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HR  EN   

5-6/2016

WEB EDITION


Scientific-technical and professional journal
of Croatia Forestry Society
                         Issued continously since 1877.
       First issue of this web edition start with number 1-2/2008.
   ISSN No.: 1846-9140              UDC 630*PAPER EDITION
DIGITAL ARCHIVE

HRČAK
Portal of scientific
journals of Croatia
   Issued by: Croatian Forestry Society

   Address: Trg Mažuranića 11, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
   Phone/fax: ++385 1 4828477
   e-mail: urednistvo@sumari.hr
   Editor in Chief: Josip Margaletić


     
 
EDITORIAL
 
Uredništvo   213
NEWS FROM THE MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE      
EDITORIAL
On behalf of the Faculty of Forestry of the University of Zagreb,  the Croatian Forest Research Institute, the Academy of  Forestry Sciences, the Croatian Chamber of Forestry and  Wood Technology Engineers and on its own behalf, the Croatian  Forestry Association congratulated the new Minister of  Agriculture Professor Davor Romić, Ph.D., on his appointment  to the post of Minister of Agriculture at the beginning of February  2016. On this occasion, the Association asked the Minister  to set a date for a meeting with the representatives of the  above forestry institutions. This request was accompanied by  the jointly agreed attitudes on future activities to be undertaken  in Croatian forestry.  
The CFA also extended their congratulations to Ivica Francetić,  M.Sc., the new Assistant Minister of Forestry, Hunting and  Wood Industry.  
On May 2016, Minister Davor Romić, Prof. Ph.D., and Assistant  Minister Ivica Francetić, M.Sc., received a delegation of  forestry institutions consisting of Professor Vladimir Jambreković,  Ph.D., Dean of the Faculty of Forestry, Dijana Vuletić,  Ph.D., Director of the Croatian Forest Research Institute, Professor  Jura Čavlović. Ph.D., Chief Secretary of the Academy of  Forestry Sciences, Professor Tomislav Poršinsky, Ph.D., President  of the Croatian Chamber of Forestry and Wood Technology  Engineers, Silvija Zec, B.Sc., Secretary of the Croatian  Chamber of Forestry and Wood Technology Engineers, Oliver  Vlainić, B.Sc., President of the Croatian Forestry Association,  and Damir Delač, M.Sc., Secretary of the Croatian Forestry  Association.  
There was a joint discussion on 11 items from the notification  sent to the Minister. The majority of the items had already been  initiated by the Ministry and are currently in different stages  of progress.  
An initiative was put forward to reinstate the term ‘forestry’ in  the name of the Ministry at the earliest occasion. The Ministry  has already consulted the Croatian Forestry Association about  the return of the name. Materials are being prepared to change  the current name into the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.  
A Commission was appointed for developing a strategy of forestry  of the Republic of Croatia for the period 2016 - 2030 (17  members: 2 representatives of the Ministry of Agriculture, 3  representatives of the Faculty of Forestry, 1 representative of  the Advisory Service, 3 representatives of the Croatian Forest  Research Institute, 1 representative of the company Croatian  Forests, 1 representative of the Croatian Chamber of Forestry  and Wood Technology Engineers, 1 representative of the Croatian  Union of Private Forest Owners, 2 representatives of the  
Croatian Employers’ Association, and 3 representative of the  Croatian Chamber of Economy). By September 1, 2016, a draft  proposal of the strategy should be completed and submitted  to the Ministry, which will open a public debate on the issue.  
A Commission was also formed for the development of a new  Forest Law, in which the Croatian Forestry Association has it  representative, and so was a Commission for the creation of a  developmental strategy of timber processing and furniture manufacture  2016 - 2020. The intention was to increase the finalisation  and improve the control of contract fulfilment for  wood industry. All the strategies should be passed by the end  of 2016, and all the documents will be available for public discussion  and debate.  
The primary goal of the Ministerial strategies is to retain the  population in rural areas, whereas the profit of the company  which manages state forests should be kept in the second place.  
The attitude of the Ministry on crucial issues is as follows: a)  retain a tax on non-market forest functions (with possible reduction  from 0.0265 % to 0.025 % of annual income or exemption  from tax for economic subjects with up to one million  annual income), b) establish a single forest-management area,  and c) solve a dilemma of whether to keep Croatian Forests in  the status of a company or organize it as a public institution  for the purpose of better protection of forests as goods of general  benefit.  
The forestry profession will be given an open hand to act in  common interest. There is a need for a Law on Timber Use and  Processing, but it will probably not be passed due to the attitude  of the European Commission. The problem will be solved  by including wood industry into the Forest Law, which will be  analyzed in more detail by a regulation.  
Of particular interest is the condition in private forests, where  property-legal relationships are unsolved and there is considerable  illegal felling. By 2019, management programmes should  be completed for all private forests in the Republic of Croatia.  Long-term contracts for forestry contractors should also  be developed for the purpose of enabling their easier development,  and particularly for drawing the means from the Rural  Development Programme (purchase of machinery).  
The second national forest inventory will be made and agricultural and forest land will be delineated.  
During May and June, forestry operations 8.5.1, 8.5.2, 8.6.1  and 8.6.2 from the Croatian Rural Development Programme  will be announced for the period 2014-2020, while the operation  4.3.3 was announced previously.  
Editorial Board  


