|THE NEW EU FORESTRY STRATEGY: FOR FORESTS AND THE FOREST-BASED SECTOR
|At the end of September the competent Ministry received a report dealing with the above topic. Sent by the European Commission Secretary General, the report was addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of the European Union and all the EU Member States. The report was forwarded to the Croatian Forestry Association, the Academy of Forestry Sciences and other forestry institutions.
The report, describing the forest condition and the framework, which we will present here in brief, contains 16 pages and starts from some general forest data. Forests and other wooded land cover over 40 % of the EU land area, in- creasing by around 0.4 % per year, whereas globally, forest area continues to decrease. Only 60–70 % of the annual increment is being cut, but harvest rates are expected to increase by around 30 % by 2020. Forests are multifunctional and their socioeconomic importance is high, but often underestimated. Forest biomass currently accounts for around half of the EU’s total renewable energy consumption. In order to ensure these benefits in a balanced manner, it is crucial to apply sustainable forest management.
A clarification follows as to why a new framework is needed in the aftermath of significant societal and political changes in the past 15 years and growing demands on and threats to forests. We shall briefly mention three out of the six reasons: a) ensure that the multifunctional potential of EU forests is managed in a sustainable and balanced way; b) satisfy the growing demand for raw material, and c) respond to the challenges and opportunities that forest-based industries face in terms of various efficiencies.
What step forward should be taken that relates to an integral approach to forest management and the entire forest value chain? The guiding principles are: sustainable forest management and the multifunctional role of forests, resource efficiency where the contribution of forests to rural development, growth and job creation is optimized, as well as global forest responsibility that promotes sustainable production and consumption of forest products.
The 2020 forest objectives are to ensure and demonstrate that all forests are managed according to sustainable forest management principles. This contributes to balancing various forest functions and provides a basis for forestry and the whole forest-based value chain to be competitive contributors to welfare.
The eight linked priority areas of the strategic orientation are to:
- Support rural and urban communities (through strategic orientations: using rural development funds, where the Commission and the Member States should assess and improve the effect of forestry measures under rural development policy, as well as improve their valuing of the benefits that forests give to society).
- Foster the competitiveness and sustainability of forest-based industries, bio-energy and the wider green economy.
- Forests are vulnerable to climate change. It is therefore important to maintain and enhance their resilience and adaptive capacity.
- Efforts to protect forests and biodiversity should aim to maintain, enhance and restore forest ecosystems’ resilience and multi-functionality, as well as prevent negative impacts on forests.
- Improve the forest knowledge base to better understand the complex environmental and societal challenges – set up the Forest Information System of Europe.
- Stimulate new innovative forestry and added-value products.
According to the forestry measures plans, €5.4 billion from the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development have been earmarked for forestry measures in 2007–2013. A similar level of spending could be expected for 2014– 2010.
In conclusion, the European Parliament and the Council are invited to endorse this strategy and to express their views on its implementation.
In our opinion, we have almost no objections to the proposed strategy. This strategy contains all the elements which the Croatian Forestry Strategy should contain and which we have been seeking for and advocating for years, but to no avail. Instead of the Croatian Forestry Strategy to serve as an exemplary model for the EU Member States, we shall only now, as the EU member, be forced to develop our own Forestry Strategy, which is sad and shameful. It is obvious that we only function under coercion, even in segments such as forestry, where resources and knowledge should objectively place us among the top states.
