|At the end of 2022|
As in all the years preceding this one, we have tried to be up-to-date and express our thoughts not only on Croatian forestry but also on European and world forestry. The dynamics of various changes that are taking place on Planet Earth is increasingly affecting Croatian forests and forestry. This topic was discussed in several of our editorials. Thus, the same topic of energy appeared in the editorials of issue 3-4/2022 under the title “Do we use biomass as an energy source? If so, how do we use it?” and of issue 7-8/2022 entitled “Why do we lag behind in the green transition and energy independence?” Both headlines ended with a question mark, but the questions raised in the texts are still without answers. That this topic has been relevant for a long time can be deduced from the fact that it was already relevant in 2010. After all, the Croatian Forestry Association founded its section in 2005 under the name of Croatian Biomass Association as early as 2005. Through its activity of 17 years, the section has played a pioneering role in clarifying the importance of and educating about the use of the resources from our forests. The intention was to direct the Republic of Croatia towards reducing the use of fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions and increasing energy independence and climate neutrality.
The editorial in issue 5-6/2022 referred to the 15th World Forestry Congress held at the beginning of May in South Korea. The congress was held under the motto “Building a Green, Healthy and Resilient Future with Forests”. One of the conclusions read as follows: “Forests transcend political, social and environmental boundaries and are vital for biodiversity and the carbon, water and energy cycles at a planetary scale.” Prompted by past bad experience in the application of various declarations at the global level, we can only hope that mankind will finally realise that time for a more adequate attitude towards the planet is increasingly running out.
Issue 9-10/2022 focused on the local topic “Forests in the Service of Decentralisation and Demographic Recovery of Croatia”. While the population in the words is growing, the Republic of Croatia is undergoing the opposite trend of population ageing and decline. Europe, being an increasingly old continent, is experiencing the same problem. We believe that our forests provide an opportunity to reverse the negative depopulation trend and the growing deterioration of rural areas.
Let us hope that the editorials to come will bring us brighter tones. In this light, we say goodbye for this year. We wish all readers of Forestry Journal a pleasant holiday season, Merry Christmas and Happy New Year 2023.
|ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPERS|
|Nikola Pernar, Darko Bakšić, Mario Ančić, Ivan Perković|| UDK 630* 114 (001)
|Chemical properties of topsoil in relation to lithology and geomorphology of high karst|
The high mountain area of the Dinaric karst is characterized by a variety of relief forms, which in combination with humid climate and different relationships of dolomite and limestone, especially in terms of rate and nature of weathering, are an additional source of variability of soil physiography. In the Risnjak National Park, two sinkholes stand out in terms of dimensions (Viljska ponikva - VIP and Velika ponikva - VP), where we tested the hypothesis of the existence of significant differences in the physiography of the surface part of the soil. The aim was to investigate the extent to which the chemical characteristics of the surface part of the soil change along the shady and sunny slopes of the sinkhole and whether the difference between the two sinkholes is evident, given the difference in their lithological structure (VIP is sinkhole in limestone and VP is sinkhole in dolomitic limestones and calcite dolomites) and positions within the mountain massif. The research was carried out in such a way that in each sinkhole a transect was placed in the direction north-south over the bottom of the sinkhole, on which soil sampling was performed to a depth of 15 cm (or to the rock, if the soil is shallower). Sampling was performed on rows of profiles in 5 replicates, which were placed perpendicular to the transect with a height difference of 10 m (Fig. 1). In each sinkhole, 22 rows of profiles were set up, on which 110 soil samples were collected, and the pH value, carbonate content, organic carbon content and total nitrogen content were measured on them. The research showed that on the shady slope in VIP, in addition to vertical vegetation differentiation, there is also a differentiation of the nature of humus in the organic horizon (hemimor, modermor, sphagnomor). This differentiation is much less pronounced in the VP, and on the sunny slope in both sinkholes it is almost absent. In VP, the physical weathering of rocks (dolomitic substrate) is reflected in the physiography of the soil in the form of free carbonate and higher pH values (Figs. 9 and 10). In VIP the pH rises from the bottom towards the edge of the sinkhole, both on the shady and sunny slope, while in VP the pH value does not change significantly, both along the shady and along the sunny slope. A recognizable factor in the spatial variability of carbonate content and pH value of this soil is phytopedoturbation in the form of tree felling and ejection of carbonate particles on the surface of the sinkhole slope, where they are exposed to gravitational and water erosion and further redistribution down the slope.
