|THE PROBLEM OF FORMULATING A CONSISTENT FORESTRY AND WOOD PROCESSING POLICY IN CROATIA|
|In his article entitled “Can a state holding company be efficient? If governed by the logic of profit, there will be dividends!”, Mr Borislav Škegro illustrates his standpoint with the example of the forestry and wood processing industry business (relationship). According to him, the wood processing industry records outstanding results in the production, export and employment, but cannot satisfy the demand because it is faced with the limiting factor of the lack of raw wood material (there is not enough wood, says he). He thinks this is absurd, because “there is a surplus of wood in the forests today – up to one third of the total mass of oak, for example.” The wood processing industry would pay for these excess quantities in cash, it would employ new labour force, it would export, earn and pay increased taxes, but “it just does not work – nobody wants dividends”, says he. Evidently, a message for the new minister is to “for a start, add the additional 200 million kuna of dividends to the budget income”; by doing so, there will be “wood in excess, and dividends and taxes in abundance”.
When he expostulates on the manner of how a holding company conducts business, he says that only income from the invested capital is measured and that there are no second or third “socially sensitive, generally developmental social criteria ... a dividend becomes an important part of the tax-exempt income of the government budget ... there is no justification for preserving working places and for the social, local and political criteria”. There are also opinions of some wood processing companies which require a ban on the export of logs. They point out that we spend 200 million dollars on the import of furniture made of Croatian logs that were exported cheaply – which is a way of squandering our national wealth.
With regard to forestry, the uninformed musings of Mr Škegro, according to which one can fell as much timber as he or she needs, and not according to management plans, are complemented by similar thoughts of the president of the Employers’ Association, which concern primarily the price of raw wood: if it were lower (although currently it is the lowest in Europe), then the Croatian wood processing industry would be more competitive. The first gentleman should be informed that the capacities of the annual cut are limited and that in the spirit of the principle of sustainable management, forestry follows the principle of cutting slightly below the annual wood mass increment and not according to the demands of the over-capacitated sawmill processing. Therefore, it is out of the question that there will be wood in excess and dividends in abundance. There can be dividends only if the Croatian wood processing industry applies itself to cutting down on the 80% of production costs, rather than constantly lamenting on the excessively high price of raw wood material, which accounts for a maximum of 16–20% in the cost structure. In addition, it should do its utmost to use the best quality raw material in the final product with the highest added value. We are sure that the wood processing industry can be forced to do the aforesaid only by market prices of wood assortments. Another step to take is to turn to cutting edge technologies and investment into knowledge on all levels. We agree that log export should be banned, because we have already pointed out in previous texts that 8 m3 of exported logs equals one exported work place. However, as far as we know, apart from some soft broadleaves and products which the Croatian wood processors are not interested in, the company Hrvatske Šume Ltd does not export logs, unlike some wood processors. This means that for the sake of export, they “camouflage” a part of the quantities contracted at a non-market price into different forms of minimal sawmill products (Count, Flitch, Square and similar).
As for imported furniture, we are confident that people would rather buy a home-made piece of furniture on condition that it is cheaper but of equal quality as the imported one. Why it is not cheaper and of good quality rests on our wood processors, who have home raw material available at non-market prices and at almost no transport costs. Our articles have repeatedly pointed at squandering the national wealth when writing about forestry as a specific economic branch, but not as an economic branch viewed by Mr Škegro and some private wood processors. Obviously, in vain have we tried to explain that apart from its raw material role, the forest also has other roles, such as the ecological, social and eco-physiological roles, which are several times more valuable than the raw material role. Consequently, managing a forest is in stark contrast with the proclaimed “holding approach”. It is high time we finally formulated a consistent forestry policy (we wrote about this in Forestry Journal 11-12/2014), adding to this the wood processing industry, which should implement the newly-formulated strategies. By doing so we will put a stop to absurd irrational contemplations on forests, do away with non-market relationships between forestry and wood processing industry, and define an adequate status of forestry within Croatian economy.
|ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPERS|
|Željko ZGRABLIĆ, Hrvoje MARJANOVIĆ, Danko DIMINIĆ||UDK 630* 443 (001)||7|
|CAN WE PREDICT SPHAEROPSIS SAPINEA OUTBREAK BY MONITORING FUNGAL DIVERSITY IN AUSTRIAN PINE PLANTATIONS?|
Fungal diversity plays an important role in forest ecosystems stability as well in the health status of mycorrhizal forest trees. At research area in Istria, Croatia, pathogenic fungus Sphaeropsis tip blight (Sphaeropsis sapinea (Fr.) Dyko et Sutton) caused substantial damage in Austrian pine (Pinus nigra J. F. Arnold) plantations during the last decades. This research continues on previous done in Austrian pine plantations on predisposition to S. sapinea infections, where site and stress conditions were determined as key factors, but also, the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi were confirmed as biological indicators of the health status in selected plantations. We analyzed fungal diversity of Austrian pine plantations to determine the dependence of species richness and its diversity index, both for total and ECM species only, in relation to S. sapinea infection rate and crown transparency of selected trees. Fungal samples were collected during 2013 at nine permanent research plots in autumn season. Their total and ECM species richness and diversity index were correlated to Sphaeropsis tip blight infection level and crown transparency. Our results did not confirm the hypothesis that Austrian pine plantations with higher total species richness and its diversity index are more resistant to S. sapinea infection nor to crown transparency. Oppositely, ectomycorrhizal species richness and its diversity index might be used as good biological indicators of S. sapinea presence and crown transparency of studied plantations.
Key words: Pinus nigra; Sphaeropsis sapinea; crown transparency; integrated forest protection; species richness; Shannon index; ectomycorrhizal fungi
DIMINIĆ, Danko ŠL
|Matija LANDEKIĆ, Mario ŠPORČIĆ, Ivan MARTINIĆ, Matija BAKARIĆ, Kruno LEPOGLAVEC||UDK 630* 629 (001)||17|
|INFLUENCE OF LEADERSHIP STYLE ON MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE OF FORESTRY COMPANY|
Managerial decision-making and leadership style with a proactive organizational culture, for forestry in transition countries, can be a key link in the process of forest companies’ operational and business improvement. In theory and practice, there are several styles of leadership, from autocratic to democratic, and numerous studies have proven the existence of a causal link between management style and business improvement. In forestry, however, no one has specifically evaluated the management style of the forestry company, and it made reference to indicators of cultural component of the company and the mental load of employees. Through a case study, this paper analyzes the employees opinion of forestry company related to (a) existing and desired management style and (b) connection of management style with a share of a particular cultural type and indicator value in the relationship between work effort-reward (ERI indicator).
General findings (Figure 2) highlight autocratic style (74%) as the predominant leadership in forestry company, while the preferred way of managing enhanced democratic style (87%). Frequency of answers showed that 62% of employees never or rarely receive recognition and remuneration for their work (Figure 3). Never, rarely or occasionally assigning additional responsibilities emphasized 62.34% of respondents (Figure 4), and lack of investment in human resources training was highlighted by 55.56% of the respondents (Figure 5).
Correlation model results (Table 3) shows that low numerical value of management style, which is characterized by strong and / or generally autocratic management style with formal and directive approach to the management and with the orientation on the result, is followed by very strong hierarchical type of culture on which is linked and higher load i.e. respondents discontent within the structural units. The above is supported by the results of the regression analysis where the most unique contribution to explaining the value of the dependent variable, i.e. the management style is contributed by the hierarchical type of culture and ERI indicator (Table 4). Examination of the differences between the mean values of management style versus conditional class of ERI indicator (Figure 7) shows statistically significant differences, and the results indicates that the prominent presence of autocratic management style increases the mental workload of employees which can have a negative impact on productivity and health status of employees. The comparison of the company dominant culture with perceived management style (Figure 8) show that a high level of representation of the hierarchical culture type follows expressed autocratic management style and strong democratic management style of the company is positively correlated with a greater share of group cultural type.