|IZVORNI ZNANSTVENI ČLANCI
|Damir DRVODELIĆ, Milan ORŠANIĆ, Sanja PERIĆ, Martina TIJARDOVIĆ
|UDK 630*232.3+181.3 (001)
|INFLUENCE OF IRRIGATION AND MICRO-RELIEF IN NURSERIES ON MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PEDUNCULATE (Quercus robur L.) AND SESSILE OAK (Quercus petraea L.) FOREST SEEDLINGS
We researched the influence of irrigation and micro-relief in nurseries on morphological properties of pedunculate and sessile oak seedlings (2+0). The test plots were established in the forest nursery Hajderovac, Forestry Office Kutjevo, Forest Administration Branch Požega. The sowing of sessile oak acorns was carried out from 7 to 11 October 2005, and of pedunculate oak on 14 October 2005. Irrigation was taken as a treatment for the pedunculate oak seedlings (1 non-irrigated, 2 irrigated) while for the sessile oak seedlings it was the micro-relief (1 on slopes, 2 on flat terrain). At the end of the second growing season a random sample of seedlings was taken from the test plots for a morphological analysis. The morphological analysis of the washed root system was performed on the scanner Epson Expression 10000XL while the WinRhizo pro.V.2005 software was used to determine five root variables: length (cm), perimeter (cm2), average diameter (mm), volume (cm3) and number of root tips (pieces). For the seedlings of pedunculate oak a variance difference higher than the set limit (p=0,05) was established for the following variables: root length (p=0,293703), root perimeter (p=0,21999), root volume (p=0,281090) and the number of root tips (p=0,829142). Mann Whitney’s U-test established a statistically significant difference in height (p=0,000000), root collar diameter (p=0,000284) and the average root diameter (p=0,011632) between the non-irrigated (1) and the irrigated (2) seedlings of pedunculate oak. With an average height of 578 mm (322–790 mm) the irrigated pedunculate oak seedlings (2+0) were by 305 mm higher compared to the non-irrigated ones. The average root collar diameter of the irrigated seedlings was also by 0,92 mm larger compared to the non-irrigated ones and amounted to 6,91 mm (4,93–9,90 mm). On average the root diameter of the irrigated seedlings was by 0,12 mm larger compared to the non-irrigated ones. The irrigated seedlings of pedunculate oak also showed a larger total root length (cm), root perimeter (cm2) and number of root tips (pcs) with respect to the non-irrigated ones but the mentioned characteristics are not significant. For the seedlings of sessile oak a variance difference higher than the set limit (p=0,05) was established for the following variables: height (p=0,178360), root collar diameter (p=0,077099) and root length (p=0,148820). Mann Whitney’s U-test established a statistically significant difference in all the four tested variables (root perimeter (p=0,000010), average root diameter (p=0,025060), root volume
(p=0,000037) and number of root tips (p=0,000427) between the sessile oak seedlings on slopes (1) and on the flat terrain (2). The average root perimeter of the sessile oak seedlings grown on slopes was by 85,39 cm2 larger compared to the seedlings grown on flat terrain and amounted to 271,97 cm2 (58,57–633,94 cm2). The average root diameter of the sessile oak seedlings on slopes was 1,60 mm (1,17–2,10 mm) which is by 0,10 mm longer compared to those on flat terrain. The average root volume of the seedlings on slopes was by 3,88 cm3 larger compared to those on the flat terrain and amounted to 10,99 cm3 (2,40–27,21 cm3). The seedlings on slopes had 818 root tips (111–2551 pcs), which is 226 pieces more compared to those from flat terrain. The seedlings of sessile oak growing on slopes had larger height (mm), root collar diameter (mm) and the total root length (cm) with respect to those on flat terrain but the mentioned characteristics are not significant. The research proves that irrigation of pedunculate oak seedlings in nursery influenced several quality variables (height, root collar diameter). Therefore, irrigation should become a required practice for the seedlings on the entire nursery production area. On the other hand, the seedlings of sessile oak display an increase in several root quality variables (perimeter, average diameter, volume, number of tips) when grown on slopes, and this practice should be adopted in all nurseries with developed micro-relief.