At the shady slope in VIP, the share of organic carbon in the soil is significantly higher (377 g kg – 1) than the share at sunny slope (97 g kg – 1). At the shady slope the share of organic carbon decreases from the bottom to the edge of the sinkhole (Fig. 11), and a slight increase is evident on the sunny slope. In VP, the mean values on the slopes and the trends of these shares on the slopes in relation to VIP have the opposite relationship (Fig. 12). Similar relatios and trends are shown by the share of total nitrogen (Fig. 13), except at the bottom of the shady slope in VIP. Here, the share of Ntot is relatively low, and the share of Corg is relatively high, so only in this part within both transects does C/N differ significantly from the remaining parts of the transects (Fig. 14).
In conclusion, the soil physiography of deep karst sinkholes is strongly influenced by the nature of the rocks in terms of dolomiticity. The soil above the dolomite and dolomitic limestones is marked by carbonates. In deep sinkholes in solid limestone massifs, characteristic trends of soil pH and the content of organic carbon and total nitrogen can be expected on their shady slopes due to a very pronounced hydrothermal and bioclimatic trend. Analogous trends with characteristic gradients are absent on the sunny slopes of such sinkholes, which corresponds to the absence of a recognizable vegetation sequence.
Key words: soil; soil organic carbon; soil nitrogen; sinkholes; karst; Risnjak National Park
PERNAR, Nikola ŠL
BAKŠIĆ, Darko ŠL
ANČIĆ, Mario ŠL
PERKOVIĆ, Ivan ŠL
|Milica Kovač, Branislav Kovačević, Lazar Kesić, Erna Vastag, Vanja Vuksanović, Saša Orlović|| UDK 630* 231 (001)
|Variability and discrimination power of anatomical parameters in Juglans regia half-sib lines originating from natural stands in Đerdap gorge, Serbia in nursery conditions|
This paper presents analysis of anatomical parameters of leaves in Juglans regia half-sib lines from natural stands in Đerdap Gorge in Serbia. Thirty-five half-sib lines were examined, designated according to the number of their mother trees from R1-R35. Twenty measured and derived anatomical parameters were examined, describing stomatal and leaf blade cross-section traits. According to Hierarchical analysis of variance, variation of the majority of characters describing stomatal properties were significantly affected by effect of half-sib lines. The effect of variation between plants within half-sib lines was significant for all examined stomatal traits. However, in cross-section characters, the effect of differences between half-sib lines was significant only for thickness of spongy mesophyll (SL). The discrimination model with seven selected traits achieved 60.5% of correct allocation, while the correct allocation of the model with all 20 examined traits was 81.6%. According to the results of stepwise discriminant analysis, the most powerful trait in discrimination of these half-sib lines were stomatal aperture width/stomatal aperture length ratio (Wb/La) and stomatal aperture length/ stomata guard cell length ratio (La/LA). Presented results strongly support implementation of stomatal and cross-section leaf traits in further studies that would deal with description of variability of Juglans regia.
Key words: Persian walnut; multivariate analysis; conservation
|Milorad Danilović, Ljupčo Nestorovski, Slavica Antonić, Vladimir Puđa, Vladimir Ćirović|| UDK 630* 360 (001)
|Cost-effectiveness analysis of harvester John Deere 1470D Eco III in poplar (Populus × Canadensis) plantations – case study|
In the last few years, harvesters have been increasingly used in stands of deciduous tree species. The use of harvesters in Serbia began in 2008 with John Deere 1470D Eco III and it was used for felling trees and production of wood assortments in poplar plantations in the lowland area. The aim of this paper is to determine maximum profit by engaging a harvester in the given conditions, as well as to determine the total costs of the asset. Harvester achieved a total of 18,392 machine hours (MH), with an average of 1,415 hours per year. The average fuel consumption during the entire period was 16.3 l/h, or 0.76 l/m3. The highest cost of spare parts was in the 6th year (around 66,000 euros) and in the 12th year (around 82,000 euros). The total cost of spare parts and services was 656,878 euros. Based on the planning that the number of work days per year is 200, an amortization period of 7 years is obtained (the point of intersection of current and average profit growth). Results of this research indicate that harvesters older than 7 years should be replaced with new machines, due to high maintenance costs. However, these are only initial researches, which will be continued with data on several harvesters that have been procured in the meantime.
