|FOREST REGULATIONS AND POLITICS|
The forest law proposal has gone through the first reading in the Sabor of the Republic of Croatia. It has been prepared for almost two years. The conflict of interest committee was participated by the representatives of all relevant sector institutions; the Law proposal also underwent an e-consultation after which a part of the comments were accepted. At the Board of Agriculture there was considerable discussion on the amount of reimbursement for the nonprofit forest functions, the rate of which should be retained at the present level of 0.0265%, though with the exemption from payment granted to all legal and physical persons with a yearly income up to three million Kunas. In connection with the distribution of the means from the OKFŠ (nonprofit forest functions) fund, the proposed regulations that would reduce the finances for the scientific research from the present 5% to only 1% have caused a turmoil among the scientists; this would practically mean that only about 1.5 million Kunas would be alloted to forestry science. Considering the many current threatening issues related to the Croatian forests, a proposal of this kind is irrational and degrading. We hope that the critical comments and suggestions will supports the efforts toward achieving the required 10% of the OKFŠ fund for scientific research. On the other hand, the new Regulations on the non-wood forest products are causing the unnecessary huge administration due to the issuing licences for free uncontrolled collection of forest fruits for personal use, which could lead to considerable damage to one part of the ecosystem; besides, this would increase the already high danger of forest fires. The recently announced foundation of the 17th branch office of the Croatian Forests in Slatina for the region of the Virovitica/Podravina county has been almost unnoticed and only marginally commented in the forestry environment. However, the realisation of the idea would open the Pandora’s box, out of which who knows what would emerge; the myth says, all the evels of the world. The distribution of state forests and forest areas in the Republic of Croatia does not coincide with the political borders of the counties and municipal areas, as it used to be for a long time. The trading company Croatian Forests Ltd. is entirely owned by the Republic of Croatia, so that the state takes care of the management of its forests without considering the local border lines. The care for the forest comes first. The local population should benefit from the forest resources, which is achieved through employment in Croatian Forests Ltd., sale of fuelwood, collecting the non-wood products, etc. The announced benefit for the Virovitica/Podravina county through the foundation of the new branch is in conflict with the present constitution and management of the Croatian Forests. No county makes development plans in the name of the Croatian Forests Ltd.; however, there is a collaboration among the units of the local management because foresters have always been a part of the community in which they have been active. Not only that the announcement of the management of a new branch office in a county is unacceptable, but it would also open a possibility of changing the borders of other branch offices, some of which could then be cancelled, others would cross outside of the historical traditional borders. With all the disadvantages of the present constellation, we cannot claim that the present one is ideal; with every proposed change, particularly such that is not global but particular, its implementation usually results in conflicts, not caused by rational economic reasons, but by current political power. There are now twenty-one counties, including the City of Zagreb. Disputes have been going on for years on whether the number of these administrative units should be reduced. In a few years, there may be only several regions. Should the borders of the branch offices be then again changed within the borderlines of the Croatian Forests Ltd? Though monopolistic, the present business management of the trading company owned by the state is not defined by the market but by the distribution of raw materials at the lowest prices in the region and all European Union over a long time. The highest price of “giving away” the state resources has been paid by the forest without reimbursing it with what is fundamental - satisfactory forest management operations, not to speak of improvements by recovery after damages, climate change, new pests and other threats. At this time the opening of new branch offices in order to satisfy local appetites is neither wise nor rational.
|ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPERS|
|Joso Vukelić, Dario Baričević, Igor Poljak, Mario Vrček, Irena Šapić|| UDK 630* 188
(Alnus incana L.)(001)
|PHYTOCOENOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF GREY ALDER (Alnus incana /L./ Moench supsp. incana) FORESTS IN CROATIA|
This paper provides a comprehensive survey of the results of phytocoenological research of Alnus incana (L.) Moench subsp. incana stands in Croatia. Here, the grey alder appears in two biogeographic regions with contrasting climates (Figure 1): the continental region, along the course of the Drava river; and the mountainous Alpine-Dinaric region in Gorski kotar, along the course of the Kupa river and its tributaries. In the continental region of Croatia, the grey alder occurs mainly in riparian and floodplain forests along the main watercourse of the river Drava, where it forms smaller and isolated stands. These stands are included within the association Equiseto hyemali-Alnetum incanae Moor 1958 (Figure 3). Stands from the north-western Dinarides are defined within the association Lamio orvalae-Alnetum incanae Dakskobler 2010 var geogr. Helleborus dumetorum Vukelić et al. 2012 (Figure 4, Figure 5).