    authors:
    Uredništvo
 
 
ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPERS
 
Silvija Krajter OSTOIĆ, Dijana VULETIĆ  UDK 630* 945 + 907 (001) 215
THE ROLE OF INFORMATION IN UNDERSTANDING FOREST ECOSYSTEM SERVICES      
Summary
Ecosystem services including forest ecosystem services are hot topic globally among scientists and practitioners for decades. In Croatia there is a long tradition of discussing forest ecosystem services in terms of how to systemise them, assess and value, as well as how to secure payment for their provision. However, literature review showed discrepancy between scientific and professional production and importance of this topic for forestry sector in Croatia. This is especially a fact when it comes to research related to citizen perceptions and attitudes and whether they are informed about the topic. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to analyse the role of information in better understanding of the topic with the assumption that being informed leads to better understanding of the topic. Survey questionnaire was applied on the sample of three student populations of the University of Zagreb – Faculty of Forestry (FoF), Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture (FMENA) and Centre for Croatian Studies (CCS) (Table 1). The hypothesis was made that respondents from FoF would have better understanding of the topic since they are more informed through their study programme in comparison to respondents from other two faculties. The sample was purposeful and convenient at the same time, and included 247 respondents. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for statistical data analysis that included Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric tests beside descriptive statistics. Results showed that respondents from FoF in their own opinion were more informed about the topic of forest ecosystem services and payment for ecosystem services in comparison to respondents from other faculties (Figures 1 and 2). However, questions concerning their actual knowledge on the topic showed that even them had problems with recognising forest ecosystem services and purposes of the payment for forest ecosystem services (Tables 2 and 4). However, there was always statistically significant difference in answers between respondents from FoF and other two faculties (Table 3). When asked about who has the obligation to pay for forest ecosystem services respondents provided various answers, while only 29.2% of respondents from FoF, 9.9% of respondents from FMENA and 15.2% of respondents from CCS provided correct answer to this question (Figure 3). Similarly respondents were asked about the institution responsible for distribution of resources collected as payment for forest ecosystem services. Correct answer was given only by 41.5% of respondents from FoF, 26.8% from FMENA and 19.7% from CCS (Figure 4). Furthermore, respondents
were asked to express their agreement with four statements related to payment for forest ecosystem services in terms of purposeful and transparent money spending, whether it contributes to the better state of forests in Croatia or it should be abolished (Figures 5-9). Results showed that rather high share of respondents does not have opinion, especially respondents from FMENA and CCS. The conclusion is that information has a role in better understanding of the topic of forest ecosystem services, but there are probably other factors that were not included in this research. In future it is important to continue studying understandig and attitudes of various segments of citizens. The purpose of these studies would be to contribute to creation and implementation of proper forest policy instruments that would help in better understanding of the topic and eliciting positive attititude towards forestry activities related to forest ecosystem services by citizens.

