|HAVE WE LEARNT SOMETHING FROM HISTORY?
|It is common knowledge that “history is the teacher of life”, and if this is so, then the current events dictate caution and a comparison with the almost identical events in the past and their similar consequences. We were prompted to the above by the procedure of founding a controlling private company Hrvatsko Drvo Ltd (Croatian Timber). To our relief, the Supervisory Board has not accepted the initiative; however, according to some rumours at the time of writing this Editorial, the founding procedure is continuing. We ask ourselves: how would the establishment of a new company improve and advance the business of Hrvatske Šume Ltd (Croatian Forests), which should be the main task of the company’s management? Ideas such as these, despite not having the support of the profession, are the product of the non-existence of a national forestry strategy and policy. Regardless of whether this initiative is put to practice or not, just to be on the safe side we will comment on it and mention some possible consequences. Together with the co-founder and major partner Hrvatske Šume Ltd with its 25% of the share, and the companies Spin Valis and Viševica-Komp with 7% of the share, the company would also incorporate nine other timber processing companies and the Croatian Chamber of Economy with 6.1% of the share. In addition to other activities, which mainly overlap with the already existing activities in Hrvatske Šume Ltd (?), the main business of the new company would relate to the promotion of quality and availability of Croatian timber, as well as the promotion of the timber industry in the country and abroad. Is not one of the principal tasks of Hrvatske Šume Ltd concerned with the promotion of quality and availability of Croatian timber? Why is it necessary to found a new company through which Hrvatske Šume Ltd would promote the quality and naturalness of Croatian forests, which has already been proven by the FSC certificate? After all, they have been doing exactly this for ages! Let us ask ourselves: what kind of contribution in business - achieving as much profit as possible as a legitimate goal of entrepreneurship - can be expected from every single investor? What is important for every industrial production it the input of raw and other material (for example, in 2013 it amounted to about 47% in Croatia). The goal of every manufacturer is to have high quality input at the lowest purchasing costs. How can Hrvatske Šume Ltd meet the legitimate entrerpreneurial criterion of delivering the best quality material at the lowest costs? How does the state - co-owner find its interest to, pursuant to its share in the ownership, fill private pockets for meagre profit, thus squandering the national wealth, primarily at the expense of the principle of sustainable forest management? Is it possible that private interests are more important than the preservation of the national wealth such as forests? There are justifiable queries about whether the known investors are joined by some “secret investors”, and about who they might be. Definitely, the contracts signed with wood processing companies at non-market prices of raw material, as well as getting rid of secondary activities in forestry, are an example of yet another gem in the “successful” restructuring of the above company. What other protection should timber processing require from forestry when, in relation to competition, it has a status rent? What else should, for example, Spačva Ltd need for successful business when raw material of the best kind falls into its hands at non-market prices? What is more, the company has made a pre-bankruptcy settlement with the same, “untouched”, management team which has in fact caused the company to have negative results. They claim, “we are saving working posts”, while at the same time they are forcing forestry employees to accept severance pay and take early retirement. In doing so, they increase the number of pensioners, burden the already over-burdened pension fund and lower the income of local communities in mostly rural areas, which in turn leads to their abandonment.
Furthermore, it is not far from truth that such company structure makes an ideal setting for corruption in and out of the company. To be on the safe side, as we have already said, and looking at the past events, we recall a forest-timber processing corruption scandal involving “Našička D.D.” from the 1930s, when the State suffered proven damage of 230.6 million dinars and unproven damage of much higher amounts (Source: Zvonimir Kulundžić “Politics and Corruption in Royal Yugoslavia”). According to the author, the problem of corruption was practically unknown in the well-organized Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. However, just before the start of World War One, the beginning of the end of the monarchy, the problem of corruption arose during the reign of Ban Nikola Tomašić, a very highly educated and cultured university professor and a deserving historiographer and bibliophile. His colleague Vinko Krišković, a university professor, said that “Tomašić was principally guilty for introducing corruption into the Croatian public life”. It all began with election funds, but then spread on, and as the author said “a belief took root which culminated in the then popular saying:” As long as it is all by law”. Does this saying remind you of something?
