|FORESTRY AS AN ECONOMIC BRANCH, THE CURRENT SITUATION AND TREATMENT
|This column has already addressed the topic of forestry as a particularly important economic branch, which is regrettably not recognized by our State. Namely, not only does forestry not "exist" in the Croatian Economic Chamber, but it has also been omitted from the name of the competent Ministry, nor is it a subject of discussion in the Parliament. In short, it is treated with hostility in all its aspects, from politically based recruitment to an utterly incomprehensible approach. The profession that manages 47.5 % of the most complex ecosystem of the country´s land surface not does even have its own TV or radio programme, unlike agriculture or the marine industry. In an organized state, the principles of a consistent forestry policy and the ensuing strategy are regulated and controlled by the State through a competent Ministry. Since our State has neither forestry policy nor strategy, the status of forestry is dealt with by a company (in fact, a concessioner), which is guided by long-announced restructuring, but is targeted exclusively towards achieving classical profit.
The treatment of forestry has been frequently discussed in both foreign and domestic journals, including the Forestry Journal, but it is evident that we still do not abide by the scientific-professional view that forestry should not be perceived as an economic branch in the same way as other classical economic branches are. Due to the specific and valuable production factor such as forests and forestland, as well as an array of non-market forest functions, it should be treated differently than other economic branches. These services are not goods in the classical sense of the word: therefore, forestry as a whole cannot be viewed as a classical producer of goods, a definition that is applied to an economic branch. If we treat forestry as a classical economic branch, there is a danger that by adhering only to the principles of profitability and efficiency, the necessary operations in forests will be neglected, which will in turn result in diminished balance and decreased value in the future. An article published in the journal Forest Experiments, which deals with the problem of creating a consistent forestry policy (Sabadi and Jakovac, 1993), states that "nothing should be taken out of forests; in other words, what has been felled should be restored through silvicultural operations in the form of simple reproduction, or investment should be made in the improvement and opening of stands in the form of extended reproduction. However, this is often overlooked and all effort is targeted towards achieving momentary gains. This is a sure way of converting, slowly but inevitably, this renewable resource into a non-renewable one". This is why the conclusion that the company Hrvatske Šume should be a public and non-profit company is understandable. Such a company, "if achieving income that exceeds expenses within rational business making, should invest all positive difference into the improvement of forests which it manages" (in addition to the most valuable forests, we have about 40% of forests in different stages of degradation). Needles to say, state forests „should be regarded as sancrosanct, or in other words, alienation is forbidden“. By generating profit only from classical exploitation of forests through raw wood material, generally of the highest quality, by not applying the principles of sustainable management and by eliminating certain components from its business, it is no wonder that there is a tendency towards downsizing the labour force. It would be particularly detrimental, in order to achieve higher income, to additionally prescribe larger annual cuts, perform so-called quality felling, allow too many accidentally felled trees, inflict excessively damage to trees during the extraction and stacking the raw material in auxiliary depots, significantly harm forest sites by conducting operations outside forest roads and under extreme weather conditions, etc. The conclusion of the afore-mentioned article states that "it goes without saying that certain jobs require the best qualified specialists". With some honourable exceptions, let us ask ourselves whether we all adhere to this.
The reorganisation of Hrvatske Šume Ltd from a public company into a limited liability company has resulted in what we have today. The main motive is now classical profit instead of the principles of forestry business mentioned above. What is particularly disadvantageous for the population in rural areas it that the obligation to participate in regional and rural development, as explicitly proclaimed by the EU Forestry Strategy, is also avoided. In view of the fact that all forestry activities are performed exclusively in rural areas, it is erroneous to claim that forestry does not belong to a social category. Forestry has always lived “with the people and for the people” and has not succumbed exclusively to capital. Rural inhabitants have always guarded the rural area from which we drive them away with unreasonable politics, wondering in the process why so any are increasingly abandoning it. A reasonable man would think twice and would probably understand that profit itself and profit only is not always a synonym for prosperity to which we all strive.
|IZVORNI ZNANSTVENI ČLANCI
|Željko Lovrinčević, Davor Mikulić
|UDK 630*906+794 (001)
|THE IMPACT OF FORESTRY AND WOOD INDUSTRY ON CROATIAN ECONOMY
Forestry and wood industry are important segments of the Croatian economy. Their importance in this article is quantified using the input-output analysis. Direct and indirect effects, appearing through production chains and intermediate consumption of other industries are assessed. Data shows that there are significant direct and indirect effects of forestry and wood industry. Estimated multipliers exhibit high values; especially the output multiplier in section 20 of NACE classification, namely Wood products, reaching the value of 1.94. This is the highest multiplier among all other industries. This is followed by Forestry, section 02 with the multiplier amounting to 1.77 and Furniture, section 36, with multiplier 1.76. The same conclusions are drawn regarding the gross value added multiplier. In terms of the employment multiplier, direct effect is highest in section Furniture, 5.4.