Key words: seedling quality; root length; root perimeter; root collar diameter; root volume; number of root tips
DRVODELIĆ, Damir ŠL
ORŠANIĆ, Milan ŠL
PERIĆ, Sanja ŠL
|Roman ROSAVEC, Zoran ŠIKIĆ, Željko ŠPANJOL, Damir BARČIĆ, Marko VUČETIĆ
| UDK 630*431
(Pinus halpensis Mill) (001)
|WILDFIRE THREATS WITHIN THE HABITAT CONDITIONS IN ALEPPO PINE STANDS (Pinus halepensis Mill.) OF ADRIATIC KARST AREA
Forest fires significantly affect the degradation of habitats in Croatia and in the whole Mediterranean. From 1995. until 2012. years in the Croatian karst was 4279 fire. The total burned area amounted to 242,690 ha and 56,70 ha per fire. In Croatia, the Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) comes in different vegetation zones that have different climatic characteristics. Investigations were carried out on three Adriatic islands. The island of Rab is in eumediterranean vegetation zone, while the islands of Brač and Korčula mostly found in stenomediterranean vegetation zone. Total rainfall on the island of Rab is 1087 mm, 716 mm of Brač and 1000 mm of Korčula per year. Given the climate conditions during the summer months increases the risk of developing and spreading wildfires. The risk is greatest in forest plantations and native stands of Aleppo pine, especially if they are not implemented silvicultural work. In general, this refers to the cleaning work in the early years, and thinning in later years. Based on the relevant climate parameters were obtained monthly (Mounthly Severity Rating MSR) and seasonal (Seasonal Severity Rating SSR) potential severity. Potential severity score was calculated using the methods of the Canadian Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System and its subsystems Fire Weather Index (Fire Weather Index, FWI). The aim of the research is to analyze the climatic parameters and their influence towards Aleppo pine stands in different site conditions with the aim of using the obtained intensity as a preventive measure to protect the forests, as well as the relationship between climatic parameters of the fundamental characteristics (delay flammability, flame duration, moisture content) of fine forest fuels Aleppo pine. The results suggest that significantly higher values MSR for August than for July. From secondary seasonal score intensity is evident that they are lower on the islands of Korčula and Rab in relation to the island of Brač. Climatic parameters differently correlate with the basic characteristics of fine fuels – ignition (DI), burning (DC) and the moisture content of the live fuel (LFMC).
Key words: forest fires; Aleppo pine; seasonal severity ratings; monthly severity ratings; fine forest fuel
ROSAVEC, Roman ŠL
ŠIKIĆ, Zoran ŠL
ŠPANJOL, Željko ŠL
BARČIĆ, Damir ŠL
|Jelena Nedeljković, Marko Lovrić, Dragan Nonić, Makedonka Stojanovska, Vaska Nedanovska, Nataša Lovrić, Vladimir Stojanovski
|UDK 630*899 (001)
|INFLUENCE OF POLICY INSTRUMENTS ON NON-WOOD FOREST PRODUCTS COMMERCIALIZATION IN CROATIA, MACEDONIA AND SERBIA
In accordance with the principles of sustainable forest management, non-wood forest products (NWFPs) are increasingly gaining in importance when it comes to forest policy and nature and environmental protection policy. In addition to the global level, the interest in NWFP, in recent decades, increases at the regional level, as well. In the region of Southeast Europe has been an increase in the number of studies that deal with the issue of NWFP. However, policy instruments, which are related to this area, are still poorly understood.
In this connection, the main goal of this research is to discuss the impact of specific policy instruments on NWFPs-based business in selected countries of Southeast Europe (Croatia, Macedonia and Serbia), as well as the analysis of the attitudes of representatives of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) for purchase, processing and placement of NWFPs in terms of procedures related to the NWFP-based business and cooperation with relevant institutions. The purpose of the research is to find opportunities for improvement of policy instruments and administrative procedures of the NWFP, in selected countries, in order to improve development of the sector. The subject of the research are strategic, legal and institutional frameworks related to NWFP, and the attitudes of SME representatives towards the documentation required for the entire process of purchase, processing and placement of NWFPs and cooperation with relevant institutions.
This paper presents the results of research conducted within FOPER II project "Entrepreneurship, markets and marketing of non-timber forest products in the SEE region".
In the research are applied descriptive, comparative, content analysis and statistical methods. As a research technique is used door to door survey. The questionnaire consisted of 51 questions, grouped into 6 topics. In this paper are analysed 7 questions, related to the subject of research. The sample consisted of 27 representatives of NWFP-based enterprises in Croatia, 36 in Macedonia and 91 in Serbia.
