|What does the new EU forest strategy for 2030 bring?|
The membership of the Republic of Croatia in the European Union, increasing globalisation and global climate change have a lasting effect on Croatian forests and forestry. Although 43 % of the EU’s land area is covered by forests, there was no common EU forest policy for the 2014 – 2020 period. Instead, there was a New Forest Strategy: for forests and the forest-based sector. The European Commission adopted and published a New EU Forest Strategy for 2030 in July of this year. The new strategy continues on the EU Biological Diversity Strategy for 2030. A core part of the European Green Deal, it anticipates a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55 % by 2030 and a climate-neutral continent by 2050. It also helps meet EU targets to increase CO2 removal through natural sinks under the Climate Act. The strategy gives forests, foresters and the forest-based sector a central role in meeting these targets. With their help, a European transition to a modern, climate-neutral, resource-efficient and competitive economy is expected.
The Strategy aims to obtain healthier, more resilient and biodiverse forests that can fulfil their socio-economic and environmental functions, enable the survival of the population in rural areas, ensure employment, as well as provide recreational functions that contribute to physical and mental health of citizens, thus achieving highly sustainable management. It also aims to reconcile the demand for wood and felling of forests within the limits of sustainability, to achieve optimal use of forests on the cascading principle, as well as a circular economy. The cascading principle has already been incorporated in the EU Forest Strategy for 2014 – 2020. In accordance with this principle, wood is used in the following order of priority: 1. wood products, 2. extension of their shelf life, 3. reuse, 4. recycling, 5. bioenergy, and 6. disposal.
The focus is on strict protection of all primary and old forests. The European Commission is developing guidelines on forestry in harmony with nature and inclusion in a voluntary certification programme “in harmony with nature”. Every effort should be made to prevent climate-related damage and increase forest resilience.
The Strategy sets financial incentives for forest owners and administrators to improve the quantity and quality of EU forests. The Commission has called on member states to adopt new financial schemes within the Common Agricultural Policy. An example of public and private payment programmes for ecosystem services is the Croatian tax levied for non-market forest functions, which has been attacked by the domestic public for years as one of the major parafiscal levies. It has consequently been considerably reduced and does not contribute beneficially to forests as it used to.
The European Commission expects a broad discussion on the future of European forests and invites citizens and communities to embrace the pledge to plant at least 3 billion additional trees by 2030 on the basis of the guiding principle: plant and grow the right tree, in the right place, for the right purpose The natural succession of abandoned rural areas is seen as the driving force in the effort to increase forest areas in the EU. The Commission’s Action Plan for the implementation of the pledge to plant 3 billion additional trees by 2030 has also been adopted, and the activities should start in the first quarter of 2022. All the activities will be constantly promoted and monitored, which is crucial for monitoring the progress as the planting project unfolds.
The strategy has been reviewed by users of wood raw material, who fear the reduction of quantities for use, but also by supporters of stricter environmental protection, who criticize the strategy for not being sufficiently clear and for lacking detailed guidelines for monitoring the achievement. As early as next year we will see to what extent the adopted guidelines of the European Commission will facilitate the implementation of the strategy and how much it will affect the various stakeholders related to forests.
|ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPERS|
|Željko Škvorc, Lucija Lisica, Vanja Zorić, Marko Bačurin, Krunoslav Sever|| UDK 630* 164 +111.8 (001)
|Functional differentiation of holm oak provenances in the east Adriatic coast|
Holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) is an evergreen tree species with natural distribution within the Mediterranean, from Portugal and Morocco on the west to the western coast of Turkey on the east part of its range. On the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, it occupies warmer localities on the coast of Istria and northern Adriatic islands while on the southern Adriatic islands as well as on the narrower coastal area south of Zadar it has a more continuous distribution. Given the size of the area of distribution, holm oak shows a big morphological and functional variability so certain populations differ according to the climate conditions in their area. This fact has been very well researched in the western and central part of its range, while the data for the eastern part, and thus for the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, are scarce. The great morphological and functional variability of holm oak reflects its great phenotypic plasticity. Although phenotypic plasticity is conditioned by the environment, it can also have a genetic basis through local adaptation to the established environmental conditions in different parts of the species’ area of distribution. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a differentiation of holm oak down the climatic gradient of the eastern Adriatic coast with respect to the functional characteristics of its leaves.
