|How is the leased forestland used?|
The Law on Changes and Amendments to the Forest Act (Official Gazette 68/18, 115/18, 98/19, 32/20 and 145/20) has been announced. There are several issues to be resolved by the changes and amendments, but here we focus only on the part that concerns the use of leased forestland in state ownership. The lease of forestland is conducted pursuant to the regulations on the lease of forestland owned by the Republic of Croatia (Official Gazette 55/19). Special revisions of the amendments to the Forest Planning Regulation (Official Gazette 31/20) allow for the use of non-wood forest products (mainly grazing) even in areas previously banned for grazing by forest management plans. Almost two thousand contracts have so far been concluded on short-term and long-term lease of about 55 thousand ha of forestland. The majority of the contracts relates to grazing. With this method of forest land usage, the Republic of Croatia, as the owner of the land, wants to achieve several strategic goals, such as retaining the population in rural and karst areas, increasing the security of food supply, ensuring economic sustainability in the livestock sector, protecting biological diversity, preserving the landscape and others. The public forest owner who manages forestland acquires additional income, but also encounters hitherto unknown problems in business. It is still not fully defined whether and how the lessee may fence the area he uses for grazing purposes. The Management Board of the company Croatian Forests has issued an Instruction on the conditions for installing an electric fence on a leased property, but it is not yet in use in the field. Installing electric fences causes major problems in the field because the wires are also placed across forest roads, which hinders traffic of the vehicles of Croatian Forests. Even worse, fire engines have no free passage in the event of fire, which is not a rare occurrence in spring and summer months. Wires placed over living trees damage them. On surfaces next to leased areas trees become damaged and bark is peeled off by horses, probably due to insufficient food. Such trees will eventually die. Forest offices calculate forest damage, but this does not solve the problem. The only solution is to terminate contracts with such lessees. Very little attention is paid to the control of leased forestland. Grassland vegetation in parts of these areas is often completely destroyed due to excessive numbers of livestock in a small area. These areas provide water, food and night shelter to cattle. It will take a long time for such areas to revert to their original state; however, karst areas will never recover. The Regulation stipulates that a lease may be obtained if the lessee has less than 3.3 ha per head of cattle, which means that the optimal area per cattle is 3.3 ha, but this happens very rarely. The problem is that there are many more cattle over 3.3 ha than necessary, which destroys the used surface. It should also be stressed that fires breaking out in agricultural areas in spring, and less in summer months, spread to forests. Fires almost always affect surfaces leased for the purpose of grazing. None of the lessees participates actively in extinguishing fires or in any way protects the leased area from fires. All this raises a suspicion that the grass in leased areas is burned on purpose because these areas are not used in accordance with the contract, or in other words, they are not used for cattle grazing but solely for the purpose of receiving financial incentives. It is up to the Agency for Incentives in Agriculture, Fishery and Rural Development to control the areas for which incentives are being paid.
Mountaineers, hikers and other visitors to areas such as nature parks often report threats of attacks by cattle and dogs that roam freely over both leased and unleased surfaces. There have been cases of attacks on mountain trails with severe consequences.
Since time immemorial cattle has grazed in forests and forest meadows, but always under surveillance, which prevented the occurrence of these and similar problems. Implementing better control in the field by the Agency for Incentives in Agriculture, Fisheries and Rural Development and imposing sanctions on users would improve the situation in the field. It has also been observed that the livestock in certain areas is in a rather bad condition due to droughts and thirst in the summer and cold and lack of food in the winter. This calls for more intensive involvement of animal protection associations.
|ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPERS|
|Ida Katičić Bogdan, Višnja Jurkić, Ivana Brlek, Marko Bačurin, Saša Bogdan|| UDK 630* 165.+181.8 (001)
|Genetic diversity of reproductive and phenological traits and their interrelationships in a clonal seed orchard of Wild Cherry (Prunus avium L.)|
Wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a species of discontinuous range that grows in the mixed forests of southern, central and western Europe. In forestry, long-term breeding programs aim to improve the quality and production of its wood. In Croatia, on the basis of eight phenotypic criteria of wood mass quality, a selection was carried out in the area of three seed regions and 27 wild cherry trees were selected. A clonal seed orchard was established in the area of the Kutina Forestry office in the year 2002. For the purpose of this research, a sample of 24 clones, represented by three ramets each, was selected in the orchard (Table 1). One exemplary branch was selected and marked on each ramet. The full length of the selected branch and all its shoots bearing flowers and fruits was measured. The circumference of the ramet was measured at a height of 50 cm and converted into a diameter. In March of 2013, all generative buds (PUP) were counted on exemplary branches, on each ramet, before opening. In April, flowers (CV) were counted, and on a sample of 20 inflorescences, the number of flowers in inflorescence (BRC). In June, all the fruits on the exemplary branches were counted. The number of buds, flowers or fruits was reduced to 100 cm of branch length for all measured ramets. The variable Bud realisation (IPUP) was calculated for each ramet as the ratio of the actual number of flowers to the potential number of flowers (formula in Material and Methods). Fruit set (ZPL) was calculated as the ratio of flowers to fruits. In the period from April 10 to June 6, 2013, on the same ramets on which the measurements were made, phenological observations of the flowering of wild cherry were carried out (Figure 1). Derived phenological variables are OP - beginning of bud opening (bud burst) –
number of days from January 1, 2013 until the day when the ramet entered phenophase 1, PR - beginning of receptivity - number of days until the day when the ramet entered phenophase 2, ZR - end of receptivity - number days until the day when the ramet entered phenophase 6, TR – the difference ZR – PR, i.e. the number of days the ramet spent in phenophases 2 – 6, PVR – the beginning of the peak of receptivity - the number of days until the day when the ramet entered phenophase 3, ZVR - the end of the peak of receptivity - the number of days until the last day that the ramet spent in phenophase 5, TVR - the duration of the peak of receptivity - the difference ZVR - PVR, i.e. the number of days that the ramet spent in phenophases 3 - 5, KR - the amount of receptivity - sum coefficients of female fertility for individual phenophases in which the ramet was found on given observations. The coefficients were calculated based on the table of female fertility percentages from Diaz and Merlo (2008) (Table 2). The results of descriptive statistics for the variables PUP, CV, IPUP, PL and ZPL are shown in Table 3 and Figure 2, together with a graph of the average intraclonal variability coefficients. On the basis of meteorological data for Kutina in 2012 and 2013, the parameters for meeting the needs of plants for winter inactive temperatures (Winter chilling), as well as spring temperatures, necessary for the initiation of juices and the beginning of the vegetation period (Forcing), according to Luedeling et al. 2013, were calculated. (The Chilling Hours Model, The Utah Model for “Winter chilling” and the Growing Degree Hours Model for “Forcing”). Based on geographical coordinates, the altitudes of the original mother trees were determined. The goal of the research was to determine the diversity of some reproductive traits on wild cherry clones from the clonal seed orchard Kutina, to determine the relationship between these traits, the relationship with vegetative growth traits and phenological traits. In doing so, an effort was made to place the observed relationships in the context of data on environmental conditions at the time of flowering and fruiting. From the observed generative variables and bud burst (OP), the clones differed statistically significantly in all variables (CV, BRC, IPUP, ZPL, PL, OP) except for the number of generative buds (PUP) (ANOVA - Table 4). These differences in BRC and CV were caused by differences between clones with extreme values, while most of the other clones did not differ statistically significant from each other (Tukey Kramer test), but the statistical significance of interclonal differences increased by variables from bud stage to final fruiting. The most statistically significant differences between clones were found for the bud burst (OP) (Table 5), where intraclonal diversity was also significant. The weather conditions in 2012 and 2013 were relatively favorable and the plants met their needs (Winterchilling and Forcing). Fruit setting values (ZPL) were in line with other researches or even higher, which indicates a satisfactory reproductive potential of these clones in case of favorable weather conditions, presence of pollinators and timely control of pests. In this research, we found a positive correlation between the initial number of generative buds, and the subsequent number of flowers and, finally, fruits. The initial number of buds was positively correlated with fruit set itself. It was also shown that clones that entered the peak of receptivity earlier (PVR) were more successful in fruiting and fruit setting (Table 6). However, the realisation of buds (IPUP) as a ratio of the actual and potential number of flowers showed the opposite trend, which is not in accordance with the mentioned research, but corresponds to the frequent observation about the mutual competition of not only the vegetative and generative organs of the plant, but also the mutual competition of the generative organs. Phenological variables were significantly correlated with altitude, indicating that the later clones came originally from higher altitudes. Later clones have statistically significantly smaller diameter ramets. Phenological variables were mostly not significantly correlated with reproductive traits, with the exception of IPUP and ZPL. With the IPUP trait, later clones, which had a later onset of bud burst (OP) and flower receptivity (PR – entry into phenophase 2), had better bud realisation, but subsequently weaker fruit set (ZPL).
