|ON THE 20TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE DAY OF CROATIAN FORESTRY|
On the 20th Anniversary of the Day of Croatian Forestry
At the 101st Annual Assembly of the Croatian Forestry Association held on 9th May 1997, (188 participants), June 20th was proclaimed the Day of Croatian Forestry, which will be celebrated annually by the Croatian Forestry Association starting from 1998 (Conclusions, item 15). At the 96th regular meeting held on 20th June 1991, the name of the association was unanimously changed from the Association of Engineers and Technicians of Forestry and Wood Industry of Croatia into the Croatian Forestry Association. The Day of Croatian Forestry has been marked interminably since 1998. Regular reports on the activities and financial affairs of the Association have always been accompanied by discussions on current specialist topics. The specialist topic of the said Assembly was „the Croatian forestry today and tomorrow“. An introduction to the discussion was given by Professor Slavko Matić, PhD, the then president of the Croatian Forestry Association, and Anđelko Serdarušić, BSc in forestry, director of the company „Croatian Forests“. To provide food for thought, we shall mention only some parts of these introductions and discussions summarized in 15 conclusions.
First and foremost, Professor Matić stresses that the CFA is the most competent professional organisation to discuss the condition of Croatian forestry, particularly in view of a growing number of acute problems. However, nobody expects overnight solutions. The most important problems include the employment of graduate engineers and the declining number of those employed in forestry in general; unnecessary conversions of large forest areas into national parks and nature parks and their management by managing boards consisting of anybody but foresters; a subordinate attitude towards the profession, reflected in the fact that the Croatian Roads, Water Management and Electrical Utility Company, contrary to the Forest Law, enter forests without any monetary compensation; wood assortments are distributed per commissions at low prices despite the fact that we all staunchly support the free market economy; forests are treated by uneducated and poorly equipped entrepreneurs with unqualified labour force; particular effort should be invested in the promotion of the profession that is based primarily on professional ethics; those who have „wandered“ into the forestry profession by accident with the only goal of making easy money should be removed from forestry.
Director Serdarušić followed his introduction with some ten proposals for the conclusions. These include the following: a request should be submitted to the Croatian Radio Television to allocate a fixed term for programmes on Croatian forestry; representatives of the CFA, the Faculty of Forestry, the Forest Research Institute and Croatian Forests Ltd should draw up a modern Forest Law and a Long-Term Forestry Programme and submit it to the Ministry. The Programme should be accompanied by a demand to abolish so-called „finalist lists“, re-programme debts, allocate shares, postpone payments, etc; the relationship between forestry and other fields should be coordinated; more financial means should be ensured for the management of private forests and the recovery of war damage; and forestry experts should invariably be included into spatial management and nature conservation activities.
Tomislav Starčević stresses the need to analyse whether the basic conceptual prerequisites for the development of Croatian forestry have been implemented and to what extent, considering that the application of these prerequisites is not guided by a clear forestry policy; the forest office, as the basic organisational unit, is not given sufficient importance and competences, hence the loss of motives; the quality of silvicultural treatments is visibly declining; by adding to management plans the assortment structure of cutting plans is increased, resulting in changes in the planned amounts; and finally, he considers this Assembly an incentive for the overall development of forestry.
Professor Joso Vukelić points out that the Croatian Government does not have a clear concept of the development of forestry and public enterprises, does not accept professional opinions, and appoints incompetent management boards; the Ministry is inadequately organized; while forestry and hunting management should be placed under a separate State administration, similar to water management. He particularly expresses dissatisfaction with the socio-moral position of the forestry profession.
The first forestry minister Ivan Tarnaj states that no organisation is final, and consequently the forestry organisation is not final either; he maintains that the current organisation is good in view of the fact that it was difficult to survive in hard conditions, but after seven years it is perhaps time to launch a new organisation.
Professor Branimir Prpić expressed dissatisfaction with the subordinate position of forestry in the Croatian Strategy of Spatial Planning and with a reduced volume of forest activities, particularly in spatial planning and nature conservation and environment protection, where forestry activities are performed by inexpert personnel.
