|WHO DECIDES WHAT IS SCIENCE AND WHAT IS NOT SCIENCE?|
Reacting to the Editorial published in the Forestry Journal No 3-4/2016, Ivan Pavelić, MSc, President of the Management Board of Croatian Forests Ltd, sent an e-mail to the President and Secretary of the Croatian Forestry Association, in which he stressed that „the Management Board does not wish to get involved in „idle prattle“ and „score-settling“ under the pretence of science. In other words, we will not continue to financially support your so-called scientific journal“.
We will not follow suit of the gentleman in question and give our opinion on this email, unlike the gentleman in question, who failed to use arguments to answer the questions raised in our text and remove all doubts if they are groundless. We would first like to clarify the scientific status of the journal. According to the decree of the Croatian Ministry of Information No. 523-91-2 of 3rd March 1991 and the decree of the Ministry of Science and Technology of 2000, the Forestry Journal is denoted as a scientific journal. To say what is and what is not scientific, particularly in the biotechnological sciences, requires some references, which Mr Pavelić, judging from his manner of management, does not possess. Neither does he possess professional references for managing such a demanding economic branch, whose primary goal should not be the production of wood mass only. The scientific status of the journal is confirmed by articles cited from relevant international scientific journals, and more recently, by the important Impact Factor, which further exemplifies the high quality of the journal. The Forestry Journal is not only a scientific magazine; it is a scientific-specialist and professional journal of the Croatian Forestry Association, as stated in its sub headline. This means that all the texts are based on exclusively scientific-specialist and professional foundations rather than on political ones. The questions raised in the subject text were not „concocted“ by the Journal’s Editorial Board. The Editorial Board only formulated the opinion of the profession via the CFA Management Board, which is also the Journal’s Editorial Council. The Editorial Council is comprised of presidents of 19 branches (who were not appointed by the Headquarters but were elected from a membership of about 3,000 members in all), and of representatives of the Faculty of Forestry, Academy of Forestry Sciences, the Croatian Forest Research Institute, HKIŠDT (Croatian Chamber of Forestry and Wood Technology Engineers) and the competent Ministry. The above confirms the unquestionable status of competences. Moreover, the list can further be widened by members of the Editorial Board who are specialists in different scientific-specialist fields. Mr Pavelić does not have to answer all the questions raised in the journal because he is a representative of the state „concessionaire“, who has been entrusted with the administration and management of the national treasure and who should be supervised by the competent Ministry throughout his term of office. Whether the competent Ministry has done so or is doing so, and whether those responsible in the Ministry and the Government of the Republic of Croatia are aware of what has been „sacrificed“ in order to achieve the glorified profit „on paper“ and probably obtain managers’ bonuses remains doubtful. As for the bonuses, a topic on which much has been written in different media, it is interesting to point out that the discussions focused only on whether the distribution of so-called profit should have involved all those employed in the company Croatian Forests Ltd. Not one word was said about the enormous damage inflicted on the forests and forestland by inadequate forest management. No one, not even forestry engineers, union members, sought answers to the questions raised in the Editorial of Forestry Journal 3-4/2016, which so incensed the arrogant President of the Management Board of Croatian Forests Ltd
Regarding the financial support to the journal, we should just point out that this is not financial support but subscription to the journal. By declaring his decision, the gentleman in question concludes that forestry experts do not need life-ling learning and cancels the subscription, thus becoming the first manager to do so after 140 years of the publication of the Journal, precisely in the year in which we celebrate this important anniversary.