Analysed legal documents were adopted in the last two decades, which indicates that the governments in all analysed countries made some step forward in the recognition of NWFPs importance, after the political and social changes that have occurred in the region during the transition period. Strategic documents (Table 1) in all 3 countries emphasize, as priorities, implementation of the national inventory and control of trade in protected species. However, only a strategic document in Macedonia point out the need for the support to development of entrepreneurial activities in this part of the forest sector. However, although the importance of NWFPs has been recognized, in these countries is still present a problem in terminology. In most legal documents (Table 2), these products are, still, named as "minor" (Croatia), "secondary" (Macedonia) or "other" (Serbia) forest products. Legal documents in analyzed countries prescribe the inclusion of NWFP in forest management planning process. In analysed is present an overlapping of responsibilities of institutions (Table 3) in the sectors of forestry, nature and environmental protection, in terms of NWFP. However, what is very important for forestry sector is that the ministries in charge of forestry are only partially responsible for NWFPs. Regarding respondents’ attitudes towards the documentation needed for the entire process of purchase, processing and placement of NWFPs, only the majority of representatives of SMEs in Serbia believe that it is too large (Table 4). Cooperation with the ministry responsible for forestry has the majority of respondents only in Croatia, but it is mostly related to agriculture and the use of subsidies. Majority of respondents in Croatia and Macedonia, and all of them in Serbia cooperate with the ministry in charge of environmental protection and it mainly related to obtaining permits for collecting, import, export and transit of NWFPs (Table 5). Cluster analysis showed clustering of respondents in 3 groups in Croatia, 2 in Macedonia and 4 in Serbia, based on 3 categorical variables (largeness, time and costs related to documentation), as shown in Table 6.
However, in Croatia and Macedonia are clearly distinguished 2 groups, the first cluster is composed of representatives of SMEs who believe that collection of documentation is a problem in their business, while the other cluster members indicate that this procedure does not interfere them in their business activities. In Serbia, there is not second cluster. These 4 clusters are formed on the basis of the problems caused by different factors, which influence the process of collection of necessary documentation.
In order to improve the situation in the future, it is necessary to:
– Adopt a single policy document, which will clearly define the directions of policy relating to NWFPs;
– Include representatives of regional and local authorities, NWFPs-based enterprises, and local residents, to ensure the presence of all stakeholders during the preparation of planning documents, rules and regulations, as well as possible strategies for sustainable use of NWFPs;
– Clearly outline the responsibilities for the implementation and control of laws and by-laws;
– Develop and improve collaboration with ministries of forestry and environmental protection;
– Establishment of a monitoring system, which would follow and document collection and use of NWFPs;
– Simplify the procedure required to obtain permission for commercial NWFP collection in Croatia and Serbia, as it was done in Macedonia (on-line application and gathering a license for 1 to 2 days).
It is important to emphasize that, in formulating policies related to the NWFPs, the results presented here should be taken carefully, since they relate only to the surveyed representatives of SMEs and not to the all SMEs in the region. Similarly, the conclusions and recommendations presented in this paper refer only to the NWFPs policy and legislation and the institution responsible for these products and, therefore, can not be directly applied to other aspects of forest policy in the analyzed countries.
Key words: non-wood forest products; policy instruments; small and medium enterprises
|Osman MUJEZINOVIĆ, Josip MARGALETIĆ, Tarik TREŠTIĆ, Mirza DAUTBAŠIĆ
|UDK 630*451+151 (001)
|THE IMPACT OF THE HABITAT TO THE PRESENCE OF BANK MOLE (Myodes glareolus) AND YELLOW-THROAT MOUSE (Apodemus falvicollis) IN THE AREA OF BOSNIA
The increase of the number of population of small rodents, when they can cause significant damage, among the other impacts also depends on the characteristics of the habitat. In this paper was tested the impact of habitats elements to the presence of bank vole (Myodes glareolus) and yellow necked mouse (Apodemus falvicollis). The researches were undertaken in the area of Bosnia (Bitovnja, Zvijezda and Igman) in the period 2008 and 2009. Different level of composition of plant communities and the character of human-caused impact on the object of research have enabled the identification of their impact to the presence of small rodents. Defining of types of habitat conditions for these animals was conducted according to the importance of their presence at the parts of plots of minimal square (Picture 1). This method means the determination of numerousness (abundance) of the population of small rodents based on the number of units collected at the total of 64 hunting locations/places. Hunting places of the plot were defined as small plots (micro-localities) the size of which was 15 x 15 m.
