-Alnetum glutinosae Rauš (1971) 1973
E.2.1.6. – Carici elongatae-Alnetum glutinosae W. Koch 1926 ex Tx. 1931
E.2.1.7. – Leucojo-Fraxinetum angustifoliae Glavač 1959
E.2.1.9. – Carici acutiformis-Alnetum glutinosae Scamoni 1935
Alluvial and wetland forests of black alder, elms, narrow-leaved and common ash (Alnion incanae)
E.2.1.1. – Fraxino angustifoliae-Ulmetum laevis Slavnić 1952
E.2.1.2. – Carici remotae-Fraxinetum excelsioris W. Koch 1926 ex Faber 1936
E.2.1.3. – Carici brizoidis-Alnetum glutinosae Horvat 1938
E.2.1.5. – Pruno-Fraxinetum angustifoliae Glavač 1960
E.2.1.8. – Stellario nemorum-Alnetum glutinosae Lohmayer 1957
The article contains a description, area of distribution in Croatia, and diagnostic indicators for each type. For each type related types are listed, the corresponding code according to EUNIS-classification, and literature in which is described in more detail.
This article has practical importance because it helps in the identification and mapping of forest habitat types, and these tasks are currently being implemented in the Croatian forestry.
Key words: 91E0* Natura 2000 habitat type; National habitat classification; Forest habitat types; hygrophilous species; Croatia
Ivana Plišo Vusić
VUKELIĆ, Joso ŠL