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HR  EN   



Scientific-technical and professional journal
of Croatia Forestry Society
                         Issued continously since 1877.
       First issue of this web edition start with number 1-2/2008.
   ISSN No.: 1846-9140              UDC 630*PAPER EDITION

Portal of scientific
journals of Croatia
   Issued by: Croatian Forestry Society

   Address: Trg Mažuranića 11, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
   Phone/fax: ++385 1 4828477
   e-mail: urednistvo@sumari.hr
   Editor in Chief: Josip Margaletić

Uredništvo   537
In the year of great forestry anniversaries, one of the newer forestry institutions in the Republic of Croatia, the Croatian Chamber of Forestry and Wood Technology Engineers, marked the 10th anniversary of its existence in mid October by organizing the First Conference of Licensed Forestry and Wood Technology Engineers. An entire decade had to elapse before licensed engineers got together, and the events at the conference clearly showed that such a gathering should have been organized much earlier.
You can read more on the conference itself on the Chamber website and in the text on the pages of this issue of Forestry Journal. The Editorial will focus on the diagnosis of the current state of the Chamber and on questions concerning the future. These questions were raised by Professor Tomislav Poršinsky, PhD,  Chamber President, and Professor Tibor Pentek, PhD, President of the Department of Forestry Engineers, in their presentation “CCFWTE (Croatian Chamber of Forestry and Wood Technology Engineers) – what next?” The first decade of the Chamber’s activity naturally asks the basic question of whether the Croatian Chamber of Forestry and Wood Technology Engineers fulfilled the expectations set at its foundation. Probably nobody could then foresee that the ratio between the two professional classes, which are equally represented in the Chamber Assembly, would be so disproportionate in terms of the number of licensed engineers. According to the ratio, licensed forestry engineers are 30 times more represented in relation to wood technology engineers.
The next question concerns the signet of the licensed engineer, its use and, finally, the need for it. Has the introduction of the signet without any recognizable features protected the profession in practice, which was the intention at the foundation of the Chamber? The rules of the profession are often mentioned; one of the questions asked was whether we have them and whether they are defined by some guidelines. The discordance of different laws (on forests and construction), as well as the ambiguous and undefined nature of certain legal provisions (“do-it-yourself” system), the indistinctness of the master /engineer of urban forestry, nature conservation and environment degree, the organisation of special training and learning outcomes, ways of taking professional exams, licensing the executors, field work control, the invisibility of the profession (engineers and technicians) in forests with licensed work performers and the participation of licensed engineers coming from mainly one company in commissions are issues that have been acute for years, and whose solution would advance the sector and justify the expectations set at the foundation of the Chamber.
The jurisdiction of the Chamber equally relates to all licences engineers employed in the state and private sector, in the same way in which the Forest Law and other legal and by-legal acts equally treat forests regardless of ownership type. Despite this, however, the overall condition of private forests has never been worse than in recent times. Evidently, protection of forests as a resource and good of general benefit has been lacking, and this should be rectified by the regulation of the forestry profession.
The general conclusion of the conference was that the meticulously prepared round tables, the whole-day stay in one place and the desire of the profession to exchange opinions, showed that this way of professional training has its quality and advantage over shorter, one-hour lectures, which are the most common form of professional training. True, the former requires much more financial and human resources and for this reason such conferences cannot be organized more often, but holding one in two or three years is absolutely necessary.
The success of the conference was further enhanced by the time spent in informal socializing and discussions on sector topics. One of the most valid features of the conference was that it provided an opportunity for licensed engineers from different institutions and in different positions to get together in one place and give opinions from their standpoints. In general, this helps to better understand problems occurring in the field. The views expressed at the conference provide a solid basis for joint action of numerous members of the Chamber geared towards improving legal regulations and implementing them in practice. The participation of conference attendees in discussions showed that all Chamber members should be more actively involved in the work of the Chamber for the purpose of solving current problems in the field, which was also the conclusion of the Chamber President, Professor Tomislav Poršinski, PhD.
We congratulate the Croatian Chamber of Licensed Forestry and Wood Technology Engineers on their tenth anniversary and we wish them success in future promulgation of the profession.
To all members of the Croatian Forestry Association and to the readers of Forestry Journal we wish Merry Christmas and Happy New Year, with all the success in personal and business achievements in the year 2017.
<br>Editorial Board