For the needs of this paper, in the period of research, were placed 9 plots with minimal square, and the assessment of habitat parameters was conducted at the total of 576 small plots. The description of the habitat was intended to find the dependence between the numerousness (abundance) and living ambiance of the present species of small rodents at the researched localities. The pattern for typing (standardization) of the habitat contained the basic factors which individually or in combination describe the living space of these animals. The level of land coverage by tree crowns was defined with three categories: (1) covered, (2) partially covered, and (3) not covered. The assessment of exposure of the small plot had five categories, (1–4) for main sides of the world and (5) flat surface of the small plot. The category micro-relief has contained five elements: (1) flat small plot, (2) small plot with hollows, (3) small plot with elevations, (4) uniformly inclined surface and (5)
combination of micro-hollows and micro-elevations. Coverage of the land with leaf litter and vegetation as the category had six elements: (1) covered with leaf litter, (2) grass vegetation, (3) combination of two previous elements, (4) without leaf litter or grass vegetation, (5) less presence of weed and (6) weeds more represented. Availability of water was reviewed through two categories: (1) available water, (2) waterless habitat. Quantity of wood remains (1) no remains, (2) medium quantity and (3) more remains present. Age of wood remains had three categories: (1) fresh remains, (2) medium-fresh remains and (3) completely decomposed. For this analysis was used the statistical program SPSS Statistics 17.0. Testing of the importance of the impact of particular ecological parameters was conducted by the analysis Cross Tab, by implementing of the method: Analyze/Descriptive/Crosstab and correlative connection Correlation, Bivariate Correlation, Correlation Coefficient, Spearman, Test of Significance Two – tailed. Based on the examination of the caught species of small rodents (Table 1) was visible its significant representation in forests of beech and fir with spruce in Bosnia and Herzegovina. By conducted analyses was identified the existence of statistically important impact of particular parameters of micro-habitat at plots of all localities to the presence of M. glareolus and A. flavicollis (Tables 2–4).
At particular parts of plots, or small plots, the more significant increase of the openness of the surface has contributed to forming of rich layer of ground vegetation. The change of micro-habitat conditions in this sense also had positively reflected to the numerousness (abundance) of M. glareolus (Tables 2 and 4). The favorable impact to its presence also had the intensively developed floor of herbaceous plants in the forest which provides the necessary food. From the aspect of the protection, the dense vegetation cover provides to this species a safe shelter from predators, especially at dusk, and partially also during the day time. The existence of the connection between this habitat parameter and the presence of A. flavicollis was not identified. Such result was expected due to significantly different demands of this species regarding the habitat conditions. This species prefers a dry habitat with almost complete level of canopy, poorly developed layer of brush and ground vegetation and large quantity of leaf litter at the ground with plenty of beech seeds. Significant correlation connection was identified between the presence of species from the genus Rubus and bank mole at Mt. Bitovnja. Namely, Rubus species create favorable place for living of animals at particular micro-habitat providing an adequate shelter and during the ripening of fruits (July-August) also the plenty of food. Significant differences regarding the numerousness of M. glareolus were identified in comparison of numerousness at southern-exposed small plots compared to other exposures (Table 2), and numerousness at eastern-exposed parts of plots compared to the other (Table 3). The impact of the exposure as the result represents in essence the demand of this species for increased heat and light. According to the results of these researches, one could say that for bank mole are favorable habitats with micro-hollows (Table 3). High numbers of these animals are related to the presence of small hollows, or it indicates its preference for moist or wet surfaces of the habitat. There were identified significant differences in numerousness of M. glareolus and A. flavicollis depending on the presence of dead wood (Tables 2, 3 and 4). Different dead wood remains like: assortments, logs and branches, ensure shelter for these animals. It covers underground passages and nests, and, what is also important, indirectly, by growing of plants, moss, lichens and fungi on it, also provide food for it. Fallen trees help the inhabiting of insects and other invertebrates which represent significant share in the nutrition of small rodents. Identified impacts of the presence of different tree species and its structure, and the other parameters of habitat to the representation and abundance of species of small rodents can represent a good starting basis in creating the silviculture works and other activities in the forest, or the forming of conditions of stands unfavorable for their living.