Key words: harvester; poplar plantations; costs; productivity; amortization
|Fahrettin Atar|| UDK 630* 164 (001)
|Population Variability of Common Hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) in North-Eastern Part of Turkey According to the Involucre Morphology|
The objective of this study was to investigate involucre morphological variability of common hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L., Betulaceae) populations in Turkey. In total, 12 natural populations of common hornbeam located in four different watersheds of the Eastern Black Sea Region were sampled from three different altitude zones up to 1200 m a.s.l. Involucres have been examined biometrically by analyzing 13 morphological characteristics. High phenotypic variability was determined both among and within the studied populations. Furthermore, grouping of populations according to the eco-geographic principle was revealed. Variation in most of involucre characteristics from the Camlıhemşin, Çaykara and Trabzon-Maçka watersheds appeared to be related mostly to altitude. The trees in the higher elevations were characterized with the smaller involucres than those in the lower elevations. However, this trend has not been observed in the populations from the Giresun-Espiye watershed. Moreover, trees from that region at lower altitude had the smallest involucres. Overall, our results confirm the Eastern Black see region as one of the hot spots of biodiversity and that the involucre morphological variability is the result of the complex evolutionary process related to the adaptation and plasticity.
Key words: common hornbeam; morphology; altitude; variation; population
|Korhan Enez, Gamze Savaci, Temel Sariyildiz|| UDK 630* 114 (001)
|Effects of logging residues and skid roads on litter decomposition rate and nutrient release of black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) and scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)|
Needle litter decomposition rate and nutrient releases of pure stands of black pine and Scots pine under the three different micro-ecologic sites (skidding road, the logging residues and mineral topsoil) and the control site (non-harvesting site) were studied. The needle litters of Black pine and Scots pine were initially analysed for total carbon and nutrient concentrations (N, P, K, Ca, S, Mg, Mn, and Fe). The litter decomposition experiment using the litterbags method was carried out in the field for 18 months. The Scots pine needle litters decayed faster than the black pine litters. Both the Scots pine and Black pine needle litters showed higher mean mass losses under the mineral topsoil and the logging residues than under the skid road and the control site.
Key words: litter quality; micro-ecological areas; litter decomposition; nutrient; Black and Scots pine
|Linda Bjedov, Marko Vucelja, Josip Margaletić||UDK 630* 159 (001) https://doi.org./10.31298/sl.146.11-12.6||529|
|Influence of body size and coloration on the mate choice in striped stink bug (Graphosoma lineatum L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)|
Female as well as male mate choice has already been recognized in many insects. The traits responsible for the mate choice in a striped stink bug (Graphosoma lineatum L.) are not yet explored. This works concentrates on few possible traits responsible for mate choice in a striped stink bug. For this analysis free living copulating individuals as well as the single ones were collected. On two different locations animals were collected and their body length, pronotum broadness and coloration were measured. No differences were found in all measured traits between copulating and control individuals, showing no preferences when choosing copulation partner. Results also show no evidence of assortative mating, referring to the body length and the pronotum broadness of both sexes. All three measured traits seem not to have an influence on the mate choice of both sexes. Further experimental testing is needed to fully excluded importance of body size and coloration in mate choice of a striped stink bug.
