|AWAITING THE 250TH ANNIVERSARY OF ORGANIZED FORESTRY IN CROATIA
|Man became keenly aware of the importance of forests for his life long ago: hence his determination to protect it against excessive felling, diseases and pests and regenerate it after cataclysms (fires, windbreaks and similar). Both in the world and in our country the treatment of forests was regulated several centuries ago. This refers particularly to our coastal region, where the need for timber and pastureland, as well as the occurrence of fires, winds and similar were felt most acutely. The Statutes of the towns regulating the management of forests and banning excessive harvesting and timber export include the island of Korčula (1245 and 1265), Dubrovnik (1272), Zadar (1305), Split (1312), Trogir (1322), the island of Krk (1388) and others. Austria founded a special forest administration in Istria in 1553, while Colbert’s Forest Ordinance of 1669 was applied to the Illyrian provinces as well. Yet, all these activities were unsynchronized and limited to local forested areas.
Organized forestry took root in 1765 with the publication of a definitive forest order, written on the basis of a temporary forest order, which was prepared by Baron Beck for the forests of the Karlovac Generalate in 1764. Namely, after the Karlovac Peace Treaty of 1699, Austria expanded the Military Border area to Slavonia, and in 1746 it reorganized the Military Border by dividing it into 11 regiments (the regiments of Lika, Otočec, Ogulin, Slunj, 1st Banska, 2nd Banska, Brod, Gradiška, Križevci, Bjelovar and Petrovaradin). A military forestry service was established in these regiments, since almost 40% of the Military Border area was covered by forests composed of different tree species. The above mentioned definitive forest order contained 34 articles with detailed regulations on felling of forests, export and trade. Waldmeister Franzoni used it to write instructions for forest personnel. The military command stationed in Karlovac entrusted Franzoni with the surveillance of forests. That same year saw the establishment of first forest offices in Croatia: in Oštarije for the forests of the Lika regiments, in Krasno for the forests of the Otočec and a part of the Ogulin regiments, and Petrova gora for the forests of the Slunj and the remaining Ogulin regiments (the first forest offices were also established in Europe at the same time). In the course of 1764 and 1765, Major Pirker and his officers carried out field work for these three regiments. Work included the descriptions and maps, which were used to perform the first division of forests into districts, forestry offices and guarded forests. The maps were made at a scale 1 : 3888 of "fortification fathoms".
The Royal forest supervisor Bogoslav Kosović used the data and the relevant maps contained in the War Archive from Vienna to write about this issue in the Forest Journal in 1914 and 1915. The article dealing with this topic was entitled "The first forestry specialist description and map of the forests on Velebit, Velika Kapela from the Dalmatian border to Mrkopalj and Ogulin".
According to the Working Programme of the Croatian Forestry Association for the year 2015, the whole upcoming year will abound with the activities related to this important anniversary of Croatian forestry. In addition to the Croatian Forestry Association, this anniversary will also be marked by the competent Ministry, the company Croatian Forests Ltd, the Academy of Forest Sciences, the Faculty of Forestry of the University of Zagreb, the Croatian Forest Research Institute, the Croatian Chamber of Forestry and Wood Technology Engineers, the Croatian Union of Private Forest Owners’ Association and the Zagreb City Office for Agriculture and Forestry. This is an opportunity not to be missed for forests and forestry to "come out of the shadow". With this in view, we invite all forestry experts to contribute to the celebration of this important anniversary of Croatian forestry.
In the end, due to the delayed publication of Forestry Journal 11–12/2014 out of objective reasons, we would like to take this opportunity to wish all the readers of our scientific-specialist and professional journal Merry Christmas and a Successful Year 2015.
|IZVORNI ZNANSTVENI ČLANCI
|Igor STANKIĆ, Jurij MARENČE, Dinko VUSIĆ, Željko ZEČIĆ, Zlatko BENKOVIĆ
| UDK 630*537
(Fagus sylvatica L.) (001)
|STRUCTURE OF THE COMMON BEECH ABOVEGROUND TREE BIOMASS IN DIFFERENT STAND CONDITIONS
The study was conducted at three different locations (three sub-compartments of different management units) within the forest management area of the Republic of Croatia (Figure 1) with the aim of determining the suitability of using allometric equations for calculation of the common beech biomass in different stand conditions, constructed on the basis of input data collected directly by in situ destructive method.
Two locations were situated in high forests (stand A in regular managed beech forest and stand C in selective managed fir-beech forest) and one location, stand C was a coppice forest (Tables 1 and 2). Durring the investigation, a preparatory felling was conducted in the stand A, a tninning was conducted in the stand B, and a selection cut was conducted in the stand C.