To sum up, the questions raised in the journal are not the topic of „street chit-chat or coffee shop small talk“, as Mr Pavelić says. On the contrary, it is the topic that requires serious and qualified discussions at the highest scientific-specialist and political level. After all, what is at stake here is national treasure of immeasurable value.
|ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPERS|
|Damir DRVODELIĆ, Milan ORŠANIĆ, Vinko PAULIĆ||UDK 630* 164 (001)||327|
|IMPACT OF ECTOMYCORRHIZA AND HUMIC ACIDS ON MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF 1 YEAR OLD SEEDLINGS OF Paulownia tomentosa x Paulownia fortunei HYBRIDS|
The paper presents the results of the impact of ectomycorrhiza and humic acids on major morphological features of 1 year old seedlings of Paulownia tomentosa × Paulownia fortunei (9501) hybrids grown from root cuttings. Paulownia has many desirable properties as well as negative traits such as invasiveness. Experimental plantations were established in the spring of 2015 on a field in Zagreb. We used two different spacings (2x2 m and 4x4 m), each with two treatments and control. In the first treatment we planted seedlings grown from root cuttings inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi at the time of planting. For the second treatment we used the inoculated plants with the addition of soil humic acids. Seedlings were planted in flower beds with black plastic foil and a trickle irrigation system. Major morphological features of seedlings were measured at the end of the first growing season. A positive impact of the ectomycorrhizal fungi and humic acids on morphological characteristics of 1 year old seedlings was established. For the planting distance 2x2 m we established significant differences between the seedlings treated with ectomycorrhizal fungi and seedlings treated with ectomycorrhizal fungi and humic acids compared to the control seedlings in the following variables: total seedling height, stem diameter at 10 cm from ground level, number of branches, seedling height to the first live branches and length of the longest branches. For the planting distance 4x4 m we obtained statistically significant differences between the seedlings treated with ectomycorrhizal fungi compared to the control seedlings in the following variables: stem diameter at 10 cm from ground level, the number of branches and the length of the longest branches. The application of ectomycorrhizal fungi and humic acids can increase the quality of forest plantation of paulownia. Before growing and putting paulownia seedlings on the market we should consider the fact that in Croatia there are no scientific or impact studies on the nature of several species from the genus Paulownia, and the risks should be assessed for each taxonomy category, even lower than the species. Such studies would give specific guidelines and plans for future plantations of paulownia.
Key words: plantations; seedlings morphology; ectomycorrhiza; humic acids; agroforestry
DRVODELIĆ, Damir ŠL
ORŠANIĆ, Milan ŠL
|Kristijan TOMLJANOVIĆ, Ante SELETKOVIĆ, Maja MALNAR, Marijan GRUBEŠIĆ||UDK 630* 156 (001)||339|
|AN ERROR ANALYSIS OF HUNTERS IN ESTIMATING THE TARGET DISTANCE|
Depth perception is the ability to see thre dimensional volume and special layout of objects in relation to one another as well as to the observer himself. This depth perception in humans is achieved by different signs in nature where the eyes or the brain relies on certain regularities in the environment (Watson & Enss 2012). Knowing the size of the object from previous experience our brain can calculate distance based on the size of the object on the retina (Abel 2014). For proper depth perception it is necessary that both eyes focus the object synchronously. This way, observing the object simultaneously from two different angles a plastic image of the object is create in the brain (Tran and ass., 2010), and all other information on the observed object is
being given (Greene & Oliva 2009; Oliva & Schyns 2000; Rousselet i sur., 2005; Sanocki 2003). In everyday hunting management proper assessment of distance of wild game, especially of big game species, is of crucial significance in executing cull. Most rifles that are now used for cull are equipped with optical sights that are generally calibrated at 100 – 150 meters. Depending on the calibre, height of the optics, bullet weight, distance and angle from which you shoot, as well as some other less important parameters, depends the success of the cull itself and punctuality of the shot.Often is the case that the reason for missing in cull attempts should be looked for in the wrong assessment of distance of wild game. Distance assessment of objects in nature has been researched on the sample of 40 hunters of different age groups, hunting experience and education. Research has been conducted in three types of habitat, lowland (up to 200 a.s.l.), highland (200 – 800 a.s.l.) and mountain (over 800 a.s.l.).To eliminate biases each hunter has been tested in ten differently distanced objects. Measurement control has been conducted with laser telemeter. Conducted research was supposed to determine that the bias distance assessment depends on different factors. As expected, by increasing the distance of the object for which distance was assessed, the distance assessment error also increased. It was determined that age has influence on distance assessment and assessment error that occurs. In youngest and oldest hunters the biggest average error has been noticed, while somewhat smaller errors have been noticed in hunters in the age group of 40 to 60. It can be therefore assumed that the errors in the group of younger hunters is the result of insufficient experience, while in the group of hunters above 60 years of age this is the result of reduced functionality. Hunters that are older than 70 have shown on average smaller error than the ones in age category 60 – 70 years of age, however considering that it is a small sample and dissipation is far bigger this part of the sample should not be considered relevant. This situation does not correspond to the errors that were noticed in analysing errors in correlation with hunting experience, especially when you take into account that hunting experience increases proportionally with age. Most errors were done by hunters with hunting experience between 10 and 20 years. Hunters that were hunting for less than ten years made less mistakes on average and therefore these results are also in favour of the thesis that for distance assesment hunting experience is less important, and that sight functionality and life age are crucial. Analysis of level of education show that the hunters with higher education made less errors. All hunters on average estimate smaller distance that the measured one. By increasing the distance the error in distance estimation is also increased.