Key words: bank vole; M. glareolus; yellow necked mouse; A. flavicollis; habitat factors; numerousness/abundance; Common beech; Silver fir; Norway spruce; forest; habitat
MARGALETIĆ, Josip ŠL
|BIVOLTINISM OF EUROPEAN HARDWOOD AMBROSIA BEETLE Trypodendron domesticum IN CROATIAN LOWLAND OAK STANDS OF JASTREBARSKI LUGOVI
Ambrosia beetles are important technical pests that reduce economical value of oak timber. In Croatian oak stands earliest species T. domesticum starts its activity in early January. Monitoring of ambrosia beetles phenology with 5 IPM Tech Intercept panel traps completed with pheromones was conducted from beginning of January till early June. Data collecting for correlation between beetle swarming, mean minimal and maximal weekly temperatures was accomplished with use of Spectrum Technologies Inc. Watchdog® Weather Station 2000 Series. It was established that activity of T. domesticum starts when daily temperatures rise above 9°C. This early swarming often surprises foresters during winter harvesting and causes economical losses due to strict EN 1316-1 for round oak timber or Croatian HRN norms for oak round timber. First swarming lasts till and of March, interrupted by cold periods an bad weather. Second swarming was established in end of April with culmination in mid May. It is obvious that eggs laid in early January had time to reach imaginal stage till early/mid May when our panel traps registered second swarming. This is important conclusion because older entomological literature for Croatia mentioned only one swarming analogous with T. signatum. Knowledge about phenology of ambrosia beetle species is crucial in integrated oak timber protection regarding economical importance of these technical pests.
Key words: Trypodendron; EN 1316-1; oak round timber; integrated timber protection
FRANJEVIĆ, Milivoj ŠL
|Boris Hrašovec, Darko Posarić, Ivan Lukić, Milan Pernek
|FIRST RECORD OF OAK LACE BUG (Corythucha arcuata) IN CROATIA
The speed and volume ofrecently introduced alien and invasive species is reaching new dimensions recently. Largest group of these are insects, some of which are serious forest pests. Croatia has received its share of recent European introductions, the newest one being a second tingid species, oak lace bug Corythucha arcuata (Say, 1832). Sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Say, 1832), has been the first one arriving to the Croatian soil soon after its introduction in northern Italy more than thirty years ago. Italy again, was the European country of first record for C. arcuata in 2000. Turkey and Switzerland followed soon, and in 2012 and 2013 its presence was confirmed in Bulgaria and Hungary. Summer yellowing of oak leaves in lowland stands of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and intensive chlorotic damages appearing on young oak plants in autumn urged for targeted research in the area of eastern Slavonia, Spačva basin. The abundant tingid species sampled in these forest stands proved to be the oak lace bug. Besides of the dominantly affected pedunculate oak leaves, damages and tingids developmental stages were also found on European crab apple (Malus sylvestris /L./), Rubus spp. and, for the first time, the field elm (Ulmus minor Mill) – Morphological identification based on relevant taxonomic keys can be eased for the practitioners with the description of slightly different coloring (dark brown blotches on semielytrae) of this lace bug versus already present and widely known sycamore lace bug. The first discovery of oak lace bug in Croatian territory in such a large area and at relatively high abundance puzzles since it has yet not been reported in neighboring countries (with the exception of Hungary where it was reported in a very small and localized population). It will be important to focus our attention on the very probable quick spread of the new oak pestin the near future and asses its potential negative impact on oak helath status in Croatian conditions.
Key words: invasive species; alien species; Spačva; Slavonia; pedunculate oak; Quercus robur; field elm; Ulmus minor
HRAŠOVEC, Boris ŠL
POSARIĆ, Darko ŠL
PERNEK, Milan ŠL