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HR  EN   



Scientific-technical and professional journal
of Croatia Forestry Society
                         Issued continously since 1877.
       First issue of this web edition start with number 1-2/2008.
   ISSN No.: 1846-9140              UDC 630*https://doi.org/10.31298/sl

Portal of scientific
journals of Croatia
   Issued by: Croatian Forestry Society

   Address: Trg Mažuranića 11, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
   Phone/fax: ++385 1 4828477
   e-mail: urednistvo@sumari.hr
   Editor in Chief: Boris Hrašovec

Uredništvo   361
According to Article 2 of the Statute of the Croatian Forestry Association, the CFA gathers engineers and technicians of forestry, wood technology, chemical wood processing and wood product trade, as well as other experts with at least secondary school degree who are employed in the above mentioned fields, with the goal of advocating and protecting the interests of the profession and its membership, advancing the profession, promoting the careers of engineers and technicians, fostering technical development, research, education (secondary and higher level) and permanent specialisation. All these activities are geared towards achieving the optimal technological and economic development, welfare, health, environment protection and the quality of the society. One of the 15 fields listed in Article 12 that aims to achieve these goals is publishing activity. It is primarily accomplished through “Forestry Journal”, a scientific-specialist and professional publication. In principle, the journal acquaints its members and the professional public with the current condition of forests and forestry and informs them of the results of the set goals through the minutes of the Managing Board and the CFA Assembly meetings. The column “Editorial”, formerly known as “A Word from the Editor-in-Chief ”, sublimes the current conditions of forests and the forestry profession and highlights problems and the results of work of professional association. After a comprehensive analysis of the condition, the Editorial often expresses criticism (regrettably, compliments are far less frequent) of the current condition in forestry, in particular with regard to the status of forestry in the State and the management of the company Hrvatske Šume Ltd., which is entrusted with the management of almost 80 % of the forest area in Croatia.
Hence, the Editorial Board uses the column to voice the views of the forestry profession; the idea is to provide the heedy persons in politics and forestry management with an insight into the enormous wealth at our disposal and instil in them the need to manage this wealth according to scientific and professional principles. In order to remind our readers of the topics discussed in this column and direct them to where they can re-read about them in more detail, or perhaps enable some to read them for the first time so that they can publicly advocate the crystallized attitudes and not remain hypocritically silent, we shall briefly list the most important topics from this column.
Let us begin with the Forestry Strategy, which is non-existent to this very day (or exists only in traces). The topic was discussed in FJ 5-6/2011 and FJ 9-10/2013, where we have expressed our views and our almost complete agreement with the “New EU Forest Strategy”. This strategy also advocates sustainable forest management and the multifunctional role of forests, with special emphasis on the support to rural communities and incentives to innovative forestry and value added products. However, the socio-economic importance and value of forests is constantly being undermined. We discussed adequate evaluation of forests and forestry, in relation to the restructuring of the company Hrvatske Šume d.o.o., in FJ 3-4/2014, where emphasis was placed on socalled “defensive restructuring” reflected in downsizing instead of “developmental restructuring” characterized by the retention of the existing work posts and searching for new ones. The “Evening News” of September 20th, 2014, published a message by the “young lions of Croatian economy”. The phase of layoffs and cost cutting is behind us, the quest for new sources of income is on”. As the popular saying goes, “some have finally come to their senses”, but the question is what can be remedied and to what extent after being so mercilessly destroyed instead of upgraded. Along with the headline question “Is the forest practice abandoning the principles of sustainable forest management?” in FJ 7-8/2013, there is another question: does the method of management today enable the use of all the benefits of forestry as an important factor of economic infrastructure? FJ 7-8/2012 also stresses that “the essence of restructuring in forestry is not in downsizing but in performing the prescribed jobs in a professional manner and broadening economic activities, if they form a constituent part of the general progress of the society”.
All this is closely related to the current burning issue of employment and education, which we discussed in FJs 7-8/2011, 3-4/2012 and 9-10/2012. We wondered whether those in authority, which means politicians, are capable of viewing profit in forestry and the related needs for employment from a broad perspective and not from the perspective of worker layoff. According to the Evening News of September 22, the company Hrvatske Šume Ltd. achieved profit of 74.1 million kuna in 2013, which is good for the management but insufficient for the entire Croatian economy, because profit was achieved only by selling timber as raw material at nonmarket prices and at a loss of 1.187 work posts (from 2011 to 2014.). It would be disastrous if profit was achieved by cutting down on labour costs that directly influence sustainable forest management. FJ 3-4/2011 tackled the issue of the classical economic value of forests.
The importance of the forest and its impact on water and on potable water in particular, was discussed in FJs 3/1995 and 1-2/1996, where its role in purifying water and balancing runoff into sources and watercourses was highlighted. FJ 1-2/2006 contains Horsmann’s summary of forest-water ratio (according to Weber, 2005), stating that “water is the blood of the landscape, and the forest is its heart”. FJ 5-6/2008 particularly emphasises that the average rainfall quantity of 1.200 mm in the distribution range of Croatian forests and the area of 2 million ha of closed forests puts forth about 13 billion tons of potable water. During arid periods the forest lets out water, and during rainy periods it retains water and slows down its surface runoff. Related to the issues of climate change, carbon sequestration and global warming, explanations can be found in FJ 9-10/2004 and 1-2/2007, where, among others, it is stated that Croatian forests sequester more than 5 million tons of carbon (e.g. a pedunculate oak tree sequesters about 2-3 tons per ha). FJ 5-6/2012 deals with the relations between forestry and wood processing, while compensation for non-market forest functions was discussed in FJ 5-6/2013. FJ 9-10/2001 treated the status of forestry and the forestry profession in Croatia, while party-based cadre selection and non-market management were the topic of FJ 3-4/2013.
There is a lot of criticism concerning the condition of forestry, but we must ask ourselves the following: is what took place before and is taking place now, only the result of the work of those in charge or should we “dig” deeper into recent past? “Why are we surprised?” we asked ourselves in FJ 5-6/2014, while Branimir Prpić, PhD, late Emeritus Professor and the doyen of the Croatian forestry, who was then editor-in-chief of Forestry Journal, entitled the column in the distant issue of FJ 3-4/1998 with the following “Are we letting dilettantes manage our forestry?.
Editorial Board