Key words: survey; students; payment for forest ecosystem services; Croatia; forest policy

    authors:
    KRAJTER, Silvija    ŠL
    VULETIĆ, Dijana      ŠL
 
Tatjana MASTEN MILEK, Gabrijel SELJAK, Mladen ŠIMALA, Maja PINTAR, Vjekoslav MARKOTIĆ#SS  UDK 630* 453 (001) 229
CHECK LIST OF SCALE INSECTS (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) ON HOST PLANTS OF GENUS Quercus L. IN CROATIA, WITH EMPHASIS ON THE FIRST RECORD OF KERMES BERRY – Kermes vermilio Planchon, 1864      
Summary
Check-list of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) on host plants of genus Quercus L. comprises all available literature data on faunistic research of scale insects in Croatia, as well as data from the research conducted from 2005 to 2014. Published data on former faunistic research from the following authors have been used: Balachowsky (1950), Kovačević (1961), Kozár (1983), Langhoffer (1927, 1929), Lindinger (1912), Schmidt (1956, 1973) and Žak-Ogaza (1967). Each listed species was matched with a corresponding name, according to current systematics (Ben Dov et al., 2014). Following materials and methods were used in conducted research: visual inspections, collecting of plant material, storing and preservation of samples, analysis of samples under stereomicroscope, preparation of microscopic slides and identification of species. Samples were collected according to the method by Gill (1993). Analysis of collected samples was done under ZEISS Discovery V12 stereomicroscope with appurtenant AxioCam ERc5s digital camera. 70% ethyl alcohol, potassium hydroxide, lactic acid, fuchsine acid, lignin pink, acetic acid and clove oil were used in processing of scale insects’ samples. Permanent microscopic slides (photo 2) were prepared using clove oil, accordingly to Kosztarab & Kozár, 1988 and Gill, 1993. Identification of scale insect species was conducted using identification keys by Balachowsky, 1950, Borchsenius, 1960, Gill, 1993 and Pellizzari et al., 2012, compound microscope OLYMPUS BX 51 (with 4x, 10x, 20x, 40x and 100x magnification lens and 10x magnification ocular) and
OLYMPUS DP25 digital camera. Based on literature data, 15 species of scale insects have been registered on oak trees (table 1). Faunistic investigation of scale insects in period from 2005 to 2014 established 12 species of scale insects. When compared to literature data, 6 new species have been registered (table 2). Currently, the check-list of scale insects on oak trees in Croatia comprises 21 species belonging to 4 families: family Asterolecanidae: Asterodiaspis ilicicola (Targioni Tozzetti 1888), A. quercicola (Bouche 1851), A. variolosa (Ratzeburg 1870), family Coccidae: Coccus hesperidum Linnaeus 1758, Eulecanium tiliae (Linnaeus 1758), Parthenolecanium rufulum Cockerell 1903, Pulvinaria sericea (Fourcroy 1785), family Diaspididae: Chionaspis etrusca Leonardi 1908, C. lepineyi Balachowsky 1928, C. salicis (Linnaeus 1758), Diaspidiotus alni (Marchal 1909), D. bavaricus (Lindinger 1912), D. ostreaeformis (Curtis 1843), D. zonatus (Frauenfeld 1868), Gonaspidiotus minimus (Leonardi in: Berlese & Leonardi 1896), Lepidosaphes beckii (Newman 1869), L. ulmi (Linnaeus 1758), Targionia vitis (Signoret 1876) and family Kermesidae: Kermes quercus (Linnaeus 1758), K. roboris (Fourcroy 1785) and K. vermilio Planchon 1864 (table 3). A. ilicicola had the highest number of appearing, followed by P. rufulum (graph 1). On host species from the genus Quercus, species from the family Diaspidide were dominant, followed by Asterolecanidae, Coccidae and Kermesidae (graph 2). In July 2014 mass occurrence of scale insect K. vermilio and symptoms of its infestation were registered on evergreen oak (Quercus ilex L.) in the town of Poreč (photo 2). Visual inspections were conducted and samples were collected. Diagnostic analysis based on morphological characteristics was carried out and it resulted in identification of scale insect K. vermilio (photo 1). K. vermilio is a new member of Croatian entomofauna, whose host plants are evergreen species belonging to the genus Quercus, primarily evergreen oak.

