|STATE EXAMS FOR INDEPENDENT MANAGEMENT OF A FOREST ENTERPRISE
|In the last double issue of Forestry Journal, which was dedicated to the 250th anniversary of Croatian forestry, we reviewed the texts from the first years of its printing and drew a parallel with the present. In order to gain an insight into the historical sequence of the forestry profession and the interesting and contemporary nature of the texts, this double issue will focus on three texts from 1880 and 1881 dealing with the subject title. The first text refers to the "Instruction of the Ministry of Agriculture of February 13, 1875, B 129/A. M., R.-G.-Bl.No.9, dealing with the exam for technical service in the state forestry administration (according to this Instruction, state exams were taken by civil servants in the competent ministries in Budapest and Vienna, which qualified them for work in the public service). The second text refers to the "Letter of November 3, 1880, No. 24509, in which the High Royal Government invites the Administration of the Royal Forestry and Agriculture College in Križevci to form a special commission for the purpose of drawing up a basis for the reformation of the governmental instruction of January 10, 1850, relating to forestry state exams in general". The Basis of the new instruction for state exams for independent forestry administration in Croatia and Slavonia was drawn up by a commission consisting of F. Ž. Kesterčanek, Dragutin Hlava and Vladimir Kiseljak. Like the instruction of 1875, the new instruction was also primarily based on the already mentioned Instruction of January 16, 1850, as well as on the experience from neighbouring countries. The exam was held in May every year. A candidate had to have completed a study of forestry and received good grades in the main subjects, and had to have at least three years of working experience. The exam was in written and oral form, and the subjects included: a) Silviculture, B) Forest protection and forest service, c) Forest technology and use, d) Geodesy, e) Establishment of forest control, Management plans, ..., f) Forest inventory ... with particular reference to the calculation of forest value, forest-financial management ..., g) Forest civil engineering (forest roads and vehicles, as well as forest structures ..., h) State forest legislation (forest laws, instructions), and similar), i) Relationship between private rights on forestry and hunting, j) Basic principles of direct taxation, k) General principles of hunting management, and l) General review of farming". The 8-hour written part of the exam was followed by a two-hour public oral exam for each candidate. Several days later the final exam was taken in a "nearby forest office or a forest". After the exam, the candidate might receive the following grades: "excellent" or "just competent", while those found incompetent could retake the exam on a date set by a three- member examining board". The Instruction of 1875 contains a part of the paragraph stating the following: "An examiner who is a candidate´s blood relative or a relative-in-law must not be present at the exam of the said candidate". It is interesting to note that in order to take the exam, the candidates had to submit not only their diploma and a document confirming their work in the profession, but also professional comments and notes they kept in the course of work.
These two texts show that the method of taking state exams and the amount of the matter examined were regulated very early. The third text (related to the present politically-based appointments) gives an answer to the question raised in the article:
"Does passing the state forestry exam qualify a candidate for an independent running of the highest forestry service?" If we answer the question ourselves, the answer is "yes", but if we are honest, "we must admit that there is a great difference between being a forest manager and a managing high servant. Those who are aware of what is happening day by day will find that there are very many foresters who, supervised by a competent and conscientious superior servant, become not only the best managing servants but also the best workers; however, if removed from their sphere or if appointed to run the highest administration, those otherwise competent servants display such ineptitude and begin to manage in such an inappropriate manner that one cannot help but conclude that they are utterly incompetent. Not everybody is capable of being what he wants to be; try as hard as one might, one´s own natural abilities tell you: you can get no further than this. Needless to say, it is the forest that suffers most in the aftermath of such errors".
The text goes on to recommend moderation, an awareness of one´s own abilities and individual advancement through practical work, step by step, "up to that honourable position which can be best fulfilled by one´s abilities". As for the status after passing the state exam and lifelong learning, the text critically reviews "foresters that have passed the state exam. The majority of them, satisfied with the fact that "they have achieved their purpose", do nothing, throw away the books, forget ambition and turn into simple and well-meaning citizens who plant their cabbage in peace and only carry out their service as foresters in passing. Others, on the other hand, are restless and full of ideas, of which none are realized; their whims are followed by their changing priorities; ... they avidly read all the books but remember hardly anything, ... their work is sometimes excellent but never of long lasting ... and is rarely useful for anybody. This is where the majority of our, so badly "appreciated geniuses" originate. The third part, the smallest one, is the crown of forest managers. The reputation of the profession which they have chosen is their utmost priority. They do not bask in the glory of passing the state exam, but, knowing that this is where the true study begins and that the things learned at one time are usually forgotten later on, broaden their knowledge and educate themselves as men with a purpose firmly in mind". Yet, there are differences even among this elite of the forestry profession. Each of them has their own limit, so "some are in honourable positions that do not rightfully belong to them, nor would they achieve them if their knowledge was the foremost criterion." Our profession will advance and benefit "when we finally do away with the geniuses of the profession, and when every member of the forestry profession creates the service himself according to their abilities. This moment will mark the dawn of a splendid future of the forestry science!"
