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HR  EN   



Scientific-technical and professional journal
of Croatia Forestry Society
                         Issued continously since 1877.
       First issue of this web edition start with number 1-2/2008.
   ISSN No.: 1846-9140              UDC 630*https://doi.org/10.31298/sl

Portal of scientific
journals of Croatia
   Issued by: Croatian Forestry Society

   Address: Trg Mažuranića 11, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
   Phone/fax: ++385 1 4828477
   e-mail: urednistvo@sumari.hr
   Editor in Chief: Josip Margaletić

Uredništvo   105
On the occasion of March 21st, International Day Of Forests      
In 2012, the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed the 21st of March as the International Day of Forests to raise awareness of the importance of all types of forests for the benefit of humankind and the environment. By establishing the International Day of Forests, the UN encourages all countries to undertake efforts to organise different local, national and international forest-related activities, involving the protection and preservation of forests, with special emphasis on tree planting campaigns.
This year, the International Day of Forests in Croatia was marked by various activities, such as the appropriate planting of forest trees, an expert panel dedicated to innovations and sustainable development in forestry, as well as numerous articles on forests. It is evident that forests are gaining in importance not only as a natural resource but also as a source of other values. Forests and forest land (along with potable water, the sea and agricultural land) are the most important natural resource of the Republic of Croatia. They ensure favourable living conditions: pure air, clean and fertile soil, clean water and beneficial climate. Forests are a treasury of biological diversity. They are the only renewable source of wood matter.
This year’s theme of the International Day of Forests was Forests and Health, or Healthy Forests for Healthy People. The health function of forests stems from the long-known beneficial effect of forests on the physical and mental health of people. Forests provide areas for recreation, recovery and rest. They have a beneficial effect on people’s health by purifying air and water, protecting against noise and creating beautiful environment. It is not surprising, therefore, that people rushed to the forests during the Covid-19 pandemic.
However, the provision of health and other functions of forests depends on the optimal condition of forests, which results from adequate forest management. Management should be implemented in every forest, regardless of its purpose or owner. Silvicultural treatments in forests should ensure their optimal development and prevent forest risks. By doing so, forests will be equipped with powerful defence mechanisms and will be prepared for forest risks. Should forest damage occur, it should be rectified as soon as possible, and forests should be regenerated and tended in order to be healthy, vital, productive and capable of natural regeneration.
Forest health has been recognized as one of the leading challenges of Croatian forests and forestry of recent times. Since 2013, large complexes of Croatian forests have repeatedly been exposed to extraordinary and intensive biotic, abiotic and anthropogenic stress factors, such as the rapid spread of pests and plant diseases, ice breaks, wind breaks and forest fires. Their increasingly frequent occurrence and high intensities are associated with climate change. Forests, forestry and the society as a whole suffer extensive ecological and economic damage. In the continental part of Croatia, intensive damage has been recorded in forests of narrow-leaved ash, pedunculate oak, common beech, silver fir and Norway spruce. In the Mediterranean area, forest fires threaten forests of Aleppo pine, black pine, holm oak and pubescent oak.
This is why the role of forests and forestry in creating and preserving favourable living conditions for humans and the entire biological diversity has never been as important as it is at present times. Forests and forestry can significantly contribute to mitigating climate change. Only by responsible management of forests, by prioritising the tending, regeneration and protection of forests, and by not viewing forests only as a source of raw wood or a passively protected object of nature can we preserve our forests and all their values.
Editorial Bord

Aydn Kahriman, Abdurrahman Şahin, Turan Sönmez, Mehmet Yavuz  UDK 630* 622+228 (001)
Growth models for natural stands of Calabrian pine in the central Mediterranean region of Türkiye      
Stand growth models are needed for a variety of forestry practices, primarily management plans and silvicultural studies. The goal of this study was to create stand-level models for natural, pure even-aged stands of Calabrian pine in the central Mediterranean region of Turkey. The study area consists of pure and natural Calabrian pine stands located within the boundaries of the Antalya and Mersin Regional Forestry Directorates in the central Mediterranean region of Turkey. Data was collected from 486 temporary plots scattered throughout the region. Two trees (the dominant tree and the tree representing the quadratic mean diameter of the stand) were measured in each plot, yielding 972 trees. The data showed that the age varied from 6 to 135 years, the site index (SI) from 8.5 to 33.5 m, and the density from 0.3 to 12.4. The density-dependent yield tables were generated using regression equations based on stand age, SI, and stand density with individual, two-factor, and three-factor interaction effects. For SI classes I, II, and III, the optimal rotation period that would result in the highest yields for pure Calabrian pine stands is 60, 65, and 75 years, respectively. The stand growth models developed (i.e., density-dependent yield tables) agreed with the fundamental growth principles and data provided in the literature.