Our main objectives were: (1) to present the results of recent studies of the association Equiseto hyemali-Alnetum incanae; (2) to compare them with the results of the studies from early second half of the 20th century (Trinajstić 1964, 1973); and (3) to compare them with the phytocoenological characteristics of grey alder forests from the Dinaric area of Croatia.
The research was conducted on the basis of 11 new phytocoenological relevés and 37 from previous studies, according to the principles of the standard Central European Phytocoenological School (Braun-Blanquet 1964). Plant nomenclature was coordinated with the Flora Croatica Database (Nikolić 2015), and the mosses with Atherton et al. (2010). A part of the syntaxa was described in accordance with ICPN (Weber et al. 2000), and another part follows a multidimensional classification of vegetational
units (Matuszkiewicz and Matuszkiewicz 1981). The sociological species affiliation was determined according to Vukelić (2012). The analysis of the floral composition of the association Equiseto hyemali-Alnetum incanae (=Alnetum incanae Lüdi 1921) from north-western Croatia demonstrates a high degree of floral similarity with colline stands of the same association presented in the forest vegetation of Austria (Willner and Grabherr 2007). As grey alder stands in Podravina grow on lower altitudes, they lack or have considerably less of the following species: Fraxinus excelsior, Lonicera xylosteum, Cardus perssonata, Picea abies, Anemone ranunculoides, Salvia glutinosa and others. On the other hand, some species in them have certain differential significance, namely: Ulmus laevis, U. minor, Quercus robur, Fraxinus angustifolia, Populus alba, Valeriana dioica and others. Table 1 shows 11 new relevés of grey alder-scouring rush stands. Due to major anthropogenic interventions, grey alder-scouring rush forests have seen considerable regressive changes in the distribution and floral composition, hence just like the species Equisetum hyemale, they should be considered an endangered type of habitat. A large part of the original forests and shrubbery has been cleared over the last 50 years due to the construction of two accumulation lakes and other melioration and infrastructural needs. Meliorations have greatly impacted the hydrological regime of the entire area, which resulted in alterations in the habitat, and eventually in the disappearance of areas that used to be covered by grey alder forests. In order to determine the changes in the floral composition of grey alder-scouring rush stands, we compared our phytocoenological relevés with those from 1964 (Trinajstić 1964). Table 2 specifies 35 species that indicate changes in the habitat and composition of the association. The table clearly demonstrates that the number of hygrophytes has been reduced, and the share of mesophilic species and species from less wet habitats considerably increased (column 2, table 2), especially from the order Fagetalia and class Querco-Fagetea Br.-Bl. et Vlieger 1937.
The association Equiseto hyemali-Alnetum incanae has been compared with the stands from Gorski kotar, i.e. with the association Lamio orvalae-Alnetum incanae, where it was found that they differ significantly both from the ecological and from the floral point of view (Figure 2). Floral differences of the said forest communities result primarily from the climate and orographic factors of biogeographic regions, and the share of species from zonal forests in whose belts they grow. Table 3 specifies 76 differentiating species: seven for the association Equiseto hyemali-Alnetum incanae and 69 for the association Lamio orvalae-Alnetum incanae. The criterion employed to single them out was that they grow in only one association with at least 20% of relevés, or that the difference between the level of representation in associations is in excess of 35%. The largest number of differentiating species are mesophytes from the alliances Aremonio-Fagion /Ht. 1938/ Borhidi in Törek et al. 1989, Tilio-Acerion Klika 1955, Erythronio-Carpinion (Ht. 1938) Marinček in Wallnöfer et al. 1993 and the order Fagetalia (33 species in total). The large number and frequency of those differentiating species is the reason for clear independence and identity of the association Lamio orvalae-Alnetum incanae compared to other European grey alder forests (Vukelić et al. 2017). The most important differentiating species of the association Equiseto hyemali-Alnetum incanae is Prunus padus. With regard to syntaxonomy, the analyzed associations Equiseto hyemali-Alnetum incanae and Lamio orvalae-Alnetum incanae belong to the suballiance Alnenion glutinoso-incanae Oberd. 1953, alliance Alnion incanae Pawl. in Pawl. et al. 1928, of the order Fagetalia sylvaticae Pawl. in Pawl. et al. 1928 and class Querco-Fagetea Br.-Bl. et Vlieger 1937.