Albert OFNER, Marijan GRUBEŠIĆ, Krešimir KRAPINEC, Dean KONJEVIĆ  UDK 630*156
(Capreolus capreolus L.)(001)
the aim of research in two hunting grounds, various types and habitat conditions was to compare body and trophy development of the main sort of big game – roe deer. The research has been done on two hunting grounds owned by Hrvatske šume d.o.o. head department Uprava šuma Podružnica Karlovac, in the state open hunting ground IV/9 "POKUPSKI BAZEN" and state open hunting ground IV/22 "PETROVA GORA". The data have been gathered on the basis of regularly planned shooting during three (3) hunting years starting with the hunting year 2006/2007. The research continued in the hunting year 2007/2008 and 2008/2009. The game was being shot according to the planned hunting regulations for particular hunting ground. During the three-year period gathered data, 209 roe deer have been monitored and analyzed. All the individuals of big game have been divided according to the age in five (5) categories: (young; offspring; youth; middle-aged; mature). The shot game was delivered in the hunting object for corpses in the shortest time where they were weighed. To male heads of categories-youth; middle-aged and mature the trophy value was evaluated according to the current regulations "Pravilnik o načinu ocjenjivanja trofeja divljači, obrascu trofejnog lista, vođenju evidencije o trofejima divljači i izvješću o ocijenjenim trofejima"(Anonimus, 2006b). On the basis of research results, it must be emphasized that there is a significant difference among monitored hunting grounds in body weight of roe deer of different age categories. The trophy value of youth and middle-aged roebucks was higher in hunting ground IV/9 "POKUPSKI BAZEN", while the trophy value of mature roebucks was higher in hunting ground IV/22 "PETROVA GORA". These values are first of all reflection of breeding measures (breeding shooting). In the coming period, with the bigger pattern of trophy heads there will be necessary to separate in analyses, heads from breeding shot to those from trophy shot, what will clearly prove the possible difference between these two hunting grounds, as the reflection of habitat conditions.

Key words: roe deer; body weight; trophy value

    OFNER, Albert    ŠL
    GRUBEŠIĆ, Marijan      ŠL
    KRAPINEC, Krešimir      ŠL
    KONJEVIĆ, Dean  
Branislava BATOS, Darka ŠEŠLIJA JOVANOVIĆ, Danijela MILJKOVIĆ  UDK 630*181.8
(Quercus robur L.)(001)
Climate change, as well as biotic and abiotic stress environmental factors and the exploitation of oak forests have the greatest impact in reducing the pedunculate oak areas. These factors on one side reduce the pedunculate oak living area, while on the other side they create unfavorable conditions for its renewal. In the last decades, there has been an attempt to change this situation, primarily by planting appropriate provenances and more resistant varieties. Knowledge of the phenological variability is one of the essential elements useful in separation of genotypes better adapted to changing environmental conditions.
One of the phenological studies of the pedunculate oak implied the analysis of the pollination time as one of the intermediate phase of the flowering phenophase. Observations were carried out in two populations at two locations in the area of Belgrade (Serbia), "Ada Ciganlija" and "Bojčinska šuma", a total of 58 trees (29 trees per location) in three consecutive years (2004, 2005, 2006). According to the ANOVA results differences between locations and years were statistically significantly (all p <0.0001). Time of pollination in the location of "Bojčinska šuma" was earlier compared to location "Ada Ciganlija" in all three years of observation. The obtained time difference gives rise to the assumption that there are different varieties of the pedunculate oak: the "early" and the "late" one. According to the phenological pattern of population, the majority of trees maintain the same trend from year to year, i.e. remain in the same phenological group (labeled as "early", "average" and "late"), or change it for one phenological level, suggesting the genetic influence on the expression of this trait. Since those populations are located in similar environmental conditions, obtained differences between them can be regarded as a consequence of intraspecific variability of the pedunculate oak and of the genetic structure of population.