Damir DRVODELIĆ, Milan ORŠANIĆ  UDK 630* 232.3
(Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.) (001)
This paper compares the viability of freshly collected and delayed germination seeds of Narrow-leaved ash as one of the main tree species in lowland forests of Posavina. This tree species is of particular interest to us due to its growth rate, short rotation as compared to that of common oak, as well as the technical value of wood. The seeds of the genus Fraxinus spp. often have a pericarp, which is impermeable to oxygen, metabolic inhibitors in the endosperm and embryos, immature embryos or lack of substances that promote embryo growth. Seed dormancy is usually eliminated with warm-wet and cold-wet process. The seeds were collected in the Josip Kozarac forest management unit, managed by the forest office Lipovljani. The viabiliy of the seeds that were collected earliest (21 August) was estimated using the topographical tetrazole method in
accordance with the ISTA rules. The seeds of Narrow-leaved ash (crop 2013) in the nursery Brestje was placed under stratification in the open on 16 January 2015 and sown on 21 March 2015. Stratification lasted for 64 days. The delayed germination seeds of Narrow-leaved ash were collected on 20 October 2015. Viability was assessed using the same methodology as in the case of fresh seeds. Fresh seeds have viability of 91%. There was 9% of non-viable seed, of which the largest percent have empty seeds (5%), followed by insect-damaged seeds (3%) and seeds in which the embryo and endosperm had unstained areas or necrosis. Delayed germination seeds had seed vigour of 87%. There were 13% of non-viable seeds, of which the highest percentage were the seeds containing embryos with unstained surfaces or necroses, and fully coloured endosperm (10%). Seeds in which the embryo and endosperm had unstained surfaces or necrosis accounted for 3%. Necrosis or embryo rot, which then spread to the endosperm, was detected in non-viable delayed germination seed. As for necrosis or embryo rot, seeds were observed with complete necrosis, necrosis of cotyledons, hypocotyls and plumule, hypocotyls and radicle and radicle alone. In the spring of 2015 nursery seed germination in the nursery Brestje was 0% despite 82% vitality. A statistically significant difference was found between the viability of fresh and delayed germination seeds. The viability of delayed germination seeds was 4% lower than that of fresh seeds. Based on these studies, the collection of seeds of Narrow-leaved ash is recommended to begin from the second half of August, since such seeds manifest high viability. When sowing seeds in the nursery, account should be taken of its age, pre-sowing preparation and sowing time. A recommendation for future nursery production of Narrow-leaved ash seedlings with a generative method involves determining the optimal type and duration of seed stratification with respect to micro-relief growth diversity of parent trees from which the seeds are collected (micro-depressions, unsoaked micro-depressions, micro-elevations), climate and seed zoning.

Key words: seed viability; the tetrazole method; Narrow-leaved ash; ISTA rules; seed dormancy

    DRVODELIĆ, Damir      ŠL
    ORŠANIĆ, Milan      ŠL
Stefan F. WIRTH, Olivia WEIS, Milan PERNEK  UDK 630* 453 (001) 549
In different locations of Croatia (Nova Gradiška, Koprivnica, Gospić and Jastrebarsko) adults and developmental stages of Ips cembrae, the large larch bark beetle, and Ips typographus, the European spruce bark beetle, were collected from Picea abies, Larix decidua und Pinus sylvestris together with substrate from their breeding galleries and examined for phoretic mites. Four different mite species were identified by collecting specimens directly from the beetles:
Iponemus gaebleri (Tarsenomidae), Histiostoma piceae (Astigmata, Histiostomatoidea), Dendrolaelaps quadrisetus (Gamasina) and Urobovella sp. (Uropodidae). I. gaebleri was the most abundant mite on both beetle species.
Three other mite species have been collected directly from bark beetle galleries.We also studied the attachment-areas of phoretic mites on their beetle carriers. I gaebleri and D. quadrisetus preferred the elytral declivity, while the phoretic deutonymphs of the Histiostomatidae commonly were found on the ventral side of the thorax.
We discovered statistically significant differences concerning the total of attached mites and a clear preference of I. gaebleri for I. cembrae.
Young callow adults of Ips cembrae, emerging from their maternal galleries carried significantly more phoretic mites than parental beetles, which were picked out of their breeding galleries.
Females of an another species of genus Histiostoma were found in galleries of I. typographus. They all were largely covered by great numbers of two-chamber spores of a fungus belonging to the Ascomycota (Hypocreales).
A dichotomous key to identify larvae and protonymphs of the Histiostomatidae is provided.