Relationship analysis of management components shows that a hierarchical business culture of company is followed by a pronounced autocratic management style that is positively correlated with the ERI indicator, i.e. followed by increased mental workload of employees. Highlighted democratic management style of the company is positively correlated with group business culture on which is linked and lower load i.e. respondents’ discontent within the structural units. Unbalanced focus of the existing culture with formal directive management style and lack of reward system is resulting with a strong resistance to the necessary changes and needy improvement of forestry company management practice. Guidelines for the improvement of the present situation are listed in the discussions and conclusions of the work.
Key words: forestry; forestry company; management style; organizational culture; improving management practices
ŠPORČIĆ, Mario ŠL
MARTINIĆ, Ivan ŠL
BAKARIĆ, Matija ŠL
|Ivan ŠIRIĆ, Ante KASAP, Ivica KOS, Tomislava MARKOTA, Draženko TOMIĆ, Milan POLJAK||UDK 630* 120 +172.8 (001)||29|
|HEAVY METAL CONTENTS AND BIOACCUMULATION POTENTIAL OF SOME WILD EDIBLE MUSHROOMS|
The concentration of Fe, Zn and Cu in ten edible mushrooms in Medvednica Nature Park was determined. The similarity between the studied species was deterimend by cluster analysis based on concentrations of the aforementioned metals in the fruit bodies. The analyses of heavy metals were carried out by X – ray fluorescence spectormetry. The highest concentration of Fe (153.96 mg kg–1) was determined in Tricholoma portentosum, and the highest concentration of Zn (90.60 mg kg–1) was determined in Tricholoma terreum. The highest concentration of Cu was determined in Macrolepiota procera (78.18 mg kg–1). The concentrations of Zn and Cu significantly differed (p<0.05; p<0.001) between examined saprophytic and ectomycorrhizal mushrooms. A considerably higher concentration of the analysed elements was found in the cap than in the stipe for all mushroom species. All mushrooms species were bio-exclusors of Fe in relation to the underlying soils. Cluster analysis performed on the basis of the bioaccumulation of the studied metals revealed great similarity of mushroom species belonging to the same genus and partial similarity of species of the same ecological affiliation.
Key words: heavy metals; edible mushrooms; bioaccumulation potential; ecology
|Osman TOPACOGLU, Hakan SEVIK, Kerim GUNEY, Canan UNAL, Erol AKKUZU, Ahmet SIVACIOGLU||UDK 630* 181.5 (001)||39|
|EFFECT OF ROOTING HORMONES ON THE ROOTING CAPABILITY OF Ficus benjamina L. CUTTINGS|
Vegetative production techniques, of which cutting method widely used in propagation of ornamental plants, have a crucial role for conserving the plant genetic sources. On rooting development of stem cuttings, cutting position, rooting medium and rooting hormone are some of the critical factors that affect the success. The primary objective of this study is to determine the best hormone doses and ideal rooting medium on Ficus benjamina L. stem cuttings. Conventionally, the most frequently vegetative propagation method is the rooting of the stem cuttings in various media such as, pearlite, peat, sand, through exposure to high-concentration rooting hormones (IBA, IAA, NAA, etc.). But, this conventional technique requires wide areas in the rooting stage of mass production, prevents monitoring the course of rooting, and necessitates large amount of materials used as hormones and rooting media. In this study, a new method that may be preferable in mass production of plants was tested. 39 different treatments were carried out, and their results were evaluated. Sand, and perlite were used as solid rooting media. Stem cuttings were kept in low-concentration hormones permanently after cutting (liquid medium). In this way, their rooting capability were examined. Rooting trials were conducted before stem cuttings were taken to solid rooting media. As conclusions, the highest rooting ratio were obtained for 10 ppm of NAA (94.43%) and 100 ppm of IBA (93.9%) in liquid media. Moreover, the highest root length and the average root length were quite low in liquid media.