At each site a number of trees was cut down and measured; 15 at the felling site A, 14 at the felling site B and 17 model trees at the felling site C. In doing so, attention was given to the representativeness of the sample (dbh) given the distribution of marked trees. For each cut tree dbh and height (length) were measured. Volume of wood >7 cm was determined by the sectioning method. Branches with a diameter of 3 cm to 7 cm with bark was measured (sectioned) and for the rest of the brushwood, thinner than 3 cm, fresh mass was determined. In felling sites A and B research was conducted in the dormant season, and in the felling site C research was conducted during the growing season. Therefore, the amount of brushwood thinner diameter than 3 cm biomass included foliar biomass.
Modeling of three components of biomass, and total aboveground biomass was carried out according to equations 1, 2 and 3, Equation 1 uses dbh as input with two coefficients (a i b), in Equation 2 an additional independent variable (tree height) was included in order to improve the model and it contains three coefficients (a, b and c). When planning harvesting operations, under the felling plan based on dbh of the marked trees (which are directly measured) with the help of prescribed tariffs planned gross volume of a tree in a specified dbh class is calculated. For this reason (availability of data) in equation 3 volume of tree from tariffs is included as the independent variable with two coefficients a and b. For the evaluation of the models two parameterswere used, the coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE).
Based on these parameters the best model for the calculation of all three abovegaround biomass components and for the total aboveground biomass is model 2, the exponential equation with two independent variables (d, h), and three coefficients (Table 4). In 11 of the 12 cases this model gives the best results. After the model 2, from the other two models tested, the best model has proven to be the model 1 (in 9 cases). This is somewhat unexpected because the remaining model 3, which uses the volume of tree calculated on the basis of local tariffs prescribed by the management plan as an independent parameter, already includes information on
the diameter and height of trees. Therefore, it was expected that this model will be better than model 1, but that was not determined in this study. Mentioned model 3 proved to be better in just 3 cases.
Determining the amount of two categories of aboveground biomass wita a diameter less than 7 cm is particularly important because in the traditional wood harvesting this part of the forest residue usually remains unused, and in the production of wood chips is a usable income potential of our forests.
When comparing the features of marked and cut trees from three different felling areas, the highest yield of biomass is in the stands of higher site index, as expected. By increasing the dbh of trees the percentage of the biomass of wood >7 cm in total aboveground tree biomass increases, and this increase was most pronounced in the regular stand of the site index II. The share of brushwood 3–7 cm biomass is almost constant when dbh increases, while the share of the third component of biomass (branches <3 cm) reduces by increasing the dbh, which is more noticeable in regular stands.
Models proposed in this paper can represent the basis for further research in order to improve the planning of the production process and the subsequent analysis of felling results. Biomass of a diameter less than 7 cm represents a special potential, which share in certain stand conditions can reach over 10% of the total aboveground biomass of trees with larger dbh (including foliar biomass), and over 20% of the total aboveground biomass of trees with the smaller dbh (Figure 5).
Key words: Aboveground biomass; biomass calculation; allometric equations; European beech
STANKIĆ, Igor ŠL
VUSIĆ, Dinko ŠL
ZEČIĆ, Željko ŠL
BENKOVIĆ, Zlatko ŠL
|Dražen DEGMEČIĆ, Tihomir FLORIJANČIĆ
| UDK 630*156
(Cervus elaphus, L.) (001)
|THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE AND HYDROLOGICAL FACTORS ON DEVELOPEMENT OF RED DEER (Cervus elaphus, L.) ANTLERS IN THE CROATIAN PART OF BARANJA DANUBE REGION
Habitat is defined as a set of natural resources and conditions present in a given area that ensures the stability of the population that it inhabits. Antlers of Cervidae family are an example of fast growing tissues and the only organs of the mammals capable of complete regeneration. Each year the antlers are discarded and each year the new set of antlers are grown. This is called a cycle of antler growth and it is closely associated with the reproductive cycle, hormonal processes, climate and hydrological factors. Climatic and hydrological factors can influence directly through air temperature, precipitation (rain, snow), ground cover (rain, snow), sunlight hours (photoperiod) and hydro levels. Climatic and hydrological factors can influence indirectly through vegetation as a source of food. The aim of this paper is to link climate and hydological factors with the developement level of red deer antlers. The research area is periodically flooded parts near the rivers of Danube and Drava and it lies in the northeastern part of Republic of Croatia, on the border with Hungary and Serbia. At this unique natural areas one can find habitats for many species of plants and animals and it also represents an preserved habitat of red deer (Cervus elaphus).