|IZVORNI ZNANSTVENI ČLANCI
|Tamara Jakovljević, Ivana Radojčić Redovniković, Marina Cvjetko, Ivana Bukovac, Marija Sedak, Maja Đokić, Nina Bilandžić
|UDK 630*414 (001)
|THE POTENTIAL OF POPLAR (Populus nigra var. italica) IN THE PHYTOREMEDIATION OF CADMIUM
Phytoremediation is considered a promising, inexpensive and aesthetically acceptable, in situ technology to remediate heavy metals from contaminated soils. The potential use of trees in the phytoremediation of soil has been recognized in the past decades. Thus, the potential of poplar (Populus nigra var. italica) in phytoremediation of cadmium (Cd) was investigated. Aims of this study were to explore the cadmium phytoextraction ability of poplar, the accumulation and distribution of cadmium in different plant parts (leaf, stem, root), the potential role of polyphenolic compounds and the activity of enzyme phenylalanine-ammonium liase (PAL) in response to plant stress caused by the accumulation of different cadmium amounts. During 55 days long growing period soil was treated with different amount of cadmium (w= 10, 25, 50 mg kg–1 soil). The accumulation of cadmium and the distribution in different parts of poplar (leaf, stem, root) were explored (Figure 1). Total cadmium accumulation in plant biomass increased with the increasement in cadmium concentration in soil. Cadmium distribution in poplar decreased in the order: root > stem > leaf. In order to evaluate phytoextraction ability of poplar, the bioaccumulation factor (BF) and the translocation factor (TF) were calculated (Figure 2 and 3). Certain BF values indicate increased accumulation ability of poplar up to 25 mg Cd kg–1 soil (Figure 2). TF values indicate specific tolerance for cadmium concentration up to 10 mg kg–1 soil (Figure 3). Further, in order to evaluate potential of polyphenolic compounds in plant response to stress caused by exposure to different concentration of cadmium, total polyphenol content in poplar leaves
was analysed as well as activity of antioxidant enzyme phenylalanine-ammonium liase (PAL). Total polyphenol content in poplar treated with 10 mg Cd kg–1 soil and 25 mg Cd kg–1 soil increased compared to the control (Figure 4). Furthermore, phenylalanine-ammonium liase (PAL) activity increased only in poplar treated with 10 mg Cd kg–1 soil compared to the control (Figure 5). Observed higher total polyphenol content is connected with increased phenylalanine-ammonium liase (PAL) activity and de novo polyphenol synthesis in plant during the stress caused by exposure to cadmium. Results indicate that the tested poplar (Populus nigra var. italica) can be considered as a species with potential for phytoextraction of cadmium from polluted soil. Furthermore, antioxidant enzymes and polyphenolic compounds in poplar have the important role in the defence from oxidative stress caused by exposure to cadmium.
Key words: phytoremediation; poplar; cadmium; polyphenolic compounds; enzyme phenylalanine-ammonium liase
Radojčić Redovniković, Ivana
|Ivan Martinić, Matija Landekić, Matija Bakarić, Drago Marguš, Anita Jurković
|UDK 630*279+41 (001)
|VISITOR RISK REDUCING DURING HIKKING IN PROTECTED AREAS BY THE USE OF TAKE A BREAK SCHEME
Increased awareness of the risk management need for a visiting and recreational activities in protected areas is the result of several important responsibility cases of protected areas administration in Australia, the United States and in other countries, which has resulted in high costs and damages that threatened regular functioning of the park management. Therefore, in the modern concepts of protected areas management, the development of visitor risk management for visiting and recreational activities was prompted.