Key words: phenological variability of flowering; Quercus robur; pollination

    BATOS, Branislava  
    MILJKOVIĆ, Danijela  
Saša ORLOVIĆ, Srđan STOJNIĆ, Andrej PILIPOVIĆ, Saša PEKEČ, Milan MATARUGA, Branislav CVJETKOVIĆ, Danijela MILJKOVIĆ  UDK 630*161+232.3
(Prunus avium L.)(001)
The paper presents the results of investigation of variability of net photosynthesis (A), transpiration (E), stomatal conductance (gs) and water use efficiency (WUE) in one year old seedlings of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.), assessed in a nursery trial. Study involved 5 families of half-sib progenies which originate from the Northern part of Serbia (Vojvodina Province). The results showed significant differences among families in regards of stomatal conductance (0.163–0.256 mol m–2 s–1), transpiration (3.27–5.28 mmol m–2 s–1) and water use efficiency (1.98–3.80 μmol mmol−1) (p≤0.001), while differences regarding net photosynthesis (10.49–12.44 μmol m–2 s–1) were not statistically significant (p≤0.124). Canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) was performed in order to estimate multivariate relations among analyzed leaf photosyntetical traits. Families were separated by the first canonical axis (CD1), which described 82% of variability. Presence of differences in regards of E, gs and WUE indicate the possibility of choosing the best families for a breeding program.

Key words: Wild cherry; leaf photosynthetic traits; half-sib progenies

    ORLOVIĆ, Saša  
    STOJNIĆ, Srđan  
    PILIPOVIĆ, Andrej  
    PEKEČ, Saša  
    MATARUGA, Milan  
    CVJETKOVIĆ, Branislav  
    MILJKOVIĆ, Danijela  
Milan DREKIĆ, Leopold POLJAKOVIĆ PAJNIK, Verica VASIĆ, Predrag PAP, Andrej PILIPOVIĆ  UDK 630*453+151
(Stereonychus fraxini De Geer)(001)
One of the most harmful defoliating insects on ash species in Southeast Europe is the ash weevil (Stereonychus fraxini De Geer). Frequent occurrence of ash weevil outbreaks initiated research of the biology of this insect. The aim was to study the less known parts of insect biology, such as time of the insects development in natural conditions, fertility and fecundity of females, the duration of the embryonic, larval and pupal development, the amount of food consumed by larvae and adults. Research of insect development in nature conditions were carried out during 2008 and 2009 in the forests Branjevina near the town Odžaci in Serbia. This research was carried out by observation on 15 permanently labeled lower branches, every 6–9 days. Growing of insects in order to determine fertility and fecundity of females, the duration of developmental stages and the amount of food consumed by larvae and adults was carried out in a building with outdoor conditions.
Results are showing that overwintered adults become active from the beginning of the second decade of March until beginning of April. Female fertility was ranged from 30 to 104 eggs, and total fecundity from 58 to 109 eggs. Embryonic development was in range from 9 to 11 days. First larvae were found on leaves in the second decade of April, and the last are observed at the end of June. Ash weevil larvae undergo three larval stages. The entire larval stage development lasts 16–20 days. Larvae consumed average 3.3 cm2 of narrow – leaved ash leaves. Pupal stage lasts from 6 to 8 days. Adults of new generation occur in the same year from the beginning of the second decade of May to the beginning of July, and immediately after eclosion starts with additional feeding for overwintering and each adult feeds on average 2.5 cm2 of narrow leaved ash leaves.

Key words: Stereonychus fraxini; ash; biology

    DREKIĆ, Milan  
    VASIĆ, Verica  
    PAP, Predrag  
    PILIPOVIĆ, Andrej  
Damir DRVODELIĆ, Milan ORŠANIĆ, Vibor ROJE, Marko TEPŠIĆ  UDK 630*232.3+164 (Picea abies L., H. Karst) 397
The paper presents the results of morphological properties of Norway spruce (Picea abies L., H. Karst.) seedlings in various pH solutions. The seed was treated with 10 different pH solutions with pH ranging from 1.5 to 6.0 (increase at every 0.5). Water solutions were prepared by sequential dilution of the original concentrated sumporic acid (H2SO4) and the ultrapure water (<18 MΩ cm). The ultrapure water was used for the control. The testing was carried out in the laboratory in line with the ISTA (International Seed Testing Association) prescribed conditions. The evaluation of seedlings was performed on three occasions (days 7, 14 and 21) according to the ISTA rules. A digital camera was used to photograph all abnormal seedlings. A catalogue was made containing photographs and decriptions of abnormal seedlings with respect to pH solutions. The results of this research help understand the seedling morphology present during natural regeneration of Norway spruce forests in altered ecological conditions (acid rains, soil acidification). Besides a good yield, the prerequisite for a successful natural regeneration of Norway spruce forests are normal seedlings.

Key words: seedling morphology; normal seedling; abnormal seedling; pH – solution; Norway spruce

    DRVODELIĆ, Damir      ŠL
    ORŠANIĆ, Milan      ŠL
    ROJE, Vibor  
    TEPŠIĆ, Marko