The huge corruption scandal received enormous publicity and the company’s top management - the participants in the corruption, were tried and convicted. Appeals were lodged and punishments were lowered and it all melted into thin air when the investigation moved towards the “tops” outside the company???. In the 750-page book with five chapters, the first chapter (p.70) entitled “Corruption as a System and the Substance of Power” and the second chapter (p. 326) “The Ocean of Corruption” or the so-called “Našice Affair” are of particular importance in this case. Space does not allow us to reproduce all the details of the affair on this page. Some of them have been directly or indirectly hinted at; therefore, we invite the readers to access our website www.sumari.hr, where we shall try to publish some interesting parts of the book.
|IZVORNI ZNANSTVENI ČLANCI
|Željko ZEČIĆ, Željko TOMAŠIĆ, Tomislav TOPALOVIĆ, Dinko VUSIĆ
|UDK 630*537 (001)
|INDIGOBUSH BIOMASS PRODUCTION IN MANAGEMENT UNIT „SLAVIR“
Research was conducted in the area of UŠP Vinkovci, Forest office Otok, management unit „Slavir“, on five sample plots (figure 3-6).
In winter, felling of all indigobush plants on selected plots was done and their mass was determined. Samples for gravimetric moisture content determination and stereometric volume determination were taken. Density of fresh samples was calculated. Same method was applied for oak and ash young plants on extra sample plot.
On the same plots samples for vegetation period moisture content determination were taken in summer.
Average moisture content (figure 9) of 30.25% in wintertime (W) and 48.38% in sumertime (S) was determined. Based on the mass of all plants, average moisture content and size of each sample plot production of dry matter was calculated. Mass of dry matter (figure 11) ranges from 3.08 t/ha to 6.96 t/ha with exception of sample plot with older, multiannual plants that had a 16.82 t/ha dry mass production. Average density (figure 10) of fresh indigobush samples was 0.80 g/cm3.
For comparison, average moisture content of oak and ash young plant was 40.64% in wintertime and 51.51% in summertime. Biomass production was 5.46 t/ha. Average density of fresh oak and ash samples was 1.09 g/cm3.
Key words: indigobush; biomass; production; moisture content; dry mass; density
ZEČIĆ, Željko ŠL
TOMAŠIĆ, Željko ŠL
VUSIĆ, Dinko ŠL
|Marko ZEBEC, Marilena IDŽOJTIĆ, Igor POLJAK, Ines MODRIĆ
|UDK 630*164 (001)
|POPULATION VARIABILITY OF WYCH ELM (Ulmus glabra Huds.) IN THE MOUNTAINOUS REGION OF CROATIA ACCORDING TO THE LEAF MORPHOLOGY
Spreading more up to north in relation to other European species of elm trees, the wych elm (Ulmus glabra Huds.) is a very valuable, noble hardwood species, taxonomically determined within Ulmaceae family. Given the optimal habitat conditions, U. glabra is related to the hill and mountain areas, so that it occures at sites up to 1500 meters above sea level. From phytosociological point of view, it is a typical member of the zonal, mesophilic and rarely of the thermophilic beech forests, likewise it is a characteristic species in azonal communities of Tilio platyphylli-Acerion pseudoplatani alliance.
The devastation of the natural habitat, stimulated by conversion of forest into agricultural land, as well as the sudden change of climate parameters through the process of global warming, pose a great threat to the stability of elm genetic resources. In the last hundred years elms have been faced with the Dutch elm disease pandemics, which resulted in mass yellowing of adult trees of all indigenous European elm species, especially U. glabra and U. minor. Consequently, emphasis of contemporary elm research is on quantification of genetic variability of natural elm populations and selection of hardy trees, in order to develop basis for the Dutch elm disease tolerant clones production.
It should be stressed that in Croatia, the wych elm has not been subject to scientific studies to date. In this research inter-population and intra-population morphological variability of foliar traits in natural populations of the wych elm from Mountainous Region of Croatia has been determined.
