|Two forestry anniversaries
This year the Croatian forestry profession marks two important anniversaries – the 175th anniversary of the Croatian Forestry Association and the 145th anniversary of its scientific-specialist and professional periodical – the Forestry Journal. The goals of the Croatian Forestry Association as one of the oldest professional associations in Europe have been achieved in full. It is owing to this association that the forestry education in Croatia started in 1860 with the establishment of the Agricultural Forestry School in Križevci, while higher education began in 1898 when the Forestry Academy was established as the fourth institution of higher education at the University of Zagreb. The second goal, the launching of a scientific-specialist and professional magazine, was achieved in 1877 when the Forestry Journal was published. The Forestry Journal has been coming out continuously, even during war time, so that this edition is the first double issue of the 145th volume. The reason behind the establishment of the Forestry Academy (today the Faculty of Forestry) was the realisation by the then authorities that the management of forestry required not secondary but higher education. It was understood early enough that the forest as the most complex ecosystem needed to be managed by highly qualified personnel according to the principle of sustainable management. Accordingly, the dictates of the profession were meticulously followed, resulting in the current well-preserved state of Croatian forests. The Croatian Forestry Association has given its contribution to this directly but also through the pages of the Forestry Journal, as evidenced by the articles in this double issue, particularly in the column Current Affairs.
What is the status of the forestry profession today? Sadly, very poor: it is not respected – everybody, regardless of their professional qualifications “knows all there is to know about forests”, while politics does not find time to organize professional debates about the issue. Moreover, it turns a blind eye to non-market management of forest resources and supports those wood processing companies which mostly deal with primary wood processing with low additional value, and only a very small number of them engages in final wood processing. In doing so, not only do we export wood raw material, but we also “export” work places, something that those concerned obviously cannot see. By primary processing of raw wood material, we annul the work of an average of three generations of forestry experts, who have applied silvicultural treatments to ensure its present high quality and sustainability.
Despite the fact that forests as a resource of special interests for the Republic of Croatia cover almost 50 per cent of Croatian land area, they have not even “deserved” to be mentioned in the name of the relevant Ministry in the mandates of the last three governments. When forests are treated in the media at all, then the articles mostly echo scientifically groundless but sensationalist and negative criticisms of some environmental associations. Of course, the media cannot be blamed, because they do not possess even the minimal education about forests.
Some time ago, aware of the need for the media to be educated in order to have an expert background for what they write or talk about, Lidija Firšt, the then editor of the Croatian Radio Television, initiated the establishment of the Association of Environmental Journalists at the Croatian Journalist Association with expert support of the Croatian Forestry Association. Her work was partly continued by Tanja Devčić, editor of the Croatian Radio Second Channel, whose morning show “Environmental Minute” we all remember. From this we conclude that, in order to communicate directly with the public, the forestry profession should have a public forum. Every Sunday we watch TV shows Fruits of the Earth and The Sea: why not Forests, even if it be once a month. There would certainly be a wealth of topics to discuss, such as the sale and processing of wood assortments, non-market forest functions, private forests or the issue of succession, to name but a few. For example, about 30 years ago the forest cover of Gorski Kotar amounted to 70 per cent, whereas presently it is estimated at 82 per cent. The problem of forests colonizing pastures and approaching gardens can be solved by the Green Transition. Not to repeat ourselves, let us browse through the articles already published in this column and find highly interesting topics for discussion.