Key words: Prunus avium; flowering; fruiting; phenology; correlations; fruit set; interclonal variability
KATIČIĆ, Ida ŠL
BOGDAN, Saša ŠL
|Krunoslav Teslak, Marijana Andabaka, Andrea Mertini, Karlo Beljan, Mislav Vedriš|| UDK 630* 622+631 (001)
|Choice of adaptive forest management model based on long-term projection in dinaric fir-beech stands|
Uneven-aged beech-fir forests cover approximately 157 000 hectares in Republic of Croatia. During the history they have been managed according to different management systems, varying from even-aged to selection management. As a result of historical integration of Croatian forestry into the German forestry school, alongside with unique ecological characteristics of Dinaric area, selection management system has been practiced in Croatia’s forestry ever since. Today, due to various reasons majority of beech-fir forests in Croatia have transitional structure between even-aged and selection structure. It is characterized by large growing stock, small increment, low vitality, poor fir regeneration and increasing share of beech. Example of such case is permanent experimental plot situated in Croatia’s north Dinaric area and managed by “Croatian forests” Ltd., which is a subject of this research. The aim of this research is to explore different annual cut models which will in future direct forest into stabile and optimal growth rate in selection structure with adequate volume share of fir. Input data have been acquired from successive measurements on permanent experimental plot in beech-fir stand. Tree growth simulator MOSES version 3.0 was tested for applicability in local conditions and has been used for projecting future stand‘s growth. Four scenarios based on different cutting models have been used to simulate possible types of future management emphasizing fir natural regeneration, establishment and maintenance of selection structure with targeted volume share of fir versus beech, and also supporting valuable broad-leaved species. All scenarios represent fir volume reduction followed by aggressive beech regeneration and partially accomplishment of selection structure in long-term. Thus, obtained different future stand structures were compared and ranked based on stand attributes and economic indicators. Annual cut based on decennial volume increment and stocking has been found best scenario from aspects of ecological, management and economic sustainability.
Key words: beech-fir forests; growing stock; cut assessment; management model; MOSES tree growth model
TESLAK, Krunoslav ŠL
BELJAN, Karlo ŠL
VEDRIŠ, Mislav ŠL
|Milica Marčeta, Ljiljana Keča, Stjepan Posavec, Sreten Jelić||UDK 630*901 (001) https://doi.org./10.31298/sl.147.1-2.3||39|
|Socio-economic characteristics of forestry companies in the Republic of Serbia|
Considering that companies in the sector of forestry and the related sector of wood processing exist in a dynamic and changing economic environment, the ability of fast adaptability to the emerging changes is a prerequisite for efficient and effective business. In that sense, a wholesome review of internal factors, as well as the external ones, is important for creating business strategies and achieving a better market and competitive positioning. In order to provide insight into the socio-economic characteristics and the market environment in which they operate, 32 companies from the field of forestry and wood processing in the central Serbia have been analysed. The goal of this research was to gain insight into the opinions and attitudes of the respondents from companies towards particular aspects of the market. The purpose of this research was to acknowledge and understand the market environment in which the analysed companies operate, and to define the recommendations for future management. The object of this research were companies in the field of forestry and wood processing, the opinions and reviews on raw material purchase, product placement, attitudes towards purchase procedures and so on.
Key words: forestry; companies; socio-economic characteristics; SWOT; A’WOT
POSAVEC, Stjepan ŠL
|Mirzeta Memišević Hodžić, Dalibor Ballian|| UDK 630* 164 (001)
|Variability of leaf morphological traits of european black poplar and hybrid black poplars in the clone archive in Žepče|
Black poplar (Populus nigra L.) is one of the most important European tree species, inhabiting alluvial habitats along the banks of large rivers. Today, it is one of the most endangered species of forest trees due to habitat devastation, regulation of river flows, excessive exploitation, and the introduction of non-native tree species with which it hybridized. This study aims to determine the variability of morphological properties of black poplar leaves n Bosnia and Herzegovina, within and among populations, and among river basins.