Key words: Croatia; first finding; kermes berry; Kermes vermilio; oak; scale insects

    authors:
    Tatjana MASTEN MILEK
    Gabrijel SELJAK
    Mladen ŠIMALA
    Maja PINTAR
    Vjekoslav MARKOTIĆ#SS
 
Mirzeta MEMIŠEVIĆ HODŽIĆ, Dalibor BALLIAN  UDK 630* 164
(Quercus robur L.) (001)
239
RESEARCH OF DIVERSITY OF MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS OF PEDUNCULATE OAK (Quercus robur L.) IN PROVENANCE TEST ŽEPČE, BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA      
Summary
Natural populations of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) in Bosnia and Herzegovina are small and scattered. They differ from those located in their optimum in Central Europe and due to their specific genetic structure they play a significant role in preservation of pedunculate oak diversities in Europe.
The aim of this research is to determine the variability of the remaining pedunculate oak populations in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Measuring of height of plants and diameter of root collar was conducted in provenance test in Žepče in the spring of 2012, 2013 and 2014. Plants from all 28 provenances have been measured.
In 2012, Miljevina provenance contained the minimum average height – 38,8 cm, and the maximum height was found in Jelah – 74,3 cm. In 2013, Stojčevac provenance contained the minimum average height – 61,3 cm, while Jelah remained provenance with the maximum average height – 108,4 cm. Average height of Miljevina provenance still remained low – 63,0 cm. In 2014, Stojčevac provenance kept the minimum average height – 90,8 cm – while Jelah kept the maximum height – 151,2 cm.
In 2012, Vinac provenance had the smallest average diameter of root collar – 11,3 mm, while Jelah provenance had the biggest average diameter of root collar – 16,2 mm. In 2013, Stojčevasprovenance contained the smallest average diameter of root collar – 17,9 mm and the biggest average diameter was found in Jelah provenance – 23,8 mm. Vinac provenance moved from 17th position with its average root collar diameter of 19.9 mm. The smallest average root collar diameter in 2014 remained in Stojčevac provenance – 23,7mm, while the biggest average diameter remained in Jelah provenance – 34,7 mm. Analysis of variance has pointed at the statistically significant differences between populations with regard to all analyses characteristics. All traits tested using variance analysis and Duncan’s test showed statistically significant differences between populations.
Due to the resulting variability between studies provenances, the results should be used when planning conservation measures and reintroduction of pedunculate oak in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Research needs to be continued, because the results obtained in the early juvenile stage are incomplete and burdened with numerous disadvantages.

Key words: pedunculate oak; provenance test; morphological variability

    authors:
    Mirzeta MEMIŠEVIĆ HODŽIĆ
    Dalibor BALLIAN
 
Branko STAJIĆ, Živan JANJATOVIĆ, Predrag ALEKSIĆ, Zvonimir BAKOVIĆ, Marko KAZIMIROVIĆ, Novica MILOJKOVIĆ  UDK 630* 101 + 561 (001) 251
ANAMORPHIC SITE INDEX CURVES FOR MOESIAN BEECH (Fagus × taurica Popl.) IN THE REGION OF ŽAGUBICA, EASTERN SERBIA      
Summary
Data on average age and height of dominant moesian beech trees from 109 temporary sample plots were used to establish anamorphic site index curves (SI) calculated from seven growth functions (Chapman-Richards, Korf, Korsun, Hosfeld IV, Todorović, Schumacher and Prodan). The base age for calculation of SI was 100 (SI100). The guide curve method was applied. For the evaluation of the models, statistical as well as visual examinations were considered. The results showed that all the applied models had a relatively high coefficient of determination (R2) value, indicating that the models accounted for more than 65% of the variation in the dominant height, which can be considered as large effects. Korsun’s function shows the best overall statistics, which makes this model the most suitable for the construction of anamorphic site index curves for the study area.
The obtained results are of importance for effective decision making in forest management planning, forest policy, and ecology in Serbia. Namely, regarding the relatively large sample and well-distributed sample units per age and site classes as well as the source of data (temporary sample plots), the developed site index curves and the method of stratifying the sites according to their productivity were performed for the first time in Serbia. Future studies should be performed in order to expand the knowledge on the dominant beech height-age relationships in the studied region using another well-known procedure of site index construction – polymorphic site index curves and stem analysis data.