Material for the morphometric analysis was collected in four natural populations in the Mountanious Region of Croatia (Figure 1). Each population was represented by 5 trees and each tree by 30 healthy and undamaged leaves, collected from short fertile shoots of the outer, light-exposed part of tree top. The leaves were scanned and measured by the Image J programme. Ten foliar traits were defined and measured altogether (Figure 2).
The measured morphological traits were shown through descriptive statistical parameters. For determining the intra-population and inter-population variability, the univariate analysis of variance was used. For determining similarities or differences of analyzed populations on the basis of measured morphological leaf traits, multivariate statistical method – cluster analysis was used. These statistical analyses were conducted using the statistical programme STATISTICA 8.0
The results of the descriptive statistical analysis are given in Table 1, by population. According to the analysis of variance, trees within populations differ significantly on all analysed traits (Table 2). Populations differed significantly for variables: PMPW, AI, BL, LA, OL. Correspondingly to Fischer LSD-tests, all observed populations, except Delnice – Vrbovsko and Delnice – Otočac, showed significant differentiation for leaf area (LA) trait. Significant difference in blade length (BL) was confirmed for Vrbovsko – Gospić and Otočac – Gospić population pairs (Table 3). According to partitioning of variance, differences among trees in a single population accounted for the most of variability determined, while the remaining component, the amount of variation attributable to differences among populations proved to be considerably smaller (Table 4). UPGMA dendrogram elucidated that according to the researched leaf traits the most similar populations were Delnice and Vrbovsko, followed by population Otočac. These three populations formed a cluster, succeeded by the most distant population Gospić (Figure 3). The southernmost and geographically most distant population Gospić was morphologically significantly different from the other three populations, that was particulary observable in relation to Delnice and Vrbovsko population.
Differentiation of population Gospić and its formation of a separate cluster with regard to other populations, can be explained by specificity of incidence of U. glabra on this site. Wych elm trees from Gospić population grow in beech forests with deadnettle association (Lamio orvalae-Fagetum sylvaticae / Horvat 1938 / Borhidi 1963), while the plant material from populations Delnice, Vrbovsko and Otočac was sampled from trees growing in beech-fir forests (Omphalodo-Fagetum /Tregubov 1957 corr. Puncer 1980 / Marinček et al. 1993). Environmental and climatic parameters of these two communities differ considerably, therefore the separation of Gospić population can be clarified through ecological and geographical principle.
By means of conducted research, which is also the first study of U. glabra in Croatia, intra-population and inter-population morphological variability of leaf traits in Mountainous Region of Croatia is quantified. This study represents an initial groundwork for further research and encourages analytical approach to U. glabra vulnerability issues, that will eventually result in setting up of guidelines aiming to protect natural wych elm populations in Croatia.
Key words: Ulmus glabra Huds.; variability; leaf morphology; Mountainous Region of Croatia
ZEBEC, Marko ŠL
IDŽOJTIĆ, Marilena ŠL
MODRIĆ, Ines ŠL
|Toni KOREN, Stanislav GOMBOC
|UDK 630*453 (001)
|FIRST RECORD OF Chersotis rectangula ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775) IN CROATIA WITH NEW DATA FOR Chersotis Multangula (Hübner, 1803) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
During the moth survey of the hills Straninjščica and Ivanščica in the Krapina-Zagorje County in Croatia in 2014, many interesting moth species were recorded. Among them, the noctuid Chersotis rectangula ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775), new for Croatian fauna. Three specimens of Ch. rectangula were collected on the UV light traps at the top of Ivanščica Mt., on 8 June 2014. This is the sixth species of the genus Chersotis occurring in Croatia. Other species are Ch. multangula (Hübner, 1803), Ch. margaritacea (Villers, 1789), Ch. elegans (Eversmann, 1837), Ch. fimbriola (Esper, 1803) and Ch. cuprea (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775). Aside from Ch. rectangula, Ch. multangula was also recorded in the same season on Straninščica and Ivanščica Mts., which is the north-easternmost occurrence of this species for the country.
