|WHY ARE WE SURPRISED?
|At a recent 118th regular electoral meeting of the CFA Assembly, we were particularly intrigued by several conclusions from the report by CFA´s former president Petar Jurjević, MSc, by some principles of planned programme trends outlined by the new president Oliver Vlainić, BSc in forestry, and especially by the factual state contained in the expert topic of EU funds in forestry reported by Goran Gregurović, MSc. The limited space of one page of this column does not allow us to discuss the mentioned observations in depth; we shall therefore only briefly touch on them, while the readers are referred to the Minutes of the Assembly and its expert topic. "Foresters and the forestry profession cannot and will not accept the fact that, for the first time in history, forestry has been omitted from the name of the ministry to which it belongs ... We are still hoping ... that Mr Jakovina, Minister of Agriculture, will do his best, as he has promised, to rectify this historical injustice." The promise was made two years ago, but the forestry profession has not yet had the opportunity to seriously discuss forestry issues with the minister, since he, although invited, has almost never attended forestry meetings, let alone fulfilled his promise. In view of how the forestry profession is treated by the competent ministry and the Government in general, where we have never heard a word about forestry from the Minister for Regional Development (at the same time, the EU Forestry Strategy is closely associated with rural and regional development), we should not be surprised by the attitude towards our profession. Add to this the fact that, according to the presenter at the Assembly, forestry as a separate economic branch is, regrettably, not included in the EU funds (apparently, forestry seems to have been the issue only when excessive forest areas were included in the NATURA 2000 network), but will have to be "squeezed in" via the rural development funds, the attitude of those responsible becomes even clearer. For this reason, despite the well argued attitudes of the profession concerning the issues contained in the report by Mr Jurjević, MSc. and submitted to many relevant addresses, his conclusion that "today we are free to express our opinions, but we, and not only we, are neither heard nor heeded by the competent bodies" is more than accurate.
Mr Vlainić, the new CFA President, addressed the assembly by citing the late Professor Emeritus Branimir Prpić, who warned in 1979 that "we have severed contacts with the public and isolated ourselves, we do not relate to socio-political workers and we do not introduce them to our specialist problem issues. ... Other professions fight more strongly and assert themselves. ... The entire profession should not wait for others to decide on and solve our problem matter. ... We should disclose to the public how things stand, what is best and what the profession is fighting for". Comparing the present situation with the one he cited, our colleague Vlainić concluded that "our future requires that we continue to improve the state of the profession" .... In doing so, we should optimally use all the resources provided by the forest, primarily of the forest ecosystem itself, the state, the local community, all those employed in forestry and the wood industry, and the citizens of the Republic of Croatia".
Why should we wonder at the present state in forestry? Everything becomes clear if we answer the following question: do we have a forest policy and if so, who is responsible for it? Every country, and especially a mountainous one, has such a policy, which is based on a set of specific circumstances with tradition and interest being the most important. If the State had a forest policy, then the politicians would listen to the profession. Forest resources and forest areas as a part of general infrastructure would be put to optimal use. There would be no question of abolishing the means for non-market forest functions, which are otherwise invested in the ecosystem conservation. The needs of the local communities would be recognized, especially through the employment policy, and wood raw material would be utilized fully and directed into production that yields the highest additional value. If forestry was valued as an important economic branch, then there would be sufficient justification to invest into it. It is a well known fact that, in terms of investing only into simple forest reproduction, the interest on forests amounts to just 2 %, unlike the interest on bank savings or other investments. If we demand from the company Hrvatske Šume maximum rentability and not the "optimal benefit", do we not force it to cut down on investments in extended forest reproduction, forest accessibility and other issues? If only maximum rentability is required, and optimal benefits provided by forests and forestry are not valued (non-market forest functions, biomass as a renewable energy source, tourist facilities, broadening the activities to include horticulture, recreation, contribution to the local community through employment and preservation of rural areas, etc.), then we should not wonder at the reported surplus labour in forestry.