Overall, wood cluster has an above average value of multiplier in comparison to other industries. However, effects are concentrated in the wood cluster itself, not scattered across the rest of the economy. It makes indirect effects less important for the rest of the Croatian economy. In comparison to other EU NMS, the share of imported inputs in Forestry and wood industry are rather small. As for the structure of value added in Croatia, the share of employee compensation is very high, amounting to 30.9%. It is the highest share among peer
groups and is the most similar to the Slovenian wood industry share. High level of labor costs is not followed by deployment of progressive technologies in order to provide competitiveness gains and increase the share of high value added products in Forestry and wood industry.
Key words: forestry; wood industry; input-output analyses; Croatia
|Marko Zebec, Marilena Idžojtić, Igor Poljak
| UDK 630*164
(Ulmus minor Mill. sensu latissimo) (001)
|MORPHOLOGICAL VARIABILITY OF THE FIELD ELM (Ulmus minor Mill. sensu latissimo) IN CONTINENTAL CROATIA
The European field elm (Ulmus minor Mill. sensu latissimo), our native noble broad-leaved species is known for having very valuable and highly prized wood. The favorable characteristics of this tree are not limited solely to its economic usefulness, since it also has more important, invaluable role in preserving the stability of lowland forest ecosystems. Unfortunately, European elm trees have suffered enormous losses due to Dutch elm disease pandemics, which resulted in significant dieback of adult trees. Nay, threats to morphological and genetic diversity of U. minor s.l. are manifold and expressed in terms of anthropogenic-induced destruction of habitat, introduction of new elm species and spontaneous hybridization with ornamental species, as well as extremely high susceptibility of elms of the Ulmus Heybr. section to the said Ophiostoma novo-ulmi Brasier pathogenic fungus. Giving the fact that in Croatia elm trees are also severely affected by the disease, abundance of healthy, adult individuals in the field is rather low. Accordingly, it is presumed that genetic and consequently morphological diversity of U. minor s.l. in Croatia as well as throughout Europe has been exceedingly negatively affected.
The study of morphological variability of leaves encompassed six elm populations (Ulmus minor Mill. sensu latissimo) from continental Croatia: Bilogora, Dilj, Donji Miholjac, Jastrebarsko, Nova Kapela and Zagreb (Figure 1). Quantification of the intra- and interpopulational variability was done on the basis of 10 morphological leaf traits (Figure 2). In order to describe the pattern of variability, descriptive statistics and multivariate methods were used. Analysed morphological traits showed high variability, despite hypothesized negative impact of Dutch elm disease on morphological variability of the studied species. The variability coefficient for populations in total ranged from 17,05 % for the trait of number of secondary and tertiary veins in the subapical region to 45,24 % for the trait of leaf base asymmetry (Table 1).
There were significant differences among trees within populations and among populations for all measured leaf traits (Tables 2 and 3), except for four traits on populational level: leaf blade area (LA), leaf blade breadth at its widest point (HW), leaf blade length, measured along the shorter side of lamina, starting from the leaf base to the point of maximum leaf breadth (PMPW) and leaf blade width at 50 % of leaf blade length, measured along the shorter side of lamina (PW1).
Partitioning of variance showed that differences among trees in a single population accounted for 1/2-2/3 of total variability, whereas the amount of variation attributable to differences among populations was considerably smaller. However, interpopulation variability proved high for the trait of number of secondary and tertiary veins in the subapical region and the trait of petiole length (Table 4). Application of cluster analysis revealed grouping of populations regarding ecological site conditions (Table 5 and Figure 3). However, negative impact of anthropogenic activities on environmental conditions in terms of land use alteration and hydroregulation processes as a basis for population differentiation was also confirmed. Thus, the first group of the most similar populations involved Bilogora, Donji Miholjac, Zagreb and the second group Jastrebarsko and Nova Kapela. The reasons for the Dilj population differentiation can be sought in its affiliation to the Central European vegetation zone thermofilic forests of the alliance Quercion pubescentis-petraeae Br. – Bl. 1931.
In spite of continuous anthropogenic pressure on the environment and consistent destruction of natural habitats, accompanied by the introduction of the invasive neophytes, ornamentals and current pandemic of Dutch elm disease, we revealed high morphological diversity of field elm populations. Thus, this study provided accurate insight into morphological diversity of U. minor s.l. in continental Croatia. Precisely for this reason and with the aim of conservation of elms biodiversity in Croatia, the continuation of this type of research is essential and necessary.