The study lasted for six hunting years – from 2004/2005. to 2009/2010. For this current study the data were taken from middle aged and mature stags (five and more years old). Total of 382 stags were measured. The value of antlers were observed through the following traits of red deer antlers: antler weight, total lenght of branches, lenght of tird tine and the number of tines. Hunting year 2007/2008. showed values of observed characteristics significantly higher than hunting years of 2004/2005., 2005/2006. and 2006/2007, as compared to hunting year of 2008/2009. and 2009/2010. observed values were not significantly higher but they were higer and that is in a biological sense equally important. The management measures were the same throught the years of research. Hydrological report showed that regular spring flooding of the Danube river failed in year 2007. and that was not the case during the other years of research. It would be normal that the average monthly temperature during the coldest months for this habitat was below zero but during the end of 2006. (November and December) and in the beginning of 2007. (Januar and Februar) the average temperature was from 2,9 to 8,4 °C above zero. That was the maximum temperature during the winter in 10 year period and that was winter with the least number of cold days (<0,0 °C) (35 days during these four months). Rainfall in the first three monts of 2007. were slightly above average (142 l) but during April and May the level of rain was up to three time lower in the relation to the other years of research. Number of days with snow was only two days during the coldest months of 2006. and 2007. and the height of snow cover for this two days was 1 cm. In the first five months during 2007. there were more sunshine hours than in other years of research, especially during the month of April when the growth and developement of antlers is most intense.
Based on the results presented in the text above the values of measured antler traits were highest in huntig year 2007/2008. and that was because of extremely favorable climatic and hydrological conditions in a significant time for antler growth and developement. The results from this research can be a guidance for future prediction of red deer antler developement in a sence of creating management measures.
Key words: Cervus elaphus; antlers; climate; hydrology; Baranja
DEGMEČIĆ, Dražen ŠL
|Goran JELIĆ, Vlado TOPIĆ, Lukrecija BUTORAC, Zoran ĐURĐEVIĆ, Anamarija JAZBEC, Milan ORŠANIĆ
|UDK 630*232 (001)
|CONTAINER SIZE AND SOIL PREPARATION EFFECTS ON AFFORESTATION SUCCESS OF ONE YEAR OLD STONE PINE (Pinus pinea L.) SEEDLINGS IN CROATIAN MEDITERRANENAN AREA
For successful afforestation in Mediterranean karst areas several important criteria must be fulfilled, especially adequate tree species selection, high-quality seedlings and proper soil preparation. Considering above metioned conditions, morphological features of one-year old stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) seedlings were analyzed. Seedlings were grown in different types of containers to establish the effect of container type on development (quality) of above- and belowground parts of the seedlings. Survival rates, growth and development of seedlings were measured and monitored in the period from 2003 to 2009, in forest culture on experimental plot in the vicinity of Šibenik (Mediterranean part of Croatia). Seedlings were planted both on ripped ground and in the pits with dimensions of 40 × 40 × 40 cm.
Four types of containers were used: MP53/12, MP33/18, T7/24 and T8/24. Studied seedling variables (morphological features) include: seedling height, root collar diameter, biomass of the aboveground part of the seedlings and total seedling biomass. Two morphological indexes were calculated from measured variables: S/R ratio and DQI. Morphological dimensions of root systems (total root length, number of root tips, surface area and root volume) were scanned and measured with WinRhizo software. Seedlings were arranged over the area of the experimental plot according to the randomized block method. Seedlings were randomly assigned to 3 blocks (block area = 0.2 ha). Within each block two types of soil preparation prior to planting were performed: in pits with dimensions of 40 × 40 × 40 cm, and on the ripped ground. Each year during the experiment, after the growth cessation, seedlings were measured for height increment, and survival rates (e.g. mortality), with
respect to container type and planting method. After six years plants were also measured for stem diameter at the height of 10 cm above ground level. Morphological features with regard to container type were evaluated with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple Turkey’s post hoc test. Relationship between survival rates in 2009 and initial seedling height, container type, soil preparation method, as well as their interactions, for the period between 2003 and 2009, was evaluated with the repeated measures analysis of variance. ANOVA was also used to test for the influence of container type and soil preparation method on the diameters of seedlings six years after planting.
Morphological features of seedlings derived from the samples of 20 seedlings per container type (Table 2), mostly showed significantly higher values in larger containers (T7/24 and T8/24) compared to smaller containers (MP53/12 and MP33/18). Root analyses also showed that roots of seedlings from smallest containers (MP53/12) were deformed to a high degree (Picture 2 and 3). In larger containers (MP33/18) root deformation was largely reduced. On the other hand, bind of roots into growing medium in seedlings grown in large containers was insufficient, although the roots were not deformed. Results indicate that the survival rates over six years in forest culture were influenced mainly by soil preparation (exp (β) = 3,4591; p < 0,0001), followed by container size in interaction with soil preparation method. Seedlings from larger containers (seedlings of higher quality) planted on ripped ground had several times lesser mortality compared to seedlings from smaller containers planted in pits excavated manually (exp (β) = 3,0710; p = 0,0024). Container type and soil preparation also exhibited influence on height growth of stone pine (Pinus pinea L.). Seedlings of stone pine grown in larger containers show more intensive growth and development in forest culture during first six years (F = 101,488; p < 0,000001). Similarly, seedlings planted on ripped ground have better growth and development characteristics compared to seedlings planted in pits with dimensions of 40 × 40 × 40 cm (F = 83,750; p < 0,000001). Six years after the planting seedlings grown initially in larger containers (T7/24 and T8/24) had larger stem diameters (F = 32,663; p = 0,00001) compared to seedlings originated from smaller containers (MP53/12 and MP33/18). Plants that were growing on ripped ground have managed to acquire larger stem diameters compared to seedlings planted in pits (F = 44,187; p = 0,00001).