However, the manner in which forests are managed should not be determined by a company which is entrusted only with caring for state forests, but by the State as the owner. The State should adhere to a consistent forestry policy which we regrettably, along with many other things, do not have.
|IZVORNI ZNANSTVENI ČLANCI
|UDK 630*187+182 (001)
|FOREST VEGETATION OF TECTONIC DOLINES PIHLJA AND VITRA ABOVE THE VINODOL VALLEY (LIBURNIAN KARST, NW CROATIA)
We studied floristic composition, structure and topology of forest stands in tectonic dolines Pihlja and Vitra above Vinodol valley (Liburnian karst, NW Adriatic). Floristically and structurally homogenous stands represent zonal forests of the association Aristolochio luteae-Quercetum pubescentis (=Ostryo carpinifoliae-Quercetum pubescentis, Ostryo-Carpinion orientalis) and cover 1,75 and 2,73 ha, each (85 and 70 % of tectonic dolines, respectively). Preliminary multivariate analyses revealed several incongruences in current synsystematics and forest topology within the alliance Ostryo-Carpinion orientalis and raised a need for a thorough revision. Unsettled synsystematics makes addressing the forest vegetation zonation of the area uncertain. We assume that various stands with Carpinus orientalis in northwestern Adriatic represent only secondary succession stages in several thermophytic vegetation types. Studied forests in tectonic dolines Pihlja and Vitra represent well preserved stands without any visible traces of wood cutting and are valuable in giving insights into patterns, processes and dynamics of northern-Adriatic vegetation. As such they are in need of a special protection.
Key words: Aristolochio luteae-Quercetum pubescentis; Liburnian karst; NW Adriatic; Ostryo-Carpinion orientalis; phytosociology; tectonic dolines; zonal vegetation; Vinodol valley
|Vesna Krpina, Željko Španjol, Anamarija Jazbec
|UDK 630*907 + 971 (001)
|THE ROLE OF FORESTS AND FORESTRY IN TOURISM AND NATURE PROTECTION IN THE ZADAR COUNTY AREA
General forest functions are the key holders of the value of Mediterrainean forests. The basic aim of the implemented research was to determine the role of forests and forestry in tourism and nature protection. The attention is drawn to the tourist-recreative function of forests as the elemental component of forest functions of general benefit which, by their position, appearance or some other functions, increase the tourist business.
Assessment of forest functions of general benefit was done in Zadar county together with the evaluation of the tourist-recreative function and other forest functions of general benefit, taking in consideration all the relevant parameters for assessment according to the Book of rules on forest management (111/06.) and the Book of rules on determination of the fee for transferred and limited rights on forest and forest land (NN 131/06), in chosen tourist localities (Hotel Alan, Starigrad – Paklenica; Holiday village Zaton, Zaton; Holiday village Crvena Luka, Biograd and Hotel Kolovare in Zadar) where the tourist survey was implemented.
The chosen method of survey is individual filling in of a questionnaire on the side of tourists. The survey was divided in four thematic units: socio-demographic profile of a tourist, motivation to come and satis- faction with the offer of Zadar county as a tourist destination, and attitude toward forests. Research results have shown that tourists on vacation in Zadar county mostly desire to see the nature (68 %) and protected nature objects (53 %), and they are most satisfied with the beauty of nature and ecological preservation. Forest attracts them as ambiance-atmosphere and place for recreation activities. The examinee characteristics like the country of permanent staying, occupation and age had affected their pointing out of relevance for certain factors.
Based on the research at the end of the work, there are propositions for the improvement of a part of forest space for tourist and recreation purposes, inclusion into the tourist offer of the Zadar county and making new incomes for the Mediterranean forestry.
KRPINA, Vesna ŠL
ŠPANJOL, Željko ŠL
|Marko Vucelja, Josip Margaletić, Linda Bjedov, Mario Šango, Maja Moro
|UDK 630*451 (001)
|SMALL RODENT DAMAGE ON STEM AND ROOT OF PEDUNCULATE OAK (Quercus robur L.)