The research was conducted on three provenances of holm oak from the area of Pula and Zadar in the Republic of Croatia and Bar in Montenegro. During the winter of 2019, 12 leaves were sampled per 12 trees in each provenance in order to determine the specific leaf area (SLA). Additionally, acorns were collected beneath those trees with which an greenhouse experiment was established. In the experiment, a total of 64 plants were grown, of which 22 plants from the provenances of Pula and Zadar, and 20 plants from the provenance of Bar. In the second part of the vegetation period in 2020, one leaf was sampled from each plant with the aim of determining the specific leaf area (SLA). In addition, the rate of net photosynthesis (A) and the relative total chlorophyll content index (CCI) were measured in the greenhouse experiment. Measurements were performed in July and September of 2020. A was measured using a portable gas exchange measuring device LCpro + (ADC BioScentific, 2007), while the CCI was measured using the CCM-200 (Opti-Sciences, Tyngsboro, MA).
Analysis of the variance revealed a statistically significant difference among the studied provenances for most of the measured characteristics both on the leaves sampled in the natural habitat and on the young plants in the experimental plantation. Previous research on holm oak indicates that there is a functional differentiation of provenances on different climatic gradients in the central and western Mediterranean, with our results confirming this on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea. Young plants in the experimental plantation retain the same pattern of differentiation with respect to SLA as their mother trees in natural stands (Figure 1c). Such a result indicates that the differentiation of holm oak provenances is at least partly the result of genetic adaptation to local habitat conditions, i.e. that the holm oak on the eastern Adriatic coast as well as in other parts of its range could distinguish ecotypes. The sclerophilicity of the leaves described by SLA (Figure 1c) does not coincide with the average annual rainfall (Figure 1a), but with the amount of precipitation in the summer (Figure 1b) and the climate deficit of moisture (Figure 2a). The established pattern of provenance differentiation with respect to SLA and climatic conditions is followed by A measured on young plants in the experimental plantation. Therefore, Pula, which has the highest SLA and comes in the least arid climatic conditions, has the lowest A, while Zadar, which has the lowest SLA and comes in the most arid conditions, shows the highest values of A (Figures 1 and 2). This is in line with the literature that shows that the intensity of photosynthesis per unit leaf area in holm oak decreases with increasing SLA (Niinemets 2015, Peguero-Pina et al. 2017). Namely, the anatomical structure of holm oak leaves is adapted in such a way that those leaves that have a lower SLA also have better conductivity of CO2 through the mesophilic leaves and contain more nitrogen per unit area. Accordingly, the provenances of Zadar and Bar compared to the provenance of Pula had a lower SLA (Figure 1c) and a higher CCI (Figure 2b) which has a positive correlation with the nitrogen content in the leaves.
Holm oak could have a significant ability to functionally adapt to different climatic conditions. Accordingly, when considering the impact of climate change on natural populations of holm oak, its phenotypic plasticity should be considered, as well as the observed functional ecotypic differentiation.
Key words: Quercus ilex L.; sclerophilic leaf; specific leaf area; rate of net photosynthesis; climate
ŠKVORC, Željko ŠL
SEVER, Krunoslav ŠL
|Vlado Jumić, Tihomir Florijančić, Tomica Marić, Siniša Ozimec, Krešimir Krapinec||UDK 630* 156 (001) https://doi.org)10.31298/sl.145.9-10.2||423|
|May the trophy evaluation variables be utilized as population indices in cervids:Example of the red deer from the hilly part of the Pannonian plain?|
The most frequently utilized population quality indices in cervids were a fluctuating asymmetry or a branch length in yearlings. Nevertheless, unlike bovids, there has not been a reliable quality index so far that could also be applied at a later age. Therefore, an application reliability testing pertaining to certain elements of trophy measurement for the sake of difference detection between the cohorts was performed on a sample numbering 225 trophies of red deer stags from 11 cohorts. Although each of the nine trophy variables tested has succeeded in finding certain differences, the most reliable are the overall trophy value and circumferences (circumference of coronets, lower beam circumference and upper beam circumference). Since various trophy evaluation systems have been applied in the world, the implementation of the overall trophy value is limited only to the trophies evaluated pursuant to the CIC system. Hence, the most reliable indices are those based upon circumferences.