Key words: estimation of distance; hunters; hunting management; habitat
TOMLJANOVIĆ, Kristijan ŠL
SELETKOVIĆ, Ante ŠL
GRUBEŠIĆ, Marijan ŠL
|Vladan POPOVIĆ, Ivona KERKEZ||UDK 630* 164 + 165 (001)||347|
|POPULATION VARIABILITY OF WILD CHERRY (Prunus avium L.) IN SERBIA ACCORDING TO THE LEAF MORPHOLOGY|
Wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) is the most important European tree species in the family Rosaceae (Russell 2003). It is very valuable forest species that grows in mixed forests in Southern, Central and Western Europe. In the growing stock of Serbia wild cherry falls into the category of species at risk (Banković et al. 2009) to which is not paid enough attention. The researches of population structure and genetic variability at the level of genotypes and/or populations are the basis for the knowledge on the adaptive and genetic potential of wild cherry in some area.
The morphological variability of leaves in nine natural populations of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) in Serbia was studied in this paper. The research material was collected in nine natural populations of wild cherry in Serbia (Figure 1, Slika 1). The leaves from ten trees per population were collected while every tree was presented with 50 healthy and intact leaves. The leaves were collected from borderline trees or trees located in an isolated position usually from the southern exposed part of the crown, from its outer well-lit part. Leaf morphological characteristics were described by descriptive statistical indicators: arithmetic mean (x), standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV). In order to determine the intra-population and inter-population variability the univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed.
Results obtained by performed statistical analysis of studied morphological characteristics of wild cherry leaves showed that the most variable characteristic is the leaf surface area (LA). The analysis of variance (ANOVA) confirmed presence of statistically significant differences between values of the arithmetic means of the studied characteristics on both inter- and intra-population level. Populations varied the most in the petiole length (PL) and the smallest differences were observed in the leaf length (LL). Intra-population variability is greater than inter-population variability.
Based on the conducted researches it can be concluded that in the studied wild cherry populations a high rate of variability of the studied leaf morphological characteristics was determined. The obtained results are the basis for the continuation of the research that needs to be conducted in order to provide guidelines and recommendations for the conservation and targeted use of genetic resources of this species in Serbia and beyond. For a complete knowledge on the variability of wild cherry in a part of the natural area the research should be expanded by the use of molecular markers.
Key words: Prunus avium L.; leaf morphology; variability; population.
