|IT IS TIME TO FINALLY FORMULATE A CONSISTENT FORESTRY POLICY AND FORESTRY STRATEGY|
|“Formulating the Croatian agricultural strategy is one of my priorities, which will on no account neglect the aspects of rural development, environment, products of protected designation of origin, rural tourism and renewable energy sources.” This is what the new Minister of Agriculture stressed in an extensive interview given to Večernji List (Evening Paper) on 16 March 2016. The Minister went on to say that the deadline for drawing up the strategy of agriculture and food industry, forestry and wood processing was the end of 2016. He pointed out that the Rural Development Programme was currently being redefined.
In the Forestry Journal No. 5-6 we already wrote about the non-existence of state strategies for almost all economic sectors, including forestry and wood processing, and about general expectations that they would finally be formulated. Since this was at the time of new parliamentary elections, the strategies were expected to be drawn up by the new Government. As we can see, the entire mandate of the old Government had elapsed without anything being done in this respect, which in a way legitimized disorganized work. Lack of strategies and poor control in the competent ministry responsible for the forestry policy and strategy, and particularly the fact that the company Hrvatske Šume Ltd and its incompetent management were allowed to implement their own forestry policy and their own strategy, despite being, conditionally said, “concessionnaires”, resulted in evident and great damage for forests and forestry. In view of how incompetently the company is managed and how its primary goal is “profit” at any cost, we must demand the answers to some questions that will reveal the factual state. These answers will, we hope, finally lay the foundations for a consistent forestry policy and strategy. It is not possible to raise all controversial issues here, so we leave additional issues to the readers. Here are several of these questions: should one annual cut be skipped because we have nipped into the growing stock; has the mixture ratio been disturbed by cutting more valuable tree species; has the stand diameter structure been disturbed; have the silvicultural operations of tending and cleaning, which determine the future stand, been delayed and by how much; which stands should be regenerated prematurely owing to inexpert management which brought them into a state in which they cannot make optimal use of forest site potentials; what about natural stand regeneration; how much raw wood material remains in the forest and why; what about the forest order; what quantity of damaged trees is caused by skidding the assortments and why; why are there too many accidentally cut trees; how do we process assortments so as to avoid damage to forest soil; have forest skidding lines turned into gullies and why; is it true that only a small portion of the money collected from forest road use is spent on their maintenance, leading to their extremely poor condition; do we continue to pay very low amounts for skidding to private entrepreneurs, so that they restock their vehicle fleet by purchasing old tractors that pollute the environment; why is the price of some sawlog classes lower than the price of fuelwood; what about afforesting burnt areas, which are a potential hazard for soil erosion; who has been entrusted with the management (in addition to raw material) of other economic forest potentials and why: and finally, how much will forests and forestry suffer because of blind servitude to monetary profit only, dictated by greedy bureaucracy?
In unofficial conversations, our colleagues, including some colleagues who are currently in the managing structure of the company Hrvatske Šume Ltd, express disapproval and wonder at some directives that are not based on the principles of the forestry profession and on the expertise acquired at the Faculty of Forestry. Multiple experiments conducted by the strictly centralized management, or better said, by one man, have led forestry almost to the very brink of survival. Among other things, we already wrote about abandoning one of the principles contained in the 10 sentences on forests by distinguished Academician Dušan Klepac. This principle relates precisely to the organisational form of forestry, from centralist to decentralist, which “allows the use of all direct and indirect benefits of a forest in the same space and in the same organisational unit”. We have already pointed out that at present this form is strictly centralist, according to which approval of the centre must be obtained for any little thing, and in which forest administration managers have no jurisdiction over anything. Naturally, this hampers their inventiveness and limits the application of forestry knowledge and experience, as well as undermines them before other employees and the local community. Moreover, forest rangers and engineers are increasingly turning into office clerks, while the benefits of a forest are exclusively limited to the raw material base. In fact, all this is aimed at nullifying and undermining the multifunctional role of a forest and downgrading forestry experts to the level of uninventive labourers. It is surprising that, with the exception of the management of the Croatian Forestry Association, which has repeatedly warned of the factual state in this column, many believe that things will work out by themselves, or even worse, do not feel responsible for any of the above. We have tackled these issues, as well as issues of wood processing and energy strategies, on several occasions in this column and in some other texts - all we need to do is browse through Forestry Journal and start protecting the profession more actively; otherwise, we have no right to complain.
|ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPERS|
|Jozo FRANJIĆ, Gabrijel HORVAT, Daniel KRSTONOŠIĆ||UDK 630* 111 + 113 (001)||111|
|NEW LOCALITIES AND SYNTAXONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SEA BUCKTHORN (Hippophaë rhamnoides L., Elaeagnaceae) IN CROATIA|
Common sea-buckthorn is a glacial relict, which was, after the last glaciation, spreading to the north and higher mountain positions. In Croatia, it was widespread in Međimurje and Podravina (near Mura and Drava river – Legrad, Bukovec, Dubrava, Križovljan-grad). It is very rare in cultivation or sub-spontaneous spread, some sites are referred to the Samobor and Skradin area, and cultivated it can be found in the botanical garden of the Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Nepeš, Staro Brestje (Sesvete), by the road Sv. Helena-Bjelovar and in the Forest Park Adica in Vukovar. During the first half of the 20th century there was no new information on the distribution of sea buckthorn in Croatia, and in the second half of the 20th century, during the phytosociological survey of vegetation in the coastal zone of the river Drava in the wider Varaždin surroundings Trinajstić (1964, 1994) records several shrubs, without special phytosociological affiliation. As for Croatia, the first data on phytosociological features of the species H. rhamnoides brings Trinajstić (2006), based on one phytosociological relevé which, according to its floristic composition, in syntaxonomic terms belongs to the Ass. Hyppophao-Berberidetum Moor 1958.
The latest research on vegetation succession in Podravina, 26th of June 2015, showed a new locality of H. rhamnoides, north of the villages Veliki and Mali Bukovec (WGS84 Lat: 46.307054, Long: 16.727540). One
phytosociological relevé was made (Tab. 1). The analysis of the relevé shows a greater species richness (25, 15) compared to the one of Trinajstić’s (2006) and is very similar to the relevé of Moore’s (1958). So far Trinajstić-s (2006) finding of sea-buckthorn in 1966 was the last recording of this species in Croatia. As the hydrological interventions destroyed the habitats, causing the sea-buckthorn to disappear from this area, the new records of sea-buckthorn and Ass. Hyppophao-Berberdetum Moor 1958 (Berberidion vulgaris Braun-Blanquet 1950) are the only existing natural findings there. For these reasons, it should be noted that the Croatian flora is now richer for one naturally spread species, as well as the vegetation of Croatian is richer for one association which should be given an adequate importance in natural science.
Key words: new locality; Sea Buckthorn; Hippophaë rhamnoides; Hippophao-Berberidetum; Croatia
FRANJIĆ, Jozo ŠL
HORVAT, Gabrijel ŠL
KRSTONOŠIĆ, Daniel ŠL
|Ivan ANDRIĆ, Igor POLJAK, Marno MILOTIĆ, Marilena IDŽOJTIĆ, Davorin KAJBA|| UDK 630* 165 + 111
(Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl) (001)
|LEAF PHENOLOGY CHARACTERISTICS OF NARROW-LEAVED ASH (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl) IN CLONAL SEED ORCHARD|
Narrow-leaved ash (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl) is a hygrophilic and predominantly thermophilic tree species that favours deep, clayed and moist soils exposed to occasional seasonal flooding. The largest complexes of narrow-leaved ash (80 %) are located along the Sava river. In the context of global climate change, it is important to know the composition and structure of genetic variability, particularly in terms of adaptive potential such as growth, survival and leaf phenology. The goal of research was to analyze the beginning of the leaf unfolding phase (L2 phase), the duration of leaf development (L2 – L6) and the impact of atmospheric parameters on the beginning of leaf unfolding, as well as to determine intrapopulation and interpopulation variability and the existence of ecotypic forms in relation to the beginning of leaf unfolding. Phenological characteristics of leaf phenology of narrow-leaved ash were monitored in the clonal seed orchard of Nova Gradiška in the course of three years of research (2012, 2014 and 2015). Monitoring included 42 clones originating from three populations (Jasenovac, Novska and Stara Gradiška). Every clone was represented with four ramets each (in total 168 plants). Leaf development was divided into six phenophases (figure 2, table 1); the analysis focused exclusively on Phase L2 (beginning of leaf unfolding). The average number of days from January 1st to the beginning of leaf unfolding was 98 days in 2012, 93 days in 2014, and 103 days in 2015 (figure 3, table 2). The average number of days required for leaf development amounted to 27 days in 2012, 26 days in 2014 and 20 days