|DO FORESTRY PRACTICES DISREGARD THE PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT?
|The Forestry Journal No. 7–8/2004 published an article by Academy member Dušan Klepac in the column Current Affairs. The article, entitled "Several ideas contributing to the code of close-to-nature forest management", summarized some basic postulates of close-to-nature forest management in ten sentences: In the first sentence the author says "The forest is a renewable natural resource; it can only be regenerated if managed adequately, on condition that the forest ecosystem is not disturbed", and in the second "Adequate forest management is sustainable management, which maintains commercial, ecological and social forest functions".
We point out on every occasion that 97 % of forests in our country are natural forests and that they belong to some of the best preserved forests in the world, owing primarily to the fact that Croatian forestry, unlike some other forestries, has never abandoned the principles of sustainable forest management. Are we on the verge of gradually renouncing these principles, after two and a half centuries, in the merciless race for questionable profit? The very first sentence of the mentioned article seeks for an answer to the following question: do we disturb the forest ecosystem if we only choose the cheapest contractors who are incompetent and poorly technically equipped and if we do not even check their qualifications for certain jobs? We still recall a short-lived and unsuccessful post-World War Two attempt concerning wood processors (buyers) performing cutting and wood assortment operations. This idea is currently being introduced in the forestry practice. Examples from the field testify that unprofessionalism and incompetence are already taking place and are spreading rapidly. "Adequate management" mentioned in the second sentence implies timely natural regeneration and tending with cleaning and thinning of forest stands (selection in selection forests). The belatedly applied silvicultural treatments in the mentioned stages, generally motivated by the desire to cut costs in order to increase profit, are the principal causes of unsuccessful re- generation of forest stands and an insufficient use of site productivity in particular. This is already happening: it remains to be seen how the situation will escalate when a tax on non-market forest functions is abolished.
Is the professionalism and competence of contractors scrutinized and by whom, and who is responsible for supervision and sanctioning? What are the professional capacities (with a few honourable exceptions), instruments and competences of the Ministry to carry out supervision, including the supervision of the company entrusted by the owner to manage forests, not in the way the Ministry wants but, let us believe, according to professional and scientific principles. Does the Ministry at least adhere to the basic principles of sustainable management, considering that there is no forestry strategy, which should, together with the Forest Law, serve as a guide for the survival of forests and development of forestry in the future.
In addition to the sentences cited above, as well as to other sentences dealing with the adherence to the principles of sustainable forest management, the ninth sentence is exceptionally important: "The organisational form of forestry may range from centralised to decentralised one, but undoubtedly the most favourable organisational form is that which allows the use of all direct and indirect forest benefits in the same area and in the same organisational unit". What is the organisational form of forestry today and does it provide for all the mentioned forest benefits? A strictly centralized form, in which every minor operation requires the approval of the centre, where managers have no competences (which hampers their inventiveness and use of the acquired forestry skills and experiences and tars their reputation in front of the employees and the local community), and district rangers and other engineers are increasingly spending time in offices instead of being in the forest where they belong as leaders of production, are certainly not the components of an optimal organisational form of forestry.
Finally, the question remains, with all the above serving as food for thought, whether anybody, or better said, who will support the progress of forestry (professional and technological) when a tax on non market forest function is abolished. After all, the tenth sentence of the articles states: "There is no progress in forestry without science and culture".
|IZVORNI ZNANSTVENI ČLANCI
|Krunoslav Teslak, Jura Čavlović, Mario Božić, Karlo Beljan
|UDK 630*228 + 653 (001)
|PEDUNCULATE OAK (Quercus robur L.) TREES QUALITATIVE STRUCTURE AS A CRITERIA OF THE STAND REGENERATION PLANNING
Pedunculate oak forest management is complicated by the appearance of tree dieback and nowadays represents the most significant economic and environmental problem in Croatian forestry. The consequences are evident through large economic losses amounting to 40 % of potential market value of the timber, stand value decrease due to minor stocking and weakening of beneficial functions of forests.
Structure violation of the elderly and mature stands consequently causes a significant deviation