This article reviews the development of the risk management model when visiting protected areas in the Republic of Croatia from an aspect/field of hiking trails categorization regard to the requirements for physical engagement of visitors to overcome trail, or individual section of trail. The model is based on field measurement of physical loads of visitors that were carried out in the Krka National Park, onto the walking and educational trail Stinica-Roški waterfall-Oziđana cave. The total length of trail, which in the research was conditionally divided into five sections (Figure 1), is 8.5 km with a vertical drop of 176 m.
Physical strain of respondents in the research was assessed by measuring the heart rate using the Garmin Forerunner 910XT with a sample of 22 people, of both gender and different ages (Table 1 and 2). For each respondent, according to the expression/formula , percent increase in heart rate (%pFS) during overcoming individual section of trail were determined, and based on that class load and associated level of general physical fitness were defined (Table 1 and 2). The collected data and test results in further processing were used to test the option matrixes of risk distribution A, B and C (Table 3) where the level of risk is defined as a function of respondents age group (classified into four age groups – Table 4) and self-evaluated (subjective) physical fitness (5 groups of physical fitness – Table 2) and on the basis of physical fitness obtained from field measurement (objective physical fitness). Selection of optimal risk distribution matrix to categorize concrete trail i.e. sections by level of demand in overcoming was done by comparing the value of a specific risk-based measurement and risk values specified by self-rating fitness of respondents.
Average (FSa) and maximum heart rate (FSmaxa) during the strain are shown by trail sections in Table 5. The most demanding in terms of the need for physically engagement was D-5 and D-1. A more detailed field measurement of the visitors’ physical strain and the development of the methodology for the categorization of specific trail section towards demands were conducted on the basis of measurements for the D-5 section. The values of the average heart rate and other indicators that are obtained by monitoring 22 respondents are listed in Table 7. The selection of optimal risk matrix option to categorize demands of section D-5 is made on the basis of data from the Table 7. As optimal risk matrix, the one was selected where the majority of respondents recorded congruence of risk value and category of section demands determined by a personal assessment (self-rating), or determined by a field measurement. Matrix B proved as optimal, in which the congruence of personal evaluation and test was the largest and amounted to 90.9% (Table 7). From the selected risk matrix three categories of demands for the D-5 were defined, wherein each category of difficulty on the basis of risk size range (Table 8, Column 3), associated regime of overcoming trail were presented descriptively and with color: regime ”green„ means small risk; regime ”yellow„ moderate or intermediate risk and regime ”red„ enhanced or high risk (Table 8, Column 2). Such a composition of requirements for each regime makes TaB scheme which to the visitor is suggested as applicable in overcoming specific trail. Practical application of TaB scheme (Figure 4) contains following elements: (1) an information board set at the beginning of the track on the basis where every visitor can determine the optimal personal mode for overcoming trail as green, yellow or red regime; (2) constructed resting places along the route of the trail, where the location of resting place is determined in accordance with the requirements for resting periods of the most risky regime (red), and construction possibilities of resting place on the ground (micro locations); (3) an information board at each resting place which for a particular overcoming regime determines one of two activities: ”passage without stopping„ or ”stopping„, where in the case of necessary rest, on the information board, the duration of the rest in minutes is indicated.
Research findings shows how for the park administration and for the visitors management system inclusion of educational, informational and technical measures related to the reduction of health risks becomes necessary when visiting specific area. In doing so, as an innovative measure, application of the programmed modes for overcoming trails is presented where to every visitor a personal choice between several modes for overcoming trails is suggested. This approach, along with a demonstration of park administration responsible conduct, ensures that decision of every visitor whether and how to use the trail significantly decreases for him unwanted health risks.
Key words: protected area; visiting; physical strain; risk management
MARTINIĆ, Ivan ŠL
BAKARIĆ, Matija ŠL
|Dijana Čortan,Bojan Tubić, Mirjana Šijačić-Nikolić, Dragan Borota
|UDK 630*164 (001)
|VARIABILITY OF BLACK POPLAR (Populus nigra L.) LEAF MORPHOLOGY IN VOJVODINA, SERBIA
Morphological study of intra and interpopulation variability of black poplar leaves was carried on four natural populations located in the basin of the major rivers at the area of Vojvodina, Serbia. Research was conducted on the basis of nine leaf morphometric parameters, with descriptive and multivariate statistical analysis. Results show that within and between studied populations exists considerable variability, with the variability much more pronounced within than between populations. Given that the environmental conditions of investigated locations are uniform, it is assumed that the variability is consequences of the specific gene pool of these populations.