Key words: Ulmus minor Mill. sensu latissimo; variability; leaf morphology; continental Croatia
ZEBEC, Marko ŠL
IDŽOJTIĆ, Marilena ŠL
|Kyriaki Kitikidou, Elias Milios, Ioannis Lipiridis
| UDK 630* 516 + 524.2
(Pinus sylvestris L.) (001)
|TREE VOLUME MODEL ESTIMATES AND NEAREST NEIGHBOR ANALYSIS IN THE STANDS OF SCOTS PINE (Pinus sylvestris L.) IN THE CENTRAL PART OF RODOPE MOUNTAIN
Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is a native species of Europe and Asia, important for its timber. The aim of this study was to develop volume estimation models for the Scots pine in the central part of the Rhodope mountains (Northeastern Greece). For each sampled tree the three nearest trees were examined, applying nearest neighbor analysis. For the Scots pine of the central part of the Rhodope mountains, regression models, which estimate the volume using breast height diameter and total height as predictor variables, were fitted. In addition, nearest neighbor analysis was applied to examine possible effects on form factor of nearest trees and their distances to sampled trees. Three site types were distinguished in the research area, A, B, C (good, medium, and poor site qualities). For the site type C it wasn’t possible to develop a volume estimation model. For the rest of the sites the selected models are: For site type Α: , R2 = 0.7653, standard error = 0.3096, for site type B: , R2 = 0.8146, standard error = 0.3379, for the total area: , R2 = 0.8377, standard error = 0.3039. There is not a clear effect of the distance of the nearest trees on the form factor of sampled trees. This study lead to the development of volume estimation models for site types A, B, and for the whole study area. Nearest neighbor analysis showed that the species and dimensions of the nearest trees had different influence in the form of trees.
Key words: Pinus sylvestris; Greece; volume model estimation; nearest neighbor analysis
|Mustafa Yilmaz, Tefide Yüksel
| UDK 630*232.3
(Abies cilicica Ant. Et Kotschy/Carriére) (001)
|MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SEED CHARACTERISTICS OF TAURUS FIR (Abies cilicica /Ant. et Kotschy/Carriére) IN TURKEY
Taurus fir (Abies cilicica /Ant. et Kotschy/ Carriére) is a tree species mostly found in the Taurus mountains in Turkey. The objective of this study was to determine the morphological and physiological characteristics of the seed of the Taurus fir. The seeds were collected from five different provenances of natural distribution, including Göksun, Saimbeyli, Kozan, Anamur, and Bucak. In the laboratory, for each of the different provenances, we measured the1000-seed weight; the length, width, and thickness of the seeds; and the weights of the individual seeds. The morphological characteristics of the seeds varied according to their provenances. To determine the necessary duration of pre-chilling, we attempted to germinate the seeds from each of the five different provenances, after pre-chilling at 4 °C for 0, 2, 4, and 6 weeks. We determined that the optimum pre-chilling duration was six weeks. In order to determine the optimum germination temperature, the seeds from three provenances were subjected to a germination test at each of four different temperatures (12, 16, 20, and 24 °C) after three different pre-chilling durations (2, 4, and 6 weeks). This resulted in various germination rates and speeds. The seeds germinated best at 20 °C and 24 °C.
Key words: Abies cilicica; seed; dormancy; pre-chilling; germination
|Ivan Tekić, Borna Fuerst-Bjeliš, Anamarija Durbešić
|UDK 630*233 + 187 (Pinus halepensis Mill.)
|DISTRIBUTION OF ALEPPO PINE (Pinus halepensis Mill.) AND ITS EFFECT ON VEGETATION AND LANDSCAPE STRUCTURE OF WIDER AREA OF ŠIBENIK
The landscape dynamics in coastal areas of Croatian karst is under heavy influence of reforestation in which the use of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) was predominant. This prevailance of Aleppo pine in reforestation has led to its vast spatial expansion which in turn has resulted in the direct consequences on the whole environment. The purpose of this research paper is to examine the real distribution of Aleppo pine in the wider area of Šibenik and its impacts on other vegetation, both of which reflect on the landscape structure. The main source of data were sattelite images obtained from the State Geodetical Administration of the Republic of Croatia and data from CORINE Land Cover database and Hrvatske šume d.o.o. Supported by the field research where needed, a map of spatial distribution of Aleppo pine was created using ArcMap 10.0. which categorizes the appearance of Aleppo pine in 3 categories. The areas where Aleppo pine has the complete dominance comprise 13 % of research area, while larger clusters of Aleppo pine trees appear in 19 % of area. These areas are mainly found on islands, coastal areas or in the vicinity of larger settelments. Sporadic appearance of Aleppo pine trees is noticed on further 33 % of research area, meaning that, from the late 19th century when Aleppo pine was present only on 30 ha of island Krapanj to the present times, its growth area has expanded by 31.750 ha or 600 % per year. Out of that area 15.680 ha is heavily forested by Aleppo pine which would imply its invasive character, which is also supported by the studies indicating negative effects of Aleppo pine on biodiversity of the area where it grows. The expanding stands of Aleppo pine are inducing the regrowth of autochthonous holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) but the results are not satisfying and call for the increased investments in silviculture.
Key words: Aleppo pine; Pinus halepensis; geographic information system; GIS; Šibenik; cultural landscape; vegetation cover; afforestation