Key words: distribution; fauna; noctuids; Chersotis; Ivanščica; Strahinjščica
|Erol AKKUZU, Hidayet GUZEL
|UDK 630*453 (001)
|EDGE EFFECTS OF Pinus nigra FORESTS ON ABUNDANCE AND BODY LENGHT OF Ips sexdentatus
Ips sexdentatus (Börner, 1776) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is one of the most devastating pests of coniferous forests in Turkey. The pest not only kills individual host trees, but also it can outbreak readily and cause great damage under favorable conditions. Distribution and damage of this pest vary depending on some biotic and abiotic factors (e.g. edge effect, climatic factors, and host plant). The present study investigated the edge effect of Pinus nigra Arnold stands on the population level and the body length of I. sexdentatus. For this purpose, edge effects of P. nigra forests on I. sexdentatus were studied at Kastamonu Regional Directorate of State Forests located in northwestern black sea region of Turkey in the years 2012–2013. Three factors (forest interior, forest edge, and forest exterior) were used to test the effects of forest edges on the abundance and body length of I. sexdentatus. A number of five study sites were selected to deploy Lindgren® funnel-type pheromone traps. Fifteen-unit traps baited with commercial pheromone Ipssex® were set in 5 replicate blocks of three traps per block. The results of the study were as follows: 1) Double bark thicknesses and diameter of the trees along the forest edges were significantly higher than those in forest interior; 2) The number of I. sexdentatus captured from forest outside and forest edge was significantly higher than those in forest interior; 3) Body length of I. sexdentatus was significantly higher on trees along the forest edges than those in forest interior.
Key words: Pinus nigra; bark beetles; forest edges; Turkey
|Milka GLAVENDEKIĆ, Bojana IVANOV, Milanka DŽINOVIĆ, Branka ARSOVIĆ, Danimir MANDIĆ
|UDK 630* 945.4 + 411 (001)
|EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY IN DEVELOPING PUBLIC AWARENESS OF TREE PESTS AND PATHOGENS
A survey of the level of knowledge and public awareness among visitors to The 19th International Horticulture Fair in Belgrade was conducted using a self-completion questionnaire. Public awareness and knowledge of alien invasive species is required of residents, teachers, tree professionals and other stakeholders to enable the early detection and a ‘stop the spread’ strategy in the management of alien invasive species. The research on public awareness and knowledge about five selected tree pests and pathogens revealed that 83.30% of respondents have no knowledge. Respondents were asked to show their practical knowledge by matching the pest or pathogen with the symptoms on a tree, and only 4-11% were able to give correct answers. The public’s attitude towards plant health issues is positive and almost all the respondents only buy their plants from registered nursery or distributors. Over half do not buy imported plants and are aware of the likelihood that more invasive alien species could come into our country and region via this pathway. Respondents use multiple sources to gain their knowledge regarding tree pests and pathogens. The most frequent sources used are the internet, face-to-face learning from educational establishments (lectures, seminars etc.), newspapers and trade journal articles. Respondents are motivated to gain knowledge about pests and pathogens and the pathways of their introduction, from the preferred formats of: the internet, TV programmes, printed brochures and books. Educational technology should be applied in order to facilitate education and lifelong learning, raise public awareness about pests and pathogens and improve professional practices.
Key words: public awareness; tree pests and pathogens; pathways; educational technology; lifelong learning
|THE CONTRIBUTION OF POSTAGE STAMPS IN PROMOTING FORESTRY
This piece describes the role, importance and the contribution of postage stamps in promoting forestry. Postage stamps, due its ubiquity, attract attention and act on prevention of the broad masses of people through various communication channels. There is almost no branch of forestry that is not covered on postage stamps, issued in about 250 countries and independent territories in the world. The task of this piece is to encourage the cooperation with stamps publishers, systematic research and the use of "forest" stamps in everyday written communication, for better marketing presentation of forestry, as important segments of economy and science and educational impact on sustainable forest management in different age groups.
Key words: postage stamps; forestry; promotion; flora