Key words: fitohormones; vegetative propagation; auxins; rooting
|Jovana PETROVIĆ, Srećko ĆURČIĆ, Nenad STAVRETOVIĆ||UDK 630* 907 + 234 (001)||45|
|INVASIVE PLANT SPECIES AND ECOLOGICAL FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SPREADING IN THE AREA OF THE OBRENOVAČKI ZABRAN NATURE MONUMENT (CENTRAL SERBIA)|
The main aim of the conducted research was to determine the presence of invasive plant species in the protected natural area of the Obrenovački Zabran Nature Monument (Central Serbia). Floristic and vegetation study of the forest Obrenovački Zabran was conducted through several vegetation periods (from March 2009 to November 2013). The presence of 163 plant species recorded in the area of the Zabran Forest reflects its flora richness. Out of the total number of recorded species, 24 taxa are listed as invasive plant species, which makes 14.72% of the total flora of the Obrenovački Zabran Forest Nature Monument. Among them, there are six woody plant species and 18 herbaceous plant species. Along the whole embankment track, the species Asclepias syriaca and Amorpha fruticosa were registered with a high value of the measured parameters each.
These two species create a wood edge leading down to the Sava River and suppress almost all other plants of the shrub floor, with a tendency to suppress already sparse vegetation of the ground floor. The most important environmental factors influencing the development and spreading of invasive plants in Obrenovački Zabran are light and temperature, which are most pronounced in the embankment area. Also, a strong anthropogenic influence, i.e., high frequency of users, has led to introduction and presence of invasive plant species in the area. The greatest number of determined invasive plant species belong to the family Asteraceae (nine species), then to the families Fabaceae and Poaceae (with two species each), whereas the other families had a single invasive species each.
Research results should provide a basis for development of strategies for monitoring the state of unwanted species and planning measures of their reduction in order to protect the autochthonous flora. Only careful and responsible management of the natural area would maintain the abundance of these species at the current level.
Key words: Sava River; Obrenovački Zabran; invasive species; environment protection; nature protection
|Gabrijel HORVAT, Jozo FRANJIĆ||UDK 630*187||53|
|INVASIVE PLANTS OF KALNIK FORESTS|
This paper presents an invasive plant species that occur in the forests of Kalnik. It also presents the state of the distribution and their impact on forests of Kalnik. A total of 14 invasive species in the forests of Kalnik and these are – Acer negundo L., Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Amorpha fruticosa L., Asclepias syriaca L., Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist, Echinocystis lobata (Michx.) Torr. et Gray, Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers., Impatiens glandulifera Royle, Juncus tenuis Willd.), Phytolacca americana L., Reynoutria japonica Houtt., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Solidago gigantea Aiton. Alochtonous vegetation is not only inevitable, but it also appears to be a constant future challenge in the globalizing world which communicates on all levels with every means possible. Its influence should not by any means be marginalized. Its importance and influence is not completely negative and there are possible benefits and dangers which should be controlled by the preventive measures and physical regulation. The most important species in Kalnik forest vegetation is definitely acacia. It is especially important for private forest lands where acacia tree has become very popular because of its characteristics as a fast growing tree species without any special requirements with relation to growth and it gives fast results concerning timber and firewood. Private lots are usually very small and fragmented. There is a growing need for timber, therefore the trees are grown extensively, from stumps and roots. Other woody species still do not pose a serious threat in economical or biological sense. The impact of herbaceous plants differs in various areas. The most problematic issues for the forestersare thick layers of unwanted specieswhich grow in young forest stands or in forests in the phase of restorationwhere these unwanted speciesinvasively compete with autochthonous species. In biological sense, invasive species pose a constant threat not only to domestic vegetation and biodiversity, but also to human health. We should also mention apiculture, a very important and well developed activity on Kalnik. Above mentioned species are very important and interesting for apiculture as a type of rich bee pasturage. Apiculture in this area depends on acacia pasturage and it is one of very important reasons for growing acacia tree. Other tree species are also valuable for bee pasturage, especially late in autumn when there is no other bee pasturage available and they are mostly species which blossom in autumn and represent a valuable source of pollen (Japanese Knotweed, Prickly cucumber and European goldenrod). Generally speaking, the biggest responsibility for possible consequences of invasive plant species to the vegetation of Kalnik lies on foresters who have to recognize and monitor the appearance of invasive species, especially in state forest lands where they grow and directly influence their composition and state.
Key words: Kalnik forest; alochtonous species; invasive species; biodiversity
HORVAT, Gabrijel ŠL
FRANJIĆ, Jozo ŠL