|IZVORNI ZNANSTVENI ČLANCI
|Stjepan Posavec, Ljiljana Keča, Sabina Delić, Makedonka Stojanovska, Špela Pezdevšek Malovrh
| UDK 630* 666 (001)
|Comparative analysis of selected business indicators of state forest companies
A company that handles natural resources such as forests is a complex economic entity. In addition to economic performance at annual level, the biological component of sustainable forest management should also be considered. It is therefore extremely important to achieve efficient business performance. Financial analysis is a process of determining important business and financial characteristics of a company from accounting data. It is characterized by a wide use of financial reports and various financial indicators - key figures. The paper presents business indicators of the main state-owned forest companies in selected countries of South East Europe (Croatia, Slovenia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and North Macedonia) using the method of comparative analysis based on financial reports (such as balance sheet and income statement). In countries where there are more than one state-owned forest companies, they were selected according to their importance for forest management and business results (share of forests, number of employees, profit and annual felling). The research results show the revenue and expenditure of the selected companies and profitability indicators such as return on equity (ROE) and return on assets (ROA). According to the annual business reports for 2017 and 2018, the company Croatian Forests Ltd. has the highest number of employees (7787 in 2018). The highest ratio ROA (32.17) and ROE (39.82) were achieved in the Slovenian state forestry company in 2017, which was founded in 2016. For 2018, the best results are achieved in the Slovenian Forest Company (SiDG), while the weakest results are achieved in the State Forest Company in North Macedonia. The profit per employee decreased in 2018 for most companies, but most significantly in North Macedonia, where it was four times lower. On the basis of the comparative analysis presented, all companies have a positive cost-benefit ratio, but long-term planning of forest management should follow biological and economic regulations to be competitive on the free market.
Key words: sustainable management; state forest companies; business performance; business indicators; profitability
POSAVEC, Stjepan ŠL
Špela Pezdevšek Malovrh
|Mirzeta Memišević Hodžić, Dalibor Ballian
| UDK 630* 181.8 + 232.1 (001)
|Morphological and phenological variability of Common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in the international provenance test in Bosnia and Herzegovina
The study aims to compare the growth of common beech provenances, and to determine the beginning and end of the phenological stages of leafing in the international provenance test in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
In this research, we measured morphological traits and observed phenology on common beech plants in the international provenance test near Kakanj, Bosnia and Herzegowina. The test was established in 2006 with one-year-old and two-year-old seedlings. It includes eight provenances from Bosnia and Herzegovina, four from Germany, three from Serbia, two each from Croatia, Romania, and Switzerland, and one from Hungary (table 1).
In the spring of 2017, we measured the heights (in cm) and root collar diameters (in mm) of plants and observed six phenological phases of leafing (figure 1): A - Sleeping buds; B - Buds swelled; C - Buds begin to open; D - Hairy leaves begin to appear; E - Leaves open, still fanlike; F - Leaves fully developed.
Analysis of variance showed statistically significant differences among provenances for morphological traits of height (table 3), and root collar diameter (table 6). Duncan test showed grouping of populations into seven groups for the trait of height (table 8), and eight groups for the trait of root collar diameter (table 10), but groups overlapped.
Multivariate analysis for height (Table 7) and root neck diameter (Table 9) revealed statistically significant differences only at the population level and not between trees within the population, nor at the population interaction level x tree.
The average height for all provenances was 164.6 cm (table 2), and the average root collar diameter was 33.4 mm (table 5). The lowest average height (104.2 cm) and root collar diameter (22.6 mm) had provenance of Alba - Iulia from Romania (9664). The highest average height (197.4 cm) and root collar diameter (40.1 mm) had provenance Dilj Čaglinski from Croatia (9624).
We identified differences between provenances regarding the occurrence of phenological stages of leafing (table 11), as well as regarding the duration of phenological phases (table 10). Phase B occurred the earliest on 31.3. in provenances Grmeč Jasenica and Dinara from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Cer from Serbia. Phase B occurred the latest on 8.5 in provenances Herzogenbuchsee from Switzerland and NS Hasbruch from Germany. Phenophase F appeared the earliest on 1.5. in provenance Valkony from Hungary.
Analysis of variance showed statistically significant differences among provenances for the length of phenological stages (table 12).
Further measurements of morphological traits need to be made to determine the tendencies of growth of particular provenances in subsequent stages of development.
It is also necessary to observe the phenological stages of leafing. It will help to evaluate the effects of the genetic constitution and annual climate on phenological trends. The results of this study will be used to choose the best provenances in terms of productivity and resistance to late spring frosts.