Twenty years have passed: looking at this brief review of the topic (find a more detailed analysis in Forestry Journal No. 5-6/1997, pp 323-332), let us try and answer at least two questions: what has changed since and have we all „by improving our work, given the best contribution to the condition in forestry“, as Professor Matić suggested in his introductory discussion.
|ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPERS|
|Ante ŠILJEG, Ivan MARIĆ, Mladen JURIŠIĆ, Ivan PLAŠČAK||UDK 630* 165 (001)||339|
|VIEWSHED MODEL AS A STRATEGY FOR PREVENTION OF FOREST FIRES – CASE STUDY OF ZADAR COUNTY|
Selection of observation sites for fire protection system usually includes a performance of viewshed analysis. Application of GIS analytical capabilities, information and communications technology (ICT) and spatially-oriented data provides the basis of the fire protection system.
In this research, six proposed locations for set up of surveillance cameras within the Zadar County were evaluated according to indicators of visible land cover and the proportion of the visible area relative to the total land area of the Zadar County. The evaluation was performed by analyzing the overlap of the binary viewshed model, type of land cover and layer settlements. Analysis of suitability for proposed location was performed within the project „HOLISTIC“ IPA program of Adriatic Cross-Border Cooperation 2007–2013.
Results indicate that two of the six proposed locations are not suitable for set up of surveillance cameras. On the example of two transmitters, the impact of DEM error on the output results (viewshed model) was analyzed. For the first time on the specific example in Croatia, difference between probable algorithm and standard binary method of determining visibility has been quantified (fig 6 and 7). It can be concluded that the reliability of the viewshed model, or the difference between tested algorithms, depends on geomorphometric features of the terrain on which the analysis takes place.
Key words: viewshed analysis; probable and binary viewshed; digital elevation model
|Dalibor BALLIAN, Ute TRÖBER||UDK 630* 165 (001)||351|
|GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF EUROPEAN BLACK POPLAR (Populus nigra L.) IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA|
European black poplar represents one of the ecologically most important tree species of alluvial forest association. In some countries, the potential of this species for forest management is significant. As in most countries of central Europe they have been drawn back in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the past and this has remained to date. In the present conditions in BiH, there is a potential to established and grow poplar forests on areas of 40,000ha, in small pure units and mainly mixed with willow and other hydrophilic species. As a peculiarity in BiH, beside black poplar there is a population of hairy black poplar (P. nigra subsp. caudina).
To protect the genetic resources of Populus nigra in BiH, a clonal archive with 163 clones selected in several autochthonous localities has been established at the location žepče. In total 141 of these clones were sampled for genotyping with 10 microsatellite markers. According to their origin, they were assigned to 11 populations with respect to the catchment areas of the main rivers.
The aim of the study is to describe genetic structure, diversity and differentiation of populations of black poplar from the river deltas in BiH, and to emphasize the importance of knowledge of these structures in the processes of regeneration and conservation of this species.
Sample sizes of the populations are in general very small, they reach from seven with only three different genotypes (upper stream of Vrbas river) to 20 with 19 genotypes (in upper stream Bosna river). Consequently, the number of detected alleles over 10 loci is lowest in population upper stream Vrbas with 29 and highest in upper stream Bosna river with 81 alleles.
Beside population upper stream Vrbas with only three genotypes, low values of genetic multiplicity and lowest values of genetic diversity shows population lower stream Neretva, although represented by 14 multilocus genotypes. The observed as well as the expected heterozygosity are much lower in this population than in all other populations, too. This special structure might occur due to its isolated location and the fact, that this is the population with the hairy black poplars. By means of cluster analysis, it is demonstrated that the genetic structures of this population apparently differs from the others, but differences between the river populations are also indicated.
The parameters of genetic variation of all other populations are in a similar range. The values of genetic distance and differentiation between populations show, that differences between the populations from the same river are on average smaller than between populations from different rivers and that the three populations from the river Bosna represent the gene pool of black poplar in BiH best. After exclusion of the two extreme populations, a principal coordinate analysis based on genetic distances illustrates that more clearly.