Key words: trophy evaluation; antlers; weight of dry antlers; lengths; circumferences; trophy value
JUMIĆ, Vlado ŠL
KRAPINEC, Krešimir ŠL
|Zoran Galić, Alen Kiš, Radenko Ponjarac, Miljan Samardžić, Anđelina Gavranović, Zoran Novčić, Irina V. Andreeva||UDK 630* 114 (001) https://doi.org)10.31298/sl.145.9-10.3||445|
|Analysis of soils spatial differentiation and productivity in forest management unit Muzljanski rit|
The paper presents analysis of soil spatial distribution and productivity of Populus x euramericana I-214 forest cultures in forest management unit (hereinafter: FMU) Muzljanski rit. Soil cover in the FMU is heterogeneous in relation to position and altitude in floodplain. Analysis were conducted on eugley and humogley soil types. Eugley, soil type, was delineated according to physiologically active soil depth as α, β or β/γ gley soils and humogley was delineated as one soil unit. Cultures of the poplar clones Populus x euramericana I-214 are found on at least two but usually more different site types within the same forest management section (18.43 %). Single forest management section is a by definition a single forest spatial unit having similar ecologic factors. Aim of our research was to enable consistent forest section delineation, based on the interaction of soil productivity properties and distribution as well as Populus x euramericana I-214 productivity dataset. Based on our anaysis (spatial analysis of raster layers of soil systematic unit distribution-soil subunit, digital elevation model and productivity according to inner delineation of FMU Muzljanski rit), the resuts show eugley share in lower systematic soil unit. The results show contribution of lower systematic units of eugley in forest managemet section/culture. We found a raising trend of α and β-gley, as well as humogley. On one side the higher contribution of this sistematic units indicates reduction in the forest culture yield. On the other side higher contribution of β/γ gley indicates an increase of culture yeald. The Populus x euramericana I-214 cultures are spatialy concentrated, extending over soil units with different characteristics, pointing in alternative economicaly justified section delineation, based on the soil types.
Key words: Muzljanski rit; analysis; GIS; soil; productivity
GAVRANOVIĆ, Anđelina ŠL
Irina V. Andreeva
|Milica Caković, Aleksandar Baumgertel, Sara Lukić, Nada Dragović, Miodrag Zlatić|| UDK 630* 164 (001)
|Effects of biological works within the integrated watershed management of torrent catchments in the area of Grdelica Gorge and Vranjska Valley (Serbia)|
Integrated watershed management is based on the application of various biological and technical works, and administration measure to reduce the degradation process. The paper presents an analysis of the effects of performed biological works as part of integrated watershed management within the Grdelica Gorge and Vranjska Valley. Extensive erosion control works were carried out in the second half of the 20th century. As vegetation is one of the key factors in mitigating the erosion process, the paper presents the trend of connecting the surface with the vegetation cover, which results from implemented biological measures. Using multispectral satellite imagery (Landsat missions) for 1972, 1986, 1996, and 2017, the vegetation index (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index – NDVI) was analyzed in torrent basins, which were afforested to control severe erosion processes. The increasing trend of vegetated areas was recorded in period from 1986 to 1996 (very low vegetation coverage 40.19 % in 1986 and 8.19 % in 1996, respectively), which continues to grow until 2017 when the very low vegetation coverage was 0.26 %, and moderately high vegetation coverage was 50.63 %.