Key words: height growth; site index curves; moesian beech; Serbia

    authors:
    Branko STAJIĆ
    Živan JANJATOVIĆ
    Predrag ALEKSIĆ
    Zvonimir BAKOVIĆ
    Marko KAZIMIROVIĆ
    Novica MILOJKOVIĆ
 
 
PRELIMINARY COMMUNICATION
 
Tomislav PORŠINSKY, Maja MORO, Andreja ĐUKA  UDK 630* 377 259
MANEUVERABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF CABLE SKIDDER      
Summary
Maneuverability of specialized forestry vehicles is defined by their ability to overcome terrain unevenness during which interaction between vehicle and terrain geometry occurs. Maneuverability, as a segment of vehicle mobility, is defined by: 1) obstacle crossing, 2) vehicle controllability and 3) ride comfort.
Vehicle specifications are determined during design and construction (dimensions, steering and locomotion systems, mass and its distribution on axles etc.) and together affect the level of vehicle maneuverability. Independently of vehicle purpose, many maneuverability parameters (directly connected to operational use) including approach, departure and ramp (break-over) angles as well as clearance radii are known, but their calculation for varying types of vehicles (different construction, purposes etc.) is still vague.
On the example of wheeled cable skidder, this paper deals with approach, ramp (break-over) and departure angles, longitudinal and transversal clearance radii as significant parameters for skidder mobility and maneuverability on uneven forest stands. Considering specific wheeled cable skidder design and construction together with constant relation of dimension characteristics regardless of different manufacturers, expressions for approach, ramp break-over and departure angles, longitudinal and transversal clearance radii are derived.

Key words: skidder; approach angle; ramp (break-over) angle; departure angle; longitudinal clearance radius; transversal clearance radius

    authors:
    PORŠINSKY, Tomislav      ŠL
    Maja MORO
    Andreja ĐUKA
 
 
REVIEWS
 
Olivera TANČEVA CRMARIĆ, Davorin KAJBA  UDK 630*232.5 273
MICROPROPAGATION OF WILD CHERRY (Prunus avium L.) FROM A CLONAL SEED ORCHARD      
Abstract
A total of 24 genotypes (selected adult plus trees) were introduced from a clonal seed orchard of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) in the process of in vitro production. The possibilities of optimizing routine micropropagation methods of the clones at all stages were explored. Several techniques were established that allow the introduction of the initial culture throughout the year. A total of 23 clones were successfully introduced over the four seasons. Clone L3 was not successfully disinfected and was not introduced into the initial culture. The specific composition of culture media and the unique combination of growth regulators were determined in all in vitro production stages, leading to the growth of high-quality plants with very good survival during the acclimatization process. BAP-1.0 mg/L, Kinetin-0.5 mg/L and IAA-0.5 mg/L were used for micropropagation, which resulted in the multiplication rate of 3-9 with shoot heights from 1.5 to 3.0 cm. Rooting of microcuttings was achieved by a combination of IAA-2.0 mg/L, IBA-2.0 mg/L with the addition of GA3-0.2 mg/L. The rooted plantlets of wild cherry developed normal internodes and leaf blades, and the roots were well formed with 3 to 7 roots per plant, whose length increased the longer they remained in the culture medium. The micropropagated selected plus trees mani­fested strong apical dominance and the majority of the young plants reached a height of over one meter in the period of seven months.

Key words: in vitro propagation; selected plus trees; clonal seed orchard; wild cherry

    authors:
    Olivera TANČEVA CRMARIĆ
    KAJBA, Davorin      ŠL