Small rodents from subfamilies Murinae (real mice) and Arvicolinae (voles) during the years of their mass occurrence can impede natural regeneration of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) forests by causing damage to seeds, stem and roots of young plants.. Such damage on different tree species is being recorded throughout Europe periodically. In Croatian forestry an area size on which rodent damage occures in the years of their high abundance extends on 4500 hectars on average. The mere observing of the damage and of rodent presence is the most common method of evaluating rodent abundance while thorough analysis of the two is generally missing.The aim of this research was to conduct qualitative and quantitative analysis of rodent damage made to stem and root system of pedunculate oak saplings in accordance to rodent abundance, dynamics and population structure in young-growth pedunculate oak forest (Genisto elatae – Quercetum roboris Ht. 1938) situated within the region of Central Posavina (Lipovljani, Opeke). Quantitative analysis included monitoring of rodent abundance (linear transect method, three transects, 112 snap traps) and counting oak saplings on five experimental plots (5m 5m) where saplings that had gnawing marks on their stem or roots were sampled and counted as damaged. Qualitative analysis included measuring dimension of gnawing marks (widh x hight) along with scaning, analysing and comparing damaged and undamaged root systems of sampled oak saplings. The latter was done using scaner Epson Expression 10000 XL while the WinRhizo software was used to determine root varables: lenght, volume and the number of root tips. Data classification of the root lenght and number of root tips was made in accordance to four categories depending on the diamentar of root sections: 0–1 mm, 1–2 mm, 2–5 mm, > 5 mm. Roots of 115 damaged and 33 undamaged oak saplings was sampled, scaned and sorted into three categories depending on a plant hight: <40 cm, 40–80 cm, >80 cm. Plant and rodent sampling were done in November 2011, April 2012 and in May 2013. Morphological determination of rodents was done according to Niethammer and Krapp. Georeferencing of trapped animals was made using the GPS (Garmin Oregon 450). Collected data was analysed using Garmin MapSource ver. 6.16.3., Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and STATISTICA 8. Differences between undamaged and damaged roots of the saplings were tested by Student t-test, or in case of inhomogeneous variences, by nonparametric Mann-Whintey U-test. In all the analyzes 5 % error was considered statistically significant. Monitoring of the rodent population showed that in period from November 2011 till May 2013 rodent abundance varied from 0 % to 16 % and that ratio of subfamilies Arvicolinae and Murinae changed seasonally (Graph 1). Analysis of the rodent spatial distribution showed that most of real mice were trapped on transect covered by dense vegetation, while voles were mostly trapped on other two transects with less vegetation coverage. Quantitative analysis showed that the ratio of damaged pedunculate oak saplings varied from 0,0 % to 42,05 % within individual experimental plots, while the highest overall recorded ratio was 22 %. Qualitative analysis showed that the extent of damage made by rodents increased with the age of oak saplings (1–5 years), both on the root system (Graphs 2–6) and on the stam. Feeding on the stems of the saplings resulted in gnawing marks that varied from 16,5 mm2 to 766,5 mm2 in size and were 182,5 mm2 on average. Number of gnawing marks recorded on individual plant varied from one to five and was 1,6 on average. Rodent feeding on root system resulted in loss of 57–77 % of root volume, 71 %–97 % of root lenght and 65 %–96 % of root tips of pedunculate oak saplings depending on the hight of a plant. Statistically significant difference in volume, rooth lenght and number of root tips between damaged and undamaged oak saplings within almost all high and root categories was determened. This research confirmed that rodent abundance and population structure varies seasonally and is therefore important to be aware of it while it provides basic information for predicting the damage made by rodents on the pedunculate young-growth. It also showed that, in accordance to root volume, lenght and number of root tips of pedunculate oak saplings damaged by rodents – that were measured for the the first time within this research – the plant itself cannot recover from the loss.