during 2015. Based on phenological results throughout the three years of study, the clones were divided into two ecotypic forms (early and late) with regard to the beginning of flushing (figure 5, table 4). The justification of division into two forms was statistically confirmed (table 3). The average values of the number of days for early ecotypic forms ranged from 90 to 101 days, and for late forms from 99 to 107 days. Along with temperature requirements as the most crucial activating factor in the manifestation of leaf phenology, researche also confirmed high correlation between cumulative values of precipitation quantity (from December 1st to the beginning of Phase L2) and the beginning of leaf unfolding in narrow-leaved ash (r=0,93). Statistically significant differences were found between all the studied clones, and so were for intrapopulation variability for the beginning of leaf unfolding; however, no statistically significant differences were found between the studied populations (table 3). Intraclonal values of the coefficient of variability (CV %) for the property of leaf unfolding decreased with the age of the experiment and on average amounted to 15.22 % at age 2 + 8 years, 13.46 % at age 2 + 10 years, and 7.8 % at age of 2 + 11 years, indicating higher stability and uniformity of phenological characteristics among the ramets as their age increased (figure 4). The affiliation of the clones to ecotypic forms did not coincide with their geographic origin, which additionally confirmed important intrapopulation variability of narrow-leaved ash.
Key words: narrow-leaved ash; leaf unfolding; precipitation; intrapopulation and interpopulation variability; intraclonal variability; early and late ecotypic forms
ANDRIĆ, Ivan ŠL
IDŽOJTIĆ, Marilena ŠL
KAJBA, Davorin ŠL
|Dalibor BALLIAN||UDK 630* 443 (001)||127|
|GENETIC STRUCTURE OF SESSILE OAK (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Lieblein) IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA BASED ON THE ISOENZYME ANALYSIS|
Sessile Oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Lieblein) is one of the most important type of forest tree in Bosnia and Hercegovina, even though the Sessile Oak forest structure is very weak. The reason for this is found in the huge effect that the man has on these breeds throughout history and numerous unplanned cutting and poor management system. In the conditions present in Bosnia and Hercegovina Sessile Oak is found in approximately 330,000ha in small and usually clean and varied samples.
Through this research we would like to answer the following questions, namely what is the genetic structure, diversity and differentiation of Sessile Oak in some of the populations in Bosnia and Herzegovina and what is the importance of knowing the genetic structure especially when it comes to regeneration.
For the analysis we have used 11 enzyme systems with 14 genetic locus and 82 aleals.
The biochemcial analysis of the genetic structure of 17 populations of Sessile Oak, by using the 14 isoenzyme genetic locus wwe have found notable differences. A large level of polymorphism has been recorded and only the gene locus sorbitol has registered true monomorphysm, whereas the genetic locus Pgi-A we have found polymorphism to exist in only one population. The average number of aleals by locus was between 1,7143 and up to 3,1429 and the effective number of aleals was between 1,1089 and 1,2585. Similar findings were found when it came to heterozygotry, and the larges was for the population from Bugojno at 0,1869 and smallest at population from Gračanice at 0,0947. The negative values of the fiksational index in the studied populations are indicative of fact that freer management and husbandry is possible as it has not lost its genetic potential for adaptation which is further supported by the research of the seed samples. The results of teh differentiations show very small values which shows that there is onlya short period of time from their splitting and that even the effect of humans has not caused them to lose their adaptational potential.
As far as the genetic distances between the populations are concerned, it is the same principal as with the differentiation, only a few popualtions diverges notably from the average and the divergence can be attributed to the historical effect of humans as the populations are from the areas of dense human populations throughout the history. The methods of biochemocal marker usage for the Sessile Oak have given us a good picture about the studied populations and the achieved results ensure the right suggestions are done to preserve the genetic values of this species of oak in Bosnia and Hercegovina.