These results can be used as a basis for planning and realization of measures for the conservation of the genetic resources of black poplar in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
|Ebru BILICI,Mehmet EKER,Mesut HASDEMIR, Abdullah E. AKAY||UDK 630* 433 + 379 (001)||363|
|ASSESSMENT OF POST-FIRE SALVAGE LOGGING OPERATIONS IN MEDITERRANEAN REGION OF TURKEY|
Various problems such as massive volume loss, erosion, degradation of water resources, and air pollution emerge after forest fire incidents. Thus, necessary forest operations should be quickly planned and implemented after forest fires so that afforestation activities can take place immediately to maintain forest vegetation in burned areas. The aim of this study was developing a Post-fire Action Planning (PFAP) model to minimize the time spent on salvage logging activities. PFAP model will assist decision makers for removing salvage timber in a timely manner after large scale forest fires, while considering economic and environmental constraints, and dealing with available employment conditions in local forest industry. The capabilities of this model were examined by standardizing the operational planning and developing a fast decision-making process. The model was implemented in Taşağıl Forest Enterprise Chiefs (FEC) of Antalya Forest Regional Directorate where the forests are sensitivity to fire at the first degree level and the second largest forest fire in the history of Turkish Forestry occurred in this area in 2008. The findings of PFAP model were compared with the data of actual salvage logging operation obtained from the FEC. The results indicated that using operational planning based PFAP model is capable of reducing total time spent on salvage logging operation by about 60%. Based on the forestry compartments of the study area, estimated durations of salvage logging operations were 15 to 75 days less than that of actual operations taken place in the field. Therefore, it is highly anticipated that using operational planning based PFAP model has great potential to provide economically and environmentally sound forest operations after forest fires.
Key words: Forest fire; Salvage logging; Forest transportation; Operational Planning; Modelling
Abdullah E. AKAY
|Erhan ÇALIŞKAN, Uzay KARAHALIL||UDK 630* 614 + 360 (001)||375|
|HARVEST SCHEDULING AND OPERATIONAL PLANNING FOR MOUNTAINOUS AREAS: A CASE STUDY FOR IKISU PLANNING UNIT|
Harvest scheduling has emerged as time consuming and difficult activity especially when includes operation plans in the absence of decision support systems. In this study, the level of allowable cut and timber extraction system for every stand was determined for spruce management unit of a mountainous İkisu planning unit in Turkey using linear programming model designed for 50 year planning horizon. First, different considerations such as maximization of timber cut with non-exceeding more than a certain distance between the centroids of compartments and the nearest forest roads were taken into account in determining the level of harvest. Approximately 68,728 m3 annual allowable cut was determined for the first period of planning horizon. Then, six different timber extraction systems were incorporated during the designation of timber extraction method for the first 10 year period of the planning horizon. These are man power, animal power, skidder, small size cable crane, medium size cable crane and sledge yarder. Different factors such as transport direction, slope, distance to forest road, efficiency or cost were also taken into account in decision making. Various planning strategies were developed, including maximization of profit, minimization of timber loss, under time restrictions and solved with LINDO software. One of the strategies was selected based on the availability of the machineries, legal arrangements, staff and economic conditions of the forest enterprise. According to the selected strategy (STR2), with the maximal total profit from timber production including time constraints less than 2,000 hours for cable cranes and sledge yarders, 6,365,205 € would be earned, 19,055 hours would be spent, and 1,697.8 m3 timber would be lost, while 91.77 damage would occur. As a result this determination could bring us benefits especially in environmental awareness, time, labor and money when compared to the classical approaches.
Key words: forest management; harvest scheduling; operational planning; timber extraction systems; İkisu planning unit; Blacksea region
|Osman MUJEZINOVIĆ, Mevaida MEŠAN, Mirza DAUTBAŠIĆ, Kenan ZAHIROVIĆ||UDK 630* 453||387|
|MONITORING OF POPULATIONS OF BROWNTAIL MOTH (Euproctis chrysorrhoea L.) IN THE CENTRAL BOSNIA|
Exploring the impact of pests E. chrysorrhoea L. was carried out in the area of Forest Office Travnik, Novi Travnik and Kreševo.