Key words: integral watershed management; erosion; NDVI; remote sensing
|Deniz Güney, Ali Bayraktar, Fahrettin Atar, Ibrahim Turna||UDK 630* 232 (001) https://doi-org/10.31298/sl.145.9-10.5||467|
|The effects of different factors on propagation by hardwood cuttings of some coniferous ornamental plants|
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Ellwoodii’, Cryptomeria japonica ‘Elegans’ and x Cupressocyparis leylandii have great importance in terms of usage areas as ornamental plant. The overcoming the problem, that may be encountered in generative propagation of these taxa, using vegetative propagation method are very important for producers dealing with park and garden works. It was investigated that the effects of different greenhouse medium, rooting medium and phytohormones on propagation by hardwood cutting of studied taxa. In this study, three greenhouse medium (Greenhouse-1, 2 and 3 medium), two rooting medium (perlite and peat) and four phytohormones (IBA 1000, IBA 5000, NAA 1000 and NAA 5000 ppm) were selected. The first root and callus formation dates, rooting percentage, callus percentage, root length and the number of roots were determined. The results showed that the highest rooting percentages for C. lawsoniana ‘Ellwoodii’ were obtained as 100% in peat rooting medium (IBA 1000 ppm) at Greenhouse-2 medium and Greenhouse-3 medium and perlite rooting medium (control) at Greenhouse-3 medium. On the other hand, the highest rooting percentages for C. japonica ‘Elegans’ were obtained as 100% in IBA 1000, IBA 5000 and NAA 1000 ppm treatments at Greenhouse-1 medium, while this value for x C. leylandii occurred in NAA 5000 ppm treatment (73.33%) at Greenhouse-2 medium, in perlite rooting medium for both. The conditions required for the best rooting in cutting propagation vary according to the species studied, and generally, auxin applications, rooting medium temperature 5 °C higher than air temperature and use of perlite rooting medium can be recommended.
Key words: Cutting propagation; greenhouse medium; rooting medium; auxin; rooting percentage
|Damir Ugarković, Matko Matijević, Ivica Tikvić, Krešimir Popić|| UDK 630* 111.8
|Some features of climate and climatic elements in the area of the city of Zagreb|
Climate as an average weather condition is determined by average values, but also by fluctuations of climatic elements. Given that climate is the most important habitat factor, it is necessary to observe, describe and monitor its changes. Data on air temperature (°C), precipitation (mm) and relative humidity (%) values were collected for meteorological stations Grič, in the city centre, and Maksimir, in the suburban part of the city. Based on the observed and measured climatic elements, various climate indices were calculated that describe the climate of the city of Zagreb in more detail. An analysis of the trend of the Palmer dryness index (scPDSI) was made. Air temperature (°C), precipitation amount (mm) as well as the amount of potential evapotranspiration (mm) had significantly higher values in the city centre compared to the suburban part of the city. The suburban part of the city is more humid compared to the city centre. The trend of the Palmer dryness sharpness index for April, July and August indicates an increase in aridity in the Zagreb area.
Key words: climate; Zagreb; urban ecosystem
UGARKOVIĆ, Damir ŠL
TIKVIĆ, Ivica ŠL
|Katarina Tumpa, Marilena Idžojtić, Mirna Ćurković-Perica, Marin Ježić, Davor Juretić, Damir Drvodelić, Mario Šango, Milovan Žigante, Igor Poljak|| UDK 630* 181.5
|Vegetative propagation of sweet chestnut and marrons|
Selected varieties of sweet chestnut called marrons are cultivated for their large and exquisite fruits. Most of the countries with native sweet chestnut populations have their autochthonous varieties that were arduously created through selective breeding over many centuries. Marron cultivation has a long history in Croatia, mostly in the Lovran area and its surroundings. Although threatened by pests and diseases, as well as land abandonment, some growers still practice the traditional cultivation methods. This paper provides an overview of the most common vegetative propagation methods utilized for the sweet chestnut and marrons sapling production, as well as a shorter overview of cultivation methods, breeding, and the importance of marron plantations in Croatia. Identical fruit characteristics can be inherited by progenies only through faithful passing on of the parent’s genotype, thus marrons are propagated vegetatively. Grafting is the most common method of vegetative propagation of marrons in tree nurseries. Other vegetative methods discussed are propagation by layering, cuttings and tissue culture, occasionally used in the reproduction of sweet chestnut.
Key words: vegetative propagation; grafting; marrons; sweet chestnut; varieties
IDŽOJTIĆ, Marilena ŠL
DRVODELIĆ, Damir ŠL
ŠANGO, Mario ŠL