Key words: Alnus incana; Lamio orvalae-Alnetum incanae; Equiseto hyemali-Alnetum incanae; floral composition; Croatia
VUKELIĆ, Joso ŠL
BARIČEVIĆ, Dario ŠL
VRČEK, Mario ŠL
|Ivan ANDRIĆ, Anamarija JAZBEC, Valentino PINTAR, Davorin KAJBA|| UDK 630* 181.8 + 111 (001)
|MODELLING THE TIMING OF LEAF UNFOLDING IN PEDUNCULATE OAK (Quercus robur L.) CLONAL SEED ORCHARD|
For ten years, 53 genotypes of Pedunculate Oak were monitored in a clonal seed orchard. The aim of the study was to clarify effects of forcing and chilling temperature as background of leaf unfolding of pedunculate oak through the different kind of prediction models. The Pedunculate Oak is known to have three phenoforms of flushing phases, i.e., early, intermediate and late, and substantially different Growing Degree Days (GDD) requirements were found among these phenological groups. For each of the phenological groups, the GDD interval value required for leaf unfolding was determined, but the values varied between years, rendering the development of a simulation GDD model difficult. For these reasons, other variables – day of year, precipitation and insolation – were included in the assessment. The aim was to examine how these environmental factors determine the GDD requirement for leaf unfolding in the three Pedunculate Oak phenological groups. The results suggest that for all three flushing groups, insolation and the day of year are statistically significant predictors for GDD. Insolation was demonstrated to be the primary factor with the largest influence on the GDD values. In the early flushing group, insolation accounted for 74.1 % of the variation, 90.6 % in the intermediate group, and 78.7 % in the late group. We recommend using the univariate GDD model for the early and intermediate flushing groups (GDDearly = −27.651 + 0.539 * insolation; GDDinter = −48.084 + 0.690 * insolation) and the multivariate model for the late flushing group (GDDlate = −237.839 + 0.559 * insolation + 2.479 * day of year). To break the dormancy, chilling is required to be in the range of ± 40 chilling units, and if the values are higher or lower, the trees require significantly higher forcing temperatures.
Key words: spring phenology; climate change; GDD; environmental drivers; chilling
ANDRIĆ, Ivan ŠL
KAJBA, Davorin ŠL
|Branimir ŠAFRAN, Matija JUG, Kristijan RADMANOVIĆ, Marin HASAN, Kristijan AUGUSTINOVIĆ, Krešimir VUČKOVIĆ, Stjepan RISOVIĆ|| UDK 630* 831 (001)
|CONTRIBUTION TO THE RESEARCH ON WOOD PELLET CHARACTERISTICS FROM TUROPOLJE AREA|
The paper deals with some quality characteristic of wood pellets from Turopolje area. The samples of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.), European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.), narrow-leaved ash (Fraxinus angustifoliaVahl.), European alder (Alnus glutinosa L.) and black poplar (Populus nigra L.) were collected. Collected and debarked samples were crushed by a mill with knives to 2.00 mm granulation. The content of water, ash and calorific value were examined on samples. The ash content was determined separately for the bark and the wood. The ash content in the barks shows a high rate in pedunculate oak which is 13.64 % and hornbeam with 11.91 %, while in other species the ash content in a bark is between 7 and 10 %. The ash content of a debarked wood shows the following values: 0.63 % for the oak, 0.50 % for the ash, 0.46 % for the hornbeam. Values of the ash content in the alder and