Key words: leafing phenological stages; height; root collar diameter; common beech; provenance test
Mirzeta Memišević Hodžić
|Branko Stajić, Živan Janjatović, Marko Kazimirović, Zvonimir Baković, Snežana Obradović
| UDK 630* 815 (001)
|Polymorphic site index curves for Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Central and Eastern Serbia
This study was mainly aimed at constructing polymorphic site index curves for beech in the central (Rudnik mountain – RU, about 15,000 ha) and eastern (Žagubica – ŽA, about 7,000 ha) part of its distribution in Serbia. To obtain suitable height-age data and evaluate the best-fit growth model we used 107 felled dominant beech trees. The Korf, Korsun and Chapman-Richards growth functions per site class were first parameterized and then mutually compared with respect to residual statistics and the significance of their parameters. They were additionally parameterized in line with empirical data on the value and age of the culmination of current annual height increment (CAIh). The obtained results indicated that the Chapman-Richards growth function showed the best results both by statistical (residuals standard error, significance of the parameters, distribution of residuals, and homoscedasticity) and by empirical criteria (the CAIh culmination time, the maximal values of the CAIh, and the attained height of trees at a certain age) of the height-age beech modelling in the analyzed regions. The obtained polymorphic site index curves which classify sites with regard to their productivity can be very helpful in planning appropriate silvicultural treatments, and for decision-making in forest management planning, forest policy and ecology and, consequently, in the sustainable management of beech forests in Serbia and some neighbouring countries with a similar forestry sector development.
Key words: height growth pattern; site index curves; beech; Serbia
|Mirza Dautbašić, Osman Mujezinović, Dejan Kulijer, Adi Vesnić, Kenan Zahirović, Sead Ivojević, Damir Prljača
| UDK 630* 453
|First record of Pyrrhalta viburni (Coleoptera: chrysomelidae) in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Pyrrhalta viburni (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a chrysomelid native to Eurasia. It gained importance as an invasive species in North America due to its ability to cause serious damage to native and ornamental Viburnum spp. plants.
In our study Pyrrhalta viburni was recorded as a new record in the fauna of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
It has been recorded on four locations in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the region of Sarajevo. As it is feeding on Viburnum spp. that are commonly used as ornamental plants, its monitoring in urban and other habitats is suggested.
Key words: Pyrrhalta viburni; viburnum leaf beetle; Viburnum spp.; defoliation; Bosnia and Herzegovina.
|Damir Barčić, Željko Španjol, Roman Rosavec, Mario Ančić, Tomislav Dubravac, Sanja Končar, Ivan Ljubić, Ivona Rimac
| UDK 630*182
|Overview of vegetation research in Holm oak forests (Quercus ilex L.) on experimental plots in Croatia
In the vegetative sense, holm oak forests are an integral part of the Mediterranean region, with holm oak appearing as the dominant tree species in the climatogenic community of the coniferous belt. The course of vegetation development, i.e. progression and regression, is seen in the succession of holm oak forests. Succession is present on the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea, and throughout the whole Mediterranean area. This paper provides an overview of the vegetation analyses and dynamics of development of holm oak forests. Research was conducted only on MAB plots and plots on Rab Island (Kalifront Peninsula, belonging to the Faculty of Forestry, University of Zagreb for the research of Rauš, Španjol and Barčić). Vegetation inventory generated a list of all plant species in the tree, shrub and undergrowth layers that were observed and recorded on the selected plots, with values for abundance (number) and cover. The combustibility and flammability of holm oak were analysed, since forest fires are the most significant threat to forest vegetation and vegetation in general in the Mediterranean zone. Multifactor analysis of variance (Sokal & Rohlf, 1995) was applied to determine the
flammability and combustibility for holm oak. Linear correlation analysis was applied to examine the relationship between individual variables. The course of vegetation development, i.e. progression and regression, shows the succession of holm oak forests (Figure 5). The figure indicates the long time period necessary for the succession of forest vegetation, particularly in the case of progressive succession and complete species conversion. This includes at least several rotations of pine stands, and is in direct correlation with the habitat conditions. The research of holm oak forests on the permanent experimental plots is particularly important. These plots are part of the international Man and Biosphere project (MAB). Vegetation research in holm oak forests can be compared between the permanent experimental plots (PEPs) in the MAB project from the islands of Rab, Brijuni, Mljet and Lokrum (PEPs no. 36, 56 and 57, 37, 77, respectively). The succession processes on the PEPs are expressed through comparisons of time series monitoring data. They indicate the formation of stand structures and the emergence of the dominant tree layer (Figure 6). Understanding the properties of forest fuels in the sense of their combustibility (ability of fuel to combust) and flammability (ability of fuel to continue to burn) is very important for understanding the start and spread of forest fires. Different methods are used to determine combustibility and flammability. The most commonly used method is that described by Valette (1990), based on the research of combustibility and flammability of leaf litter. The regression analysis established that the moisture content of fuel, mean monthly air temperature, and mean monthly precipitation levels significantly affected the combustibility of holm oak (Table 10). However, the results of the regression analysis of the flammability of holm oak on Rab Island indicated that none of these variables had a statistically significant influence on flammability (Table 12). The PEPs were established for the purpose of long-term and comparative ecosystem research, and they will continue to be used for further research to explain the succession processes in the climatogenic Eu-mediterranean community.