Key words: Coleoptera; Curculionidae; Scolytinae; Tarsenomidae; Histiostomatidae; Acari; Iponemus gaebleri; Histiostoma piceae; Bonomoia pini; Croatia; key to larvae and protonymphs of Histiostomatidae

    Stefan F. WIRTH  
    Olivia WEIS  
    PERNEK, Milan      ŠL
Tolga OZTURK, Necmettin SENTURK  UDK 630* 376 (001) 561
The purpose of this study is to investigate the productivity and cost of the Urus MIII skyline yarder during extraction of timber from spruce stands in northeast Turkey. The productivity of Urus MIII skyline yarder was determined by using the methods of work and time study. The research results implies that some working characteristics of the Urus MIII skyline yarder such as fuel consumption, load volume, yarding distance, speed of the carriage, time consumption per phases have an important impact on productivity of the skyline yarder. The results indicated that the productivity of Urus MIII skyline yarder was 10.63 m³/hr for average 253 m. Daily productivity was found 84.80 m³. The unit cost of yarder was found to be 30.00 €/hr. Also, the average fuel consumption was 5 liter/hr.

Key words: Urus MII skyline yarder; timber extraction; spruce; productivity

    Tolga OZTURK  
    Necmettin SENTURK  
Turan SÖNMEZ, Aydin KAHRIMAN, Abdurrahman ŞAHIN, Mehmet YAVUZ  UDK 630* 537 (001) 567
The aim of this study was to develop allometric equations for the estimation of above-ground biomass components of Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) tree in the Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Using regression analysis, different allometric equations were fitted for the tree components of the above-ground biomass using diameter at breast height (dbh) and tree height as estimators. Two hundred and ninety-two trees between 0.4 and 63.0 cm in dbh were randomly sampled throughout 292 natural, pure Calabrian pine stands in Turkey’s Mediterranean Region, where it forms diverse stand structures. Finally, the allometric equations were developed for the tree components of the Calabrian pine tree for the stem, bark, branch, needle and total above-ground biomass. The stem, bark and total biomass equations explained more than 90% of the observed variability, while the branch and needle biomass equations explained 82% and 65%, respectively.

Key words: Calabrian pine; biomass estimation; allometric equations

    Turan SÖNMEZ  
    Aydin KAHRIMAN  
    Abdurrahman ŞAHIN  
    Mehmet YAVUZ  
Maja JURC, György CSÓKA, Boris HRAŠOVEC  UDK 630* 453 577
We have collected published data and carried out pilot studies on European nettle tree (Celtis australis) entomofauna in Croatia, Slovenia and Hungary. Seven taxa of Lepidoptera (Libythea celtis, Nymphalis polychloros, Archips xylosteana, Erannis defoliaria, Caloptilia fidella, Phyllonoricter millierella and Hyphantria cunea), one cerambycid (Neoclytus acuminatus) and one hemipteran (Metcalfa pruinosa) were found. Two species of Lepidoptera (L. celtis and P. millierella) are monophagous on the leaves of C. australis. The other recorded species are also known on other woody hosts. For N. polychloros, A. xylosteana, E. defoliaria, C. fidella and N. acuminatus European nettle tree is a new host plant. The monophagous species of butterflies on C. australis have appeared more frequently in the last decade. The results are intended to predict whether this tree species is suitable for introduction on a wider scale in pine plantations of Pinus nigra affected by climatic extremes, pests and diseases, such as sphaeropsis blight (Diplodia pinea). Taking into the account the potential rise and growing impact of European nettle defoliators, which, according to some projections will prosper in the future due to global warming, some reservations arise and reduction of C. australis viability are to be expected.

Key words: Celtis australis; Southern/Central Europe; insects; defoliators; Lepidoptera; Coleoptera; Hemiptera

    Maja JURC  
    György CSÓKA  
    HRAŠOVEC, Boris      ŠL
Milorad DANILOVIĆ, Slavica ANTONIĆ, Zoran ĐORĐEVIĆ, Pajo VOJVODIĆ  UDK 630* 964 589
In most developed countries forestry is among the occupations with the highest rate of occupational injuries. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and main causes of occupational injuries in Serbian forestry. The data were collected in the area managed by the Forest estate (FE) „Sremska Mitrovica“ for the period from 1st January 2008 to 31st December 2012. The analyses involved workers engaged in different forest work operations (logger, manual loader, silvicultural worker and driver). The data analysis showed that light injuries account for 95% of all occupational injuries, while severe occupational injuries account for 5% of them. In the analyzed period there were no fatal injuries. The percentage of injuries in the total number of workers is 12%. The most commonly injured workers were loggers (68%). According to the analysis, every fourth logger was injured, and the largest number of them were injured once (99 workers). Twenty-six of them were injured twice during the same period and 9 three or more times. The average logger age was 38.8, and their average length of service was 16 years. The largest number of logger injuries occurred in March and May, on Mondays (almost 1/3 of injuries) in the period from 10 to 11 AM, and the most frequently injured body parts were the legs (38%) and arms (35%). The most common cause of injury is the blow of a branch (35%).

Key words: forest utilization; occupational injuries; logger injuries

    Milorad DANILOVIĆ  
    Slavica ANTONIĆ  
    Zoran ĐORĐEVIĆ