Seedlings of stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) grown in container MP53/12 have developed highly deformed root systems because of inadequate dimensions of this container and its technological absoluteness. Therefore is recommended to gradually abandon the use of MP53/12 and MP33/18 containers from nursery production. Further research is needed to eventually define new, modern solutions adapted to production of high-quality seedlings for afforestation of Mediterranean karst area. Without proper soil preparation (ripping in this case) and adequate containers for production of high-quality seedlings it is impossible to successfully afforest Mediterranean karst area.
Key words: Mediterranean karst area; container type; morphological features of seedlings; soil preparation; afforestation success; height growth
JELIĆ, Goran ŠL
TOPIĆ, Vlado ŠL
BUTORAC, Lukrecija ŠL
ĐURĐEVIĆ, Zoran ŠL
ORŠANIĆ, Milan ŠL
|Andrej VERLIČ, Nataša ĐURIĆ, Žiga KOKALJ, Aleš MARSETIČ, Primož SIMONČIČ, Krištof OŠTIR
|TREE SPECIES CLASSIFICATION USING WORLDVIEW-2 SATELLITE IMAGES AND LASER SCANNING DATA IN A NATURAL URBAN FOREST
A detailed tree species inventory is needed to sustainably manage a natural, mixed, heterogeneous urban forest. An object-based image analysis of a combination of high-resolution WorldView-2 multi-spectral satellite imagery and airborne laser scanning (LiDAR) data was tested for classification of individual tree crowns of five different tree species. The model training data were obtained from a systematic grid of plots in the forest. In total, 304 coniferous (Norway spruce and Scots pine) and 270 deciduous (European beech, Sessile and Pedunculate oak (combined), and Sweet chestnut) trees were identified in the field. The classification was performed by applying the support vector machine model. An accuracy assessment was performed by calculating a confusion matrix to evaluate the accuracy of the classification output by comparing the classification result to the independent test data. The overall accuracy of the classification was 58 %.
|UDK 630*156 (Axis axis Erxleben 1977)
|INTRODUCTION OF THE AXIS DEER (Axis axis Erxleben 1977) TO THE CROATIAN LITTORAL IN 1953
As part of an extensive programme of axis deer (Axis axis Erxleben 1977) introduction to several hunting grounds in continental Croatia, this tropical deer species was brought into several sites in the Croatian Littoral in mid March 1953. The operation was organized by the Forest Administration "Viševica" from Rijeka. This wild game was originally brought in from the Brijuni islands. The axis deer were introduced to two locations on the island of Cres: Tramontana in the north of the island (4 stags and one hind) and Punta Križa in the west (4 stags and 7 females), then to the island of Plavnik (4 stags and 6 hinds), as well as to Bribir Forest above Crikvenica (2 stags and 7 hinds). A total of 14 stags and 28 hinds were introduced. The inadequately organized capture and transport of the wild game, the insufficiently prepared introduction sites, poor adaptation of the animals to new habitat conditions, the inability to roam, and in case of the continental site, calf mortality in winter season, resulted in a decrease in the number of the released adult animals by 18 heads or 55% in just two years, whereas in the case of the Tramontana area (the island of Cres) and Bribir Forest not one specimen survived. The number of the introduced axis deer rose only in the Punta Križa area, where it was hunted as early as in 1955. Due to poor interest of foreign tourists – hunters in this unattractive trophy animal, but primarily to the damage it inflicted to vineyards and households, the axis was hunted freely without any protection for several years (1965–1970). When the more attractive mouflon (Ovis musimon Pall.) and fallow deer (Dama dama L.) were introduced to the area in 1962 and 1966, the axis population gradually declines over the years, so that the last specimen was recorded in the early nineteen twenties.
Key words: Axis deer (Axis axis Erxleben 1977); introduction; Forest Administration "Viševica" Rijeka; Tramontana and Punta Križa on the island of Cres; the island of Plavnik; Bribir Forest
FRKOVIĆ, Alojzije ŠL