It was monitored population of E. chrysorrhoea L. by applying repressive measures which included the application of traps and pheromone. For the purposes of this study were used traps WitaTrap Delta PQ and pheromone Chrysowit. Monitoring populations of E. chrysorrhoea L. is analyzed in the 2014 and 2015 year, with the two measurements.
Based on the conducted field research led to the following conclusions:
– More adverse factors (abiotic and biotic nature) affects the decline of trees in natural stands of beech and oak;
– The most significant harmful biotic factor in forests of central Bosnia is pest E. chrysorrhoea L.;
– The number of caught individuals of Browntail Moth in Forest Office N. Travnik in 2014 year was higher than in the year 2015 for the 6,35 times;
|Matija LANDEKIĆ, Ivan MARTINIĆ, Matija BAKARIĆ, Rosa M. RICART, Mario ŠPORČIĆ||UDK 630* 969||395|
|VOCATIONAL TRAINING OF WORKERS IN THE FORESTRY SECTOR – THE SITUATION IN CROATIA AND TRENDS IN EUROPE|
The Introduction provides an overview of research findings related to danger and risk in the forestry profession toward other sectors through the standard indicators of safety at work on the example of the United States, Spain, Germany, Austria and other countries. On the other hand, training and periodical qualification verifying of the employee to work with the operating machinery and safe working practice are emphasized as an essential element in the process of improving the quality of work and safety in operational forestry. In addition, trends and changes in the education and training of human resources in forestry in general and the role of vocational training of forest workers in the prevention of injury and increase operational safety levels at work are cited.
The subtitle material and method provides the most relevant sources that are used as the basis for drafting paper, such as, a document entitled »Professions and Training in Forestry – results of an inquiry in Europe and North America«, Eduforest International internet platform and internet platform of the European Forestry and Environmental Skills Council. Also, for the purpose of the paper forming the application of analysis and synthesis, comparison and compilation methods is explained.
The third subtitle displays situation analysis of workers vocational training in forestry sector within which the Copenhagen Declaration is highlighted, which advocates strengthening and popularization of vocational education and training.
Networks and programs in the field of forestry training within Europe are listed in the Table 1., and more detailed analysis of registered educational institutions in the Eduforest network basis and the results of the analysis are shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2. Heading 3.1 clarifies the role of vocational training of workers in forestry. In addition, a positive step of vocational training of workers in forestry at European level is highlighted through the establishment of the European Forestry and Environmental Skills Council whose mission is to simplify the mobility of workers in forestry and arboriculture within the EU through processes of accreditation and promotion of individual national qualifications between the partner countries at European level. Current condition on vocational training for chainsaw operator in the forestry of Croatia are explained in
subtitle 3.2. Inconsistent and incomplete programs and training activities, a significant reduction, or the absence of practical training and the use of non-transparent criteria in the carried out training assessment are cited as the biggest problem. Subtitle 3.3 clarifies the role and contribution of the European Forestry and Environmental Skills Council in the training of workers. The subtitle lists the criteria for acquiring the status of a national center / agency prescribed by EFESC Handbook, and the list of national agencies accredited by the EFESC in Table 2. The logo of the European Forestry and Environmental Skills Council is presented in Figure 4. Implementation of the European Chainsaw Standard is explained in the text and four levels of European Chainsaw Standards are presented in Figure 6. Figure 7 displays German example of the European Chainsaw Standards implementation, and Table 3 shows the implementation of European Chainsaw Certificate within EFESC countries.
The heading Discussion and Conclusion specify the limits of training and vocational training in the scope of forestry on the example of the dual education within the specialized institutions, namely, forestry training centers that provide comprehensive training in technical, safety and vocational aspect. In conclusion, in this paper the technical, organizational and legislative guidelines are listed for the potential implementation of the European model of certification of forest workers in the Croatian forestry with the aim of improving the current situation.
Key words: forestry; forest worker; vocational training; training; certification
MARTINIĆ, Ivan ŠL
BAKARIĆ, Matija ŠL
Rosa M. RICART
ŠPORČIĆ, Mario ŠL