Key words: stink bug; mate choice; body size; coloration
MARGALETIĆ, Josip ŠL
|Goran Matijević, Velibor Peulić, Marijan Cesarik, Željko Zečić, Matija Landekić|| UDK 630* 304 + 964
|General qualification of injuries of road accident participants with reference to forestry|
The research shows that injuries in the world, as well as in Croatia, especially those resulting from traffic accidents, which are in the company Hrvatske šume Ltd. recorded as others, ie categorized along with other injuries at work, represent a significant public health and economic problem, for the wider community, but also for the company Hrvatske šume Ltd. At the same time, the planned measures and activities (primarily the National Road Safety Program of the Republic of Croatia, but also other plans from the state and company level) from year to year do not bring the expected results, ie the number of casualties is still high. Subject research seeks to mitigate the consequences of accidents, through the development of criteria for more accurate and precise classification of injuries as a prerequisite for many procedures, from treatment, rehabilitation, but also rights from employment and other relations, or proceedings before prosecutors, courts and insurance companies. The research covers an area that has not been researched so far or has been researched to a lesser extent in the Republic of Croatia and surrounding countries, and in addition to determining the framework for injury qualification, which should determine the cause-and-effect relationship of certain types of accidents (consecutive driving, side collision, head-on collision and overturning) and injuries that occur in them, with experiential and scientifically based notes related to individual injuries. In this way, the results of the research are an excellent tool, especially for those who are the first to qualify the injuries that a participant sustains in a car accident, or for the doctors who were the first to help the victims. The authors understand the complexity and severity of the moment in which these doctors qualify injuries (sometimes due to the severity of injuries and inability to contact with the injured). Namely, incorrect qualification in the first stage (although in possible future proceedings may be changed by expertise, which is not uncommon) may jeopardize the further course of treatment, rehabilitation, lead to unfounded criminal or misdemeanor proceedings or its absence even though it should have been conducted, and others numerous administrative and judicial proceedings of the participants in the accidents. Which for an individual and the community, and thus the company Hrvatske šume can have significant administrative difficulties and significant material costs. In addition to the primary goal of the research and its focus on doctors who are the first to qualify injuries, it should be useful for accident research services (police, state attorney’s office, courts, insurance companies, but also professional services of Hrvatske šume Ltd.), because they also offer the possibility of the reverse procedure, ie verification, especially in cases when the accident is subsequently reported, or the driver has left the scene, or there are doubts about the nature of the injured participant. Namely, the results of the research enable and instruct everyone involved in these processes, how to connect an individual injury - check with damage to the vehicle or suspect that it occurred there, or how to conduct a quality criminal investigation in this area, fix and describe damage and injuries. For employees of Hrvatske šume
Ltd. (but also all other services from the police, HGSS, to firefighters) who are not always able to call an ambulance in case of accidents with vehicles (because accidents happen on forest roads, often without a cell phone signal), or the arrival of an ambulance due to the distance is justifiably long, and the injured should be assisted, this work is extremely useful, because in addition to the qualification it describes the occurrence of damage in / on the vehicle and possible related injuries, and notes on how to recognize individual injuries. First aid to the injured, which, as we know, can in some cases save the life of the injured, but also reduce the consequences of the injury. The results of the research are classified into four overview tables for injury mechanisms in frontal collisions, side collisions, sequential collisions and vehicle overturns. The highest number of qualified injuries was found in frontal collisions (frontal) in which the largest number of injury mechanisms (4), and a total of 58 different injuries were identified, of which 24 qualify as ordinary serious bodily injury, 23 as particularly serious bodily injury, 10 as bodily injury and 1 as particularly severe with fatal consequences. For them, a total of 30 notes were entered in the tables, on how they are reported, what to pay attention to, etc. This indicates that these types of accidents are the most severe in terms of consequences (which are the most numerous for Hrvatske šume Ltd. when it comes to traffic accidents). In side collisions, the two most common mechanisms of injury were identified, and a total of 20 different injuries were identified, of which 8 qualify as ordinary serious bodily injury, 9 as particularly serious bodily injury and 3 as bodily injury. For these injuries, 10 notes are entered in the table. When the vehicle overturned, the three most common mechanisms of injury were identified, and a total of 16 different injuries were identified, of which 9 qualify as ordinary grievous bodily harm, 3 as particularly grievous bodily harm and 4 as bodily injury. 7 notes are entered in the table for these injuries. One injury mechanism was identified for collisions while driving in a sequence, and a total of 7 injuries were identified, of which 2 qualify as ordinary serious bodily injury and 5 as bodily injury. There are 2 notes for these injuries in the table. The presented statistical-analytical indicators of the company Hrvatske šume Ltd., along with other results of this research, are a good basis for further monitoring of injuries in the company, and can be a good basis for further identification (but also research on vehicle ergonomics and vehicle selection and protection, reduce the number and consequences of injuries) and assess the level of protection and safety at work in forest production, ie on the way to it, and increase competitiveness by developing mechanisms to improve educational, technical and safety competencies of human resources. And certainly, like the Ministry of the Interior, the indicators on the types of injuries to the god of uniformity should be harmonized with the terms from the Criminal Code described in this paper (especially severe, etc.).
Key words: traffic accidents; qualification of injuries; injuries at work; forestry
ZEČIĆ, Željko ŠL