|Taylan OCALAN||UDK 630* 582||357|
|ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF GPS PRECISE POINT POSITIONING (PPP) TECHNIQUE USING DIFFERENT WEB-BASED ONLINE SERVICES IN A FOREST ENVIRONMENT|
Since Global Positioning System (GPS) has been routinely conducted in many engineering projects, it is also effectively applied to the assessment and preventing of forest and natural resources. Depending on the GPS survey method preferred in the applications performed around the forest environments, different level point positioning accuracy can be achieved. Traditionally, for many precise positioning applications, relative static positioning has been used. The data obtained have been analyzed with high-cost scientific and commercial software, which are required a good knowledge of processing procedures. However, in recent years, web based online services that use Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique, developed as a special type of relative positioning, that enables to process and analyze the static data easily, have become a significant alternative for users. These developments on GPS based surveyings that significantly make contributions to the studies applied around the forest environment, in terms of time, cost, accuracy and labour are preferred in many engineering facilities. In this study, it is aimed to research performance of GPS PPP technique and web based online services in positioning applications especially performed around the forest environments. For this purpose, two test stations have been established in different locations around the forest area, located in Campus of Davutpasa, Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, and stations have been observed repeatedly in static GPS surveying mode for 3 days and per day with 3-hours observation duration. The observations have been computed by commercial software as using final GPS ephemerides products so called TopconTools v8.2 and also by web based online services namely OPUS, AUSPOS, CSRS-PPP, GAPS and APPS.
From the results, when 3D positioning differences have been examined, it is seen that the positional accuracy is range from 0.024 m to 0.251 m for TP01 and from 0.078 m to 1.033 m for TP02 with respect to both relative solution and PPP solution, which is used by web based online services. When the results have been examined for only CSRS-PPP, APPS and GAPS services, which are used PPP solution, it is seen that the positional accuracy for 3D positioning differences is range from 0.024 m to 0.251 m for TP01 and from 0.078 m to 0.859 m for TP02.
The results show that since the static GPS data is collected for duration of 3-hours and more, PPP technique and the web based online services using this technique for precise positioning applications around the forest environment give effective solutions to the users and at the same time decrease the survey cost with respect to equipment and software.
Key words: GPS; PPP; web-based online services; forest environments; positioning accuracy
|Sevgin ÖZDERN,Hüseyin FAKR, Emrah DÖNMEZ||UDK 630* 813||369|
|CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF HAWTHORN (Crataegus L. spp.) TAXA NATURALLY DISTRIBUTED IN WESTERN ANATOLIA PART OF TURKEY|
Chemical properties of Crataegus pentagyna subsp. pentagyna, C. orientalis subsp. orientalis, C. orientalis subsp. szovitsii, C. tanacetifolia, C. azarolus var. aronia, C. monogyna var. lasiocarpa, C. monogyna var. monogyna taxa that are naturally distributed in Western Anatolia were determined in this study. Leaf and flower samples collected from Izmit, Sakarya, Balıkesir, Izmir, Kütahya, Muğla and Isparta provinces of Western Anatolia to determine volatile components in 2010-2014 period were dried at room temperature. Volatile components that were obtained by dry phase microextraction (SPME) method in Süleyman Demirel University Central Laboratories were determined in Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 81 volatile components belonging to 7 hawthorn taxa were determined. Volatile oil components that were identified at highest ratios were benzaldehyde (82.54%) butyraldehyde (38.27%) and (E)2-hexenal (21.67%) components.
Moisture values of hawthorn seeds samples that were collected from sample areas during ripening period were determined. Fatty acid composition was determined in with Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) using standard fatty acid mixture. Moisture values of hawthorn seeds varied between 14.49%-36.33%. 10 fatty acid compositions belonging to 7 hawthorn taxa were determined, the highest were linoleic (64.23%), oleic (39.36%) and palmitic acid (8.16%) respectively.
Key words: Crataegus; volatile component; benzaldehyde; linoleic acid; Western Anatolia; Turkey
|Ivo AŠČIĆ||UDK 630* 945.2||377|
|NUMISMATICS AS AN EDUCATIONAL AND PROMOTIONAL TOOL IN FORESTRY|
The article discusses the role of the forestry topics in numismatic, ie money, one of the most important features of the sovereignty of every country. First part of the article deals with the historical emergence of the concept of money and numismatics. Special emphasis is placed on the Croatian currency kuna, which can serve as an educational and promotional tool in forestry. There are numerous examples from Croatia, but also from other countries, of motifs on the banknotes and coins which are raising awareness that we need to preserve the protected plant and animal species, and better management of forestry. Article also provide guidelines for the further promotion of forestry through this unique the communication channel.
Key words: coins; banknotes; Croatian kuna; forestry; education; promotion; flora; fauna