Key words: rodents; pedunculate oak; damage; saplings; roots; stem
MARGALETIĆ, Josip ŠL
ŠANGO, Mario ŠL
|Gregor Meterc, Danijel Borković, Maja Jurc
|UDK 630* 453 (001)
|OUTBREAK OF THE SPRUCE WEB-SPINNING SAWFLY Cephalcia arvensis (HYMENOPTERA: PAMPHILIIDAE) IN SLOVENIA
The first local outbreak of the field web-spinning sawfly (Cephalcia arvensis) appeared in 2009 on one location on 106 ha in the northern part of Slovenia in a stand of 60-90-year-old Picea abies and on 600-800 m a. s. l. In the period from 2009 to 2011 the density of the prepupae, bio-ecology and defoliation of the trees were studied.
The density of the population of prepupae of Cephalcia species was studied on the six plots in the soil samples (25 x 25 x 20 cm). In 2009 it was high (average = 595 individuals/m2 of soil), while in 2010 the average number of prepupae was lower for 68%. The collected data of soil and air temperatures indicate their impact on the beginning of the emergence of Cephalcia species in 2011; we found that it had started in large number when the average daily temperature was 14.7 °C and the average soil temperature was 8.7 °C.
In the autumn of 2009, six circular plots (50 x 50 m each) were defined where the defoliation of the crowns of 88 conifer trees with the breast height over 10 cm was estimated. The defoliation of P. abies has grown over two years; in 2009, the average defoliation was 28%, and in 2010 it was 32%.
Key words: Cephalcia arvensis; temperature; defoliation; outbreak; Norway spruce; Slovenia
|Rita Horák, Milan Borišev, Andrej Pilipović, Saša Orlović, Slobodanka Pajević, Nataša Nikolić
|UDK 630*111 + 116 (001)
|DROUGHT IMPACT ON FOREST TREES IN FOUR NATURE PROTECTED AREAS IN SERBIA
Important predictions of climate change propose a correlated increase in frequency of extreme temperature and precipitation patterns. Period of extremely low precipitation occurred during the vegetation season of 2011 at four mountain forest localities of the Balkan region. Influence of this extreme event was correlated with photosynthetic and transpiration intensity, and content of photosynthetic pigments in forest populations of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karsten) and fir (Abies alba Mill) on four sites, with specific locality properties. Significant reductions in CO2 assimilation along with decrease in water use efficiency, were determined by water deficit. It seems that drought occurrence will influence forests in site specific manner, having the most negative impact on forest populations located in the altitude proximity of mountain reefs and peaks. This process leads to decrease in tree mass and reduced forest cover on such sites. Such environmental conditions will lessen possible acclimation of trees to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and upward migration to higher altitudes determined by global temperature increase.
Key words: climate change; water deficit; beech; common spruce; silver fir
|Stjepan KRČMAR, Marija VEREŠ, Tomi TRILAR
|FAUNA OF HARD TICKS (ACARI: IXODIDAE) IN DIFFERENT HABITATS IN CROATIAN PART OF BARANJA
In 5 different habitats in the Croatian part of Baranja in the surroundings of the city Beli Manastir, in the period from March to October 2013, 1254 specimens of hard ticks were collected using the flag dragging method, whereas 240 specimens were collected by hand from pets. Five tick species were identified from collected sample: Dermacentor marginatus (Sulzer, 1776), Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794), Haemaphysalis concinna (Koch, 1844), Haemaphysalis inermis (Birula, 1895) and Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus, 1758). In the forest habitats at the locality Haljevo, the highest number (80.45 %) of hard ticks was sampled. The most abundant species was Ixodes ricinus with 65.93 %. The highest number (55.49 %) of ticks were sampled in the developmental stage of larvae. In the developmental stage of larvae Haemaphysalis concinna was represented with 94.71 %, Ixodes ricinus with 38.48 % and Haemaphysalis inermis with 6.90 %. The highest number of hard ticks larvae 71.53 % was sampled in July, whereas the highest number of adults 58.50 % was sampled in April. Haemaphysalis inermis was found for the first time on the area of continental part of Croatia.
Key words: hard ticks; Ixodidae; Beli Manastir; Baranja; Croatia