Key words: Black poplar; Vojvodina; leaf morphology; interpopulation and intrapopulation variability
|Milorad Danilović, Milan Kosovski, Dragan Gačić, Dušan Stojnić, Slavica Antonić
|UDK 630* 462 + 326 (001)
|DAMAGE TO RESIDUAL TREES AND REGENERATION DURING FELLING AND TIMBER EXTRACTION IN MIXED AND PURE BEECH STANDS
This paper presents an analysis of damage to residual trees and the regeneration that occurs during harvesting using the half tree length method and timber extraction in winter operating conditions in a pure beech stand and a mixed stand of beech fir and spruce in the territory of the Srpska Republic. In this study, types of damage were investigated, as well as the size of wounds. Felling and processing of wood assortments were performed with a chainsaw and timber extraction on earth and by skid trail to a roadside landing on a truck road was performed with a tractor Timberjack 240C. The number of injuries that occurred during the felling and transport of trees in the mixed stand was on average 2.69 wounds per felled tree, whereas in the pure stand the average number of wounds per felled tree was 2.27. During the felling of trees in both sample plots, the largest number of injuries was to the crowns of neighbouring trees, which was followed by damage to the butt end, whereas the lowest number of injuries was incurred to the root collar. During the timber winching, the most common damage was to the root collar, whereas during timber skidding the most common type of damage was to the butt end. Damage to the regeneration was evident in both sample plots in the form of breakages of plants and their branches, as well as uprooting of whole plants. Damage to the butt end and root collar that occurred at the felling stage was in the form of bark peeling and other superficial wounds whose most common sizes were larger than 200 cm2. The average area of injuries caused during the transport phase ranged from 50 to 200 cm2.
Key words: damage; mixed and pure stands of beech; skidder; felling and processing of wood assortments; timber extraction
|Sanja Novak Agbaba, Nevenka Ćelepirović, Monika Karija Vlahović, Boris Lović
|Eutypella parasitica R.W. Davidson & R.C. Lorenz SEVEN YEARS AFTER THE FIRST FINDINGS IN CROATIA
Fungus Eutypella parasitica is cause of bark canker on on maple trees. The disease reduces the economic and aesthetic value of maple. In Europe, the Eutypella canker was first recorded in Slovenia in 2005. From 2005 to 2008 the disease was listed on the EPPO Alert List because of the danger of contagion. In Croatia, Eutypella canker was recorded for the first time in 2007 on A. campestre near the border with Slovenia. The program Special monitoring of fungus E. parasitica was carried out since 2011 in Croatia. The aim of this study was to determine the status of infection on maples seven years after it was recorded for the first time, spread of the disease and infection intensity in Croatia. The second objective was to confirm the type of fungus using phytopathological and molecular analysis and store the DNA sequence of ITS2 region in GenBank (NCBI). The forest stands that represent maple trees in the area of 8 counties and 17 localities were examined in the period from 2011 to 2014. From a total of 2209 examined trees, only 2 trees of A. pseudoplatanus,and A. campestre, in the vicinity of settlement Hum na Sutli on the Slovenian border, were infected by the fungus, representing
only 0.09 % of infected trees. Eutypella canker was found with very low intensity and the disease has not spread to other sites. The samples of cankerous formations were submitted to laboratory analysis, morphological analysis, and DNA analysis to confirm the presence of fungi E. parasitica. Fragments of DNA were sequenced and compared with gene in databases GenBank (NCBI), where it was confirmed that it was a 100 % identity with the E. parasitica. ITS2 region fungus E.parasitica established as sycamore and chubs was sequenced and deposited in gene bank (GenBank, NCBI) under accession numbers KP868619 and KP868620. Fungus E. parasitica was recorded for the first time in Croatia on A. pseudoplatanus in 2013, and its presence was confirmed on A. campestre in 2014. Type fungus E. parasitica was confirmed by morphological and molecular DNA detection. Bark canker on maples has not been significantly expanded during the last seven years in Croatia.
Key words: Eutypella parasitica; Eutypella canker; Acer pseudoplatanus; Acer campestre; molecular diagnostic; ITS2 region
NOVAK-AGBABA, Sanja ŠL
Karija Vlahović, Monika
LIOVIĆ, Boris ŠL