the poplar were 0.4 %. Results indicate the need for debarking in pellet production in order to obtain the quality of class A1 and A2 pellet. By determining the calorific value the best results were determined in the black poplar sample which is 19.63 MJ/kg, and the lower value was measured in hornbeam sample 18.94 MJ/kg. Furthermore, the mentioned samples were mixed and 3 mixture groups were formed. The share of hard broad-leaved trees of oak, hornbeam and ash in each individual mixture was 60 %,while in the remaining 40 %,alder (20 %) and poplar (20 %) equally participated. Formed material mixtures APA (ash 60 : poplar 20 : alder 20), OPA (oak 60 : poplar 20 : alder 20) and HPA (hornbeam 60 : poplar 20 : alder 20) were pressed into pellets by hydraulic laboratory press in 2 forces
(3.0 and 6.0 kN) and 2 temperatures (150 and 200 °C). After pressing, pellets were left for 15 days to stabilise in dimension and their dimension and density were determined. Then, pellets were checked for pressure strength in a radial direction by a testing machine. Pellets from all the mixtures, pressed by a force of 6.0 kN at 200 °C showed a high density in the range from 1 207 – 1 234 kg/m3. Pellets of basic ash mixture at force of 3.0 kN and at 200 °C gave high density≈ 1200 kg/m3, while the smallest density was generally given by pellets of basic hornbeam mixture in all pressing regimes. The results of pressure strength in radial direction give best results in pellets pressed at 6.0 kN and 200 °C which is 13.59 MPa with the basic ash mixture, 11.1 MPa with the basic oak mixture and 9.06 MPa of basic hornbeam mixture.
If the pressure strength of a pellet is considered collectively according to the mixture, pellets made from the mixture of ash, poplar and alder give significantly better results in comparison to other two mixtures.
Key words: wood pellets; ash content; calorific value; pellet density; pressure strength
RISOVIĆ, Stjepan ŠL
|Győző F. HORVÁTH, Dániel TÓTH|| UDK 630* 451 (001)
|ABUNDANCE OF BANK VOLE (Myodes glareolus Schreb.) AS AN INDICATIVE FACTOR OF DIFFERENT FOREST STRUCTURE AND MANAGEMENT IN THE DRAVA PLAIN REGION|
Differences in demographical patterns of the bank vole, Myodes glareolus Schreb. population, a frequent rodent species in the Drava plain region, were analysed through spatial and seasonal changes of survival and capture probability as well as through habitat dependence of abundance. As part of the Croatian-Hungarian interregional programme (DRAVA-INTERECO), small mammal population level monitoring was performed during 2007 applying the capture-mark-recapture method. Trapping sessions were implemented in three forest habitats with different vegetation structure, two sample areas in Lankoci forest, Hungary (protected old forest and reforested habitat) and one sample plot in Repaš forest, Croatia (habitat under forestry management) during a period of four months (July-October). The bank vole was an eudominant species in the three investigated habitats. The POPAN formulation of Jolly-Seber models was used to perform the comparative estimates of bank vole population traits. Based on model selection, the first two best candidate models supported our hypothesis that survival and abundance were influenced by forest age and structure. Our results confirmed that the bank vole is an appropriate indicator species to evaluate the population-level responses to the changes of forest structure and management.