Key words: eu-mediterranean; succession; growth dynamic; monitoring
BARČIĆ, Damir ŠL
ŠPANJOL, Željko ŠL
ROSAVEC, Roman ŠL
ANČIĆ, Mario ŠL
DUBRAVAC, Tomislav ŠL
|Toni Buterin, Robert Doričić, Igor Eterović, Amir Muzur, Marina Šantić
| UDK 630*111 + 469
|Public health perspective of the impact of industrial pollution on global warming and the incidence of zoonoses
Although the impact of climate change on humans and the environment has long been known, less importance is given to diseases that enter the epidemiological gateway by secondary means. Zoonoses thus belong to a group of diseases whose increasing incidence can be associated with climate change and the creation of conditions for their spread.
This review of the literature revealed a growing awareness of the potential consequences of the possible occurrence of zoonoses caused by global warming, but despite this in Croatia such research were not recognized (yet).
With the hypothesis that climate change and global warming caused by industrial pollution and anthropogenic factors may cause a higher incidence of zoonoses, preventive solutions are offered which, with timely detection and epidemiological interventions, do not necessarily affect the occurrence of zoonoses.
What is more likely that we should not neglect is that climate change creates preconditions for different routes of transmission and spread of zoonoses, which, if the negative trend of global warming continues, could eventually affect incidence and prevalence of zoonoses – certainly in Croatia as well which from a public health problem outgrow into a global environmental-ethical problem.
Key words: Global warming; Climate change; Zoonoses; Industrial pollution; Anthropogenic factors; (environmental) ethics
| UDK 630* 659
|Controlling of machinery in performing forest works
Controlling of machinery in performing forest works represents a development of business management systems, supervision of working time of machinery and vehicles and analysis of data collected as a basis for making business decisions. This system is connected with other informatic systems (of different business purposes) used in Croatian forests ltd., company that manages state owned forests in Croatia. Financial and non-financial reports shown apply primarily to machinery used in forestry and represent a modern business model of management in operative forestry.
The main instrument of work machinery controlling is web application HsKPR. The application is a control mechanism for activity tracking according to the cost center by each work machine/vehicle in service of mechanisation, construction and personal transportation. Each work machine is treated as a cost and income centre, while each vehicle is treated as a cost centre. The application provides information about planned and realized income, expenditure and profit of a work machine. Expenditure represents machine usability costs, expenses for fuel, oil, spare parts, tires, internal and external maintenance services, amortization, machinist salary expenses. In addition to financial reports on income, expenditure and profit, the application provides non-financial indicators of productivity, operational hours, utilization of working hours, fuel consumption, idle motion and delays. Particularly useful is expense information on machine-day costs and costs realized by the measuring unit kn/m3.
Financial and non-financial reports are available at the level of cost and income centre, group cost and income centre and the profit centre. Group cost and income centers are work machines of the same technology, i.e. skidders, forwarders and cable cranes. Profit center is a mechanization activity with sub-activities of skidding, transportation and other work assets, as well as construction activity with sub-activities of work machinery and transportation. All these reports are also available on three organizational levels: forest station, i.e. work unit, forest management centre and company level.
Controlling reports provide basis for managerial decisions, alarm signals for significant unfavorable differences between planned and realized indicators, basis for discovering the reasons for deviations from planned tasks, as well as basis for prescribing necessary activities leading to the planned outcomes.
Key words: controlling; forest machinery; planning and analysing; management
SITAŠ, Branko ŠL