Key words: Sessile Oak; Quercus petraea (Matt.) Lieblein.; population; genetic variability
|Emsud SELMAN, Mirza DAUTBAŠIĆ, Osman MUJEZINOVIĆ||UDK 630* 453 (001)||137|
|SMALL SPRUCE LEAF WASP (Pristiphora abietina Christ. 1791) – CONTRIBUTION TO THE BIOLOGY OF PEST IN THE VIEW OF NEWLY DAMAGES|
Determining the impact of pest P. abietina on the health of the forest of spruce plantations was conducted in the area of the Forest area „Ključko“ within the department „27“ forest management unit „Ošljak-Golaja“. Within the object of research assessed and measured the following parameters: the start, the course and the end of swarming of small spruce leaf wasp; biology of species; flux emergence of symptoms in the attacked trees spruce. To capture – catch specimens P. abietina were used yellow sticky traps for insects. Each series (18 series) had 10 with 20 traps sticky surface. A total of 180 used sticky traps. Caught a total of 2,640 individuals of P. abietina, of which 1,903 or 72.1% of males and 737 females, or 27.9%. This pest caused significant damage in this locality.
Key words: Hymenoptera; Tenthredinidae; Yelow sticky traps; bionomy; damage of needles
|Neška VUKŠIĆ, Marcela ŠPERANDA||UDK 630* 114.2||147|
|DISTRIBUTION OF HEAVY METALS (Cd, Pb, Hg, As) AND ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS (Fe, Se) IN FOREST SOIL AND PLANT COMMUNITIES OF THE STATE OPEN HUNTING AREA ˝KRNDIJA II˝ XIV/23|
Elements such as Pb, Cd, Hg, and As, are an integral part of the biosphere, they do not decompose but circulating in nature in different oxidation and chemical forms. Human activity increases the naturally occurring levels of these elements in the environment. Wild animals that live in natural ecosystems are particularly exposed to the various environmental factors. The environment is the main factor that determines health status and population of wildlife. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, As and Hg) and essential elements (Fe and Se) in the soil and plant communities of the forests (litter and ground flora) in habitat conditions for two years. In the state open hunting area ˝KRNDIJA II˝ XIV/23 was taken 14 samples of soil and samples of litter and ground flora from four areas of hunting grounds. We performed a chemical analysis of the soil and analysis of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, As, Hg) and essential elements (Fe, Se) in samples of soil, litter and ground flora. It was found that the area of research is characterized by acid soils that are medium humus to humus, poor in potassium and phosphorus and medium provided with iron and deficient with selenium. The determined concentrations of heavy metals in soil were lower than the maximum permissible concentrations. Increased concentrations of cadmium and lower concentrations of iron and selenium from the desired concentration was determined in samples of litter and ground flora.
Key words: heavy metals; essential elements; soil; plant communities
|Atinc PIRTI, Nursu TUNALIOGLU, Taylan OCALAN, R.Gursel HOSBAS||UDK 630* 582||155|
|AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD FOR POINT POSITIONING IN THE FORESTED AREAS|
Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) consist of satellite technologies such as GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou and Galileo. These technologies have effectively been used in many application areas. GNSS Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS) have also been applied successfully in many areas of forested industry. Typical applications include fire prevention and control, harvesting operations, insect infestation, boundary determination, and aerial spraying. Forest and natural resource applications can be achieved efficiently employing GNSS/CORS data collection technologies. However, there are limiting factors in the environment, such as the forest canopy, which has adverse effects on the reception of GNSS signals. In terms of saving time, Point Positioning with GNSS/CORS in forested areas is a significant challenge in the acquisition of highly accurate coordinates of points. The time for integer carrier-phase ambiguity solution takes approximately one-hour or more for point positioning under forested areas with GNSS/CORS. In this study, an alternative method for providing point coordinates under a forested area is proposed. This method gives the positioning results with centimeter level accuracy and nearly 15 minutes are required to provide the new point location in the forested area. The method proposed may also be of practical use in indoor applications with desired accuracy at cm level, which is reached in a short observation time. In this study, we conducted fieldwork to achieve coordinates of the point in a forested area with GNSS/CORS system and supplementary measurements by establishing two control points observed by GNSS/CORS located at the border of the forested area. The result shows that a satisfactory solution for forested area is reached at cm level (≈ ± 6 cm) in a short observation time.
Key words: GNSS; CORS; VRS; Accuracy; Forested Areas