Key words: Myodes glareolus; seasonality; population size; estimate; POPAN model
Győző F. HORVÁTH
|Andreja NÈVE Repe, Maarten de GROOT, Maja JURC|| UDK 630* 443 + 453 (001)
|ASSEMBLAGES OF OPHIOSTOMATOID FUNGI VECTORED BY Ips amitinus (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) ON NORWAY SPRUCE DEPEND ON COLONIZATION TIME, POSITION ON THE HOST TREE AND DEVELOPMENT STAGE|
The small spruce bark beetle Ips amitinus is predominantly found in the spruce forests in mountainous areas of Central Europe. Its most important host trees are Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). Under favourable weather and trophic conditions, this bark beetle can become dangerous, particularly for younger trees and plantations. The climate changes that we face today can be favourable to the species, which had not been economically important in the past but is currently causing forest damage. Information about the ecological/biological characteristics of I. amitinus in the literature is rare, especially for bark beetle–fungi associations; though bark beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) species are known to be associated with variety of fungi. We investigated the factors affecting the associations of ophiostomatoid fungi with I. amitinus on Norway spruce. Material for this study was collected in the year 2010 near Dravograd, in north Slovenia, where Norway spruce trees were felled during the winter windthrow. Four hundred and forty-two samples (bark beetles and infested samples from wood discs, from two trees at 0.5 m, 6 m and 15 meters above the stump) were taken for ophiostomatoid fungi investigation. Isolation yielded a total of 625 isolates. Ophiostomatoid fungi were the most numerously represented group. Identified fungal isolates belonged to ten species. The most commonly found fungal associate was Ophiostoma brunneo-ciliatum, followed by Grosmannia penicillata, Ophiostoma bicolor, Ceratocystiopsis minuta, Grosmannia piceiperda, Endoconidiophora polonica, Ophiostoma piceae, Ophiostoma fuscum, Grosmannia cucullata, Graphium fimbriisporum. The association with O. fuscum, G. cucullata and G. fimbriisporum have not been demonstrated previously. The differences in distribution of fungi over different beetle life stages (adults, larvae, pupae) and infested wood were investigated.
Key words: small spruce bark beetle; vector; bark beetle life stages; associated fungi; forest protection; Slovenia; Picea abies
Andreja NÈVE Repe
Maarten de GROOT
|Mirza DAUTBAŠIĆ, Kenan ZAHIROVIĆ, Osman Mujezinović, Josip MARGALETIĆ|| UDK 630* 453
|FIRST RECORD OF OAK LACE BUG (Corythucha arcuata) IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA|
This research is first record of oak lace bug (Corythuca arcuata) in the municipality of Vareš, Bosnia and Herzegovina on two localities. It was found eggs, nymphs and adult insects of oak lace bug on the leaves of sessile oak. Since this is a foreign and potentially invasive species, its spread throughout the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina can be expected.
Key words: sessile oak; oak lace bug; alien species; Vareš; Bosnia and Herzegovina.
MARGALETIĆ, Josip ŠL
|Srđan DRAŽIĆ, Milorad DANILOVIĆ, Dušan STOJNIĆ, Velibor BLAGOJEVIĆ, Radovan LUČIĆ|| UDK 686 + 383
|OPENNESS OF FORESTS AND FOREST LAND IN THE BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA ENTITY REPUBLIC OF SRPSKA|
The focus of this paper is on the description of the openness of primary forest traffic infrastructure in the Republic of Srpska. The data were collected using Garmin Oregon 600 GPS devices across the entire territory of state forests, managed by the Public Enterprise „Šume Republike Srpske”, and the recorded traces were compared and corrected by orthophoto snapshots with a 0.50 m resolution. The tools used for the processing of collected data were software ESRI ArcGIS 10.2 and Quantum GIS 16.2. In addition, the analysis covers all forest roads that pass through state forests that can be used for forest management and enable the movement of trucks. Public roads are only taken as an overview of openness of this category of roads and forest openness is shown by forest categories. The analyses included 843,466.00 ha out of the total of 1,002,056.00 ha of state-owned forests. The final aim of this analysis was to obtain a clear insight into the quantitative status of primary forest traffic infrastructure in the Republic of Srpska. The data were collected during 2016. Based on the analysis, the total density of the network of primary forest traffic infrastructure for the research area was 9.28 m/ha without public roads, i.e. 11.21 m/ha with public roads. In addition, density of the network of primary forest traffic infrastructure was determined separately for each category of forests, and the highest density of forest road network was found in forest plantations (11.57 m/ha or 14.82 m/ha with public roads) and high forests with natural regeneration (11.13 m/ha or 12.49 m/ha with public roads).
Key words: Forest roads; Forest opening; Density of primary forest traffic infrastructure; a register of primary forest roads; GIS; GPS; Republic of Srpska