Material from the clonal archive of black poplars was researched. The archive was founded in 2005 in Žepče. It contains clones from 161 trees of indigenous black poplars from 26 populations throughout Bosnia and Herzegovina (from the basins of 6 rivers) and 15 hybrid poplar species (table 1 and table 2).
Ten leaves were collected from each clone by taking the fifth leaf from the top of the main shoot. Five leaves from each clone were measured. The measurement was performed with a digital movable scale with an accuracy of 0.1 mm and a protractor. The following traits were measured: leaf blade length, leaf blade width, petiole length, total leaf length, the angle between the first lateral nerve and central nerve, and distance from the leaf base to the widest part of the leaf. The number of teeth on one cm above the widest part of the leaf was counted. Data were processed using SPSS 26.0 and EXCEL by populations and river basins.
Analysis of variance revealed that there are statistically significant differences among the studied populations (table 4), as well as among river basins (table 7), for all investigated traits. The petiole length trait showed the highest variability, and the lowest variability had the insertion angle of the first lateral and central nerve (table 3). The clones of population of hairy black poplars Čapljina had the lowest values of leaf traits and differed significantly in all measured properties from the others. The most common number of teeth per 1 cm of leaf edge for all populations was four teeth (figure 2), which appeared on 38.3% of leaves.
This research gives us a small insight into the morphological characteristics of black poplars in the clone archive Žepče and can be the basis for further researches of the traits of black poplars needed for a successful continuation of work on breeding this species.
Key words: european black poplar; clone archive; morphological traits of laeves
Mirzeta Memišević Hodžić
|Mehmet Kalkan, Mustafa Yilmaz, Rasim Alper Oral|| UDK 630* 164 (001)
|The morphological and chemical variability of Turkish Hazel (Corylus colurna L.) fruits in Turkey|
Turkish hazel (Corylus colurna L.) is naturally distributed in southeast Europe, Anatolia, the Caucasus and Western Himalayas. In Turkey, there are many isolated populations in the Black Sea, Marmara, Aegean, and Central Anatolian Regions. Many of the small populations in Turkey are endangered. In this study, the morphological and chemical characteristics of Turkish hazelnut fruits collected from seven populations were researched. In this regard, considering the morphological characteristics of fruits and kernels, significant differences were observed between the populations. Length, width, thickness, and weight averages were 15.98 mm, 15.38 mm, 12.00 mm and 1.4651 g in the fruits, and 13.03 mm, 11.22 mm, 7.64 mm and 0.5047 g in the kernels, respectively. The average shell thickness was 1.92 mm, shell weight was 0.9604 g, and kernel ratio was 35.16%. Statistically significant differences were found out between the populations whose chemical contents were analyzed. As a result of the analysis, the average fat content, protein, starch, and ash were 64.1%, 15.9%, 10.2 g, and 2.5%, respectively. According to the averages in the obtained fatty acids, the main fatty acids were oleic acid (79.53%), linoleic acid (11.34%), palmitic acid (5.68%), and stearic acid (2.03%), while the rest of other oils were found in trace amounts. Overall, our results suggest that the information relating to morphological and chemical characteristics of Turkish hazelnut can be useful for discriminating among populations.
Key words: hazel; hazelnut; fruits; morphometric analysis; chemical analysis; hazelnut oil
Rasim Alper Oral
|Hubert Codrow, Anna Wierzbicka, Maciej Skorupski|| UDK 630* 156
|Factors shaping teenagers and young adults’ approach to hunting : a review of the literature|
Hunting is an important element in the protection of the natural environment and biodiversity. Demographic changes and people’s distance from nature are causing society to polarize their perception of hunting. Some have ‘’Bambi Syndrome’’ and others so-called ‘’Nature Deficit disorder’’. Factors shaping attitude toward hunting are: sex, age and place of residence: girls and city based children are generally against hunting. Future of wildlife management models largely depends on the attitudes of people towards it in the coming decades. This attitudes are shaping by many different factors but it is lack of knowledge about it. For this purpose, the attitude of young people to hunting should be thoroughly and multidimensionally examined.
Key words: attitude toward hunting; young adults; teenagers