Key words: stand models; density-dependent yield table; Calabrian pine; density; Generalized Algebraic Difference Approach (GADA)

    Aydn Kahriman  
    Abdurrahman Şahin  
    Turan Sönmez  
    Mehmet Yavuz  
Sercan Gulci, Neşe Gulci, Dalia Abbas, Hasan Serin, Kvanç Yuksel  UDK 630* 831+360 (001) https://doi.org./10.31298/sl.147.3-4.2 121
Evaluating the carbon monoxide mission from chainsaw exhaust outlet      
In many countries, two-stroke chainsaws have been actively used in forest operations. Chainsaw operators are exposed to harmful gases and particulates generated by the exhaust of the two-stroke hand-held chainsaw. In this study, carbon monoxide (CO) parts per million (ppm) exposure of operators working with a chainsaw at 1900-2000 revolutions per minute (rpm) was investigated by mixing oil-fuel at a ratio of Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) 10W motor oil (2.5%) and 95-octane unleaded gasoline. To investigate the presence of CO at a short distance, the relationship between exposure time and distance from the source were divided into groups. The result of the statistical analysis has shown that the average amount of CO emitted from the chainsaw was 1683 ppm at a distance of 0 (±4 cm) cm, 343.6 ppm at a 10 cm distance, 252.3 ppm at a 20 cm distance and 86.5 ppm at a 30 cm distance. The analysis of variance, according to the distance, has shown the amount of CO (ppm) to be statistically significant (p <0.05). If the chainsaw operator is working very close to the chainsaw, CO exposure will be observed, which translates to a negative impact on their health and work efficiency. Therefore, training should be conducted to increase the awareness of the proximity to the chainsaw and the operators and the importance of using personal protective equipment. In addition to training support, the use of the new generation of chainsaw engines should also be encouraged and promoted to minimize CO emissions.

Key words: Forestry; timber production; two-stroke gasoline engine; emissions exposure; carbon monoxide; operator health

    Sercan Gulci  
    Neşe Gulci  
    Dalia Abbas  
    Hasan Serin  
    Kvanç Yuksel  
Bilal Çetin  UDK 630* 630+232.3 (001)
The effect of altitude and closed cone (seed) age on germination in red pine (Pinus brutia Ten.)      
This study investigated changes in the germination rate and germination percentage of seeds obtained from closed pine cones (Pinus brutia Ten.) of different ages collected at different altitudes. The seeds used in the study were obtained from closed cones (3/control, 4, 5, 6, and 7 years old) in the lower (0-200 m) and higher (800-1000 m) altitude zones of the Mersin-Anamur region in a section from the sea to the interior. The seeds germinated in the dark at a constant temperature of 20 °C for 28 days. At the end of the germination test, a two-way analysis of variance was performed on the germination percentage data on the 10th, 14th, and 28th days, and the interactions between altitude and cone age were found to be significant (p = 0.05). As a result of the significant interaction between the two groups, the mean separation test (Tukey test) showed that the highest germination rate was 89.0% in the control group, and the lowest was 77.5% in the 7-year-old cones. In the higher altitude zone, the highest germination rate was 74.0% and the lowest was 71.0%, obtained from 5- and 7-year-old seeds, respectively. In general, germination values in the lower altitude zone were higher than those in the higher altitude zone. However, the decrease in germination values from the control to the 7-year-old seeds was greater in the lower altitude zone than in the higher altitude zone. The study found that altitude was more effective than cone age on the germination rate and percentage.

Key words: Red pine; closed cone; germination rate; germination percentage

    Bilal Çetin  
Igor Poljak, Katarina Tumpa, Antonio Vidaković, Mirna Ćurković-Perica, Marin Ježić, Zlatko Šatović, Zlatko Liber, Marilena Idžojtić  UDK 630*+630+165+907
Conservation and management of sweet chestnut genetic resources      
Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) is a noble, multi-purpose hardwood species. In addition to ­edible fruits and high-quality wood, chestnut forests have been used as a source of various resources since the antiquity. Intensive management of forests and stands, however, together with the emergence of chestnut blight, has led to their decline and dieback. As a result, in numerous European countries multidisciplinary projects were initialized, with goals of conserving the genetic resources of the ­species, as well as reestablishing its significance in rural and forest ecosystems. In this paper, an overview of the most important long-term gene conservation strategies is presented, with suggestions for ­guidelines for application of in situ and ex situ conservation methods in Croatia.

Key words: gene conservation; conservation units; provenance; genetic diversity; forest reproductive material

    Igor Poljak  
    Katarina Tumpa  
    Antonio Vidaković  
    Mirna Ćurković-Perica  
    Marin Ježić  
    Zlatko Šatović  
    Zlatko Liber  
    IDŽOJTIĆ, Marilena      ŠL
Jasnica Medak, Ivana Sirovica, Joso Vukelić  UDK 630*228+332+653
Forest clearing typology      
Forest clearings, forest gaps and canopy openings are very important habitat elements of diverse, balanced and mostly mature forest stands. As an indispensable part of developing stable forest complexes, formed by localized stand openings, forest clearings are characterized by structural uniqueness and constant variability (White and Pickett 1985, Runkle and Yetter 1987, Busing and White 1997, Schliemann and Bockheim 2011).
Despite numerous studies of forest clearings in various types of forest ecosystems around the world, the insufficient knowledge of such habitat forms in our area, as well as the syndynamic variability related to climate and geographical position, represent the biggest source of their categorization difficulties. Additional challenge of forest clearings in Croatia is their role in forest management programme within the Natura 2000 preservation network (OG 7/06), where non-selective control measure prescription in practice can lead to undesirable consequences of other forest habitat types. For this reason, this widely understood vegetation term “forest clearing” represents, not just a challenge in forest management, but potentially practical problem of control measure implementation.
In order to clarify and approximate the existing terminology issues, this paper, based on applicable research, established structural categorization of forest clearings regarding their origin, type (shape), size, location and vegetation affiliation in accordance with the National Habitat Classification of the Republic of Croatia, as well as proposed types of sustainable control measures. The results are subjected to subsequent changes and/or additions and can be used as fundamental starting point for future research of forest clearings in our area.

Key words: structural characteristics of forest clearings; vegetation of forest clearings; forest clearings dynamics

    MEDAK, Jasnica    ŠL
    Ivana Sirovica  
    VUKELIĆ, Joso      ŠL
Ana Šujica, Martina Obradović, Mia Lovreković, Veronika Šušnjara, Dominik Paparić, Željko Španjol, Boris Dorbić  UDK 630* 652
Valorization of significant trees in Šibenik-Knin County      
Significant (old, valuable) trees, in addition to their cultural value, they increase value of the “local” property and also affect the aesthetic values of the environment. The goal of this work was to was to valorize (aesthetic and functional characteristics of significant trees on public urban landscape areas of the Šibenik-Knin County), for the purpose of creation a cadaster of significant trees. Field research was conducted on 10 micro-locations during the period from 2019 to 2020, on the territory of Šibenik-Knin County. Selected significant trees (131 individuals in 10 micro-locations, i. e. Knin 1 (21), Knin 2 (2), Primošten 1 (6), Primošten 2 (20), Šibenik 1 (9), Šibenik 2 (1) and Šibenik 3 ( 1), Zaton 1 (16) and Zaton 2 (6), Skradin (49) were evaluated by the VTA method (Visual control method). When summarizing the conducted research, it was concluded that most of the trees are in relatively good condition. The survey was conducted on 102 respondents across the County. The average ratings obtained from the respondents on the aesthetic and functional characteristics of significant trees on public urban landscpe areas were as follows: Šibenik 1 (4,15), Zaton 2 (3,96), Zaton 1 (3,71), Šibenik 2 (3,61), Skradin 1 (3,53), Primošten 2 (3,49), Knin 1 (3,26), Primošten 1 (3,20), Šibenik 3 (3,10) and Knin 2 (2,93).

Key words: significant trees; cadaster; valorization; public urban landscape areas; Šibenik-Knin County

    Ana Šujica  
    Martina Obradović  
    Mia Lovreković  
    Veronika Šušnjara  
    Dominik Paparić  
    ŠPANJOL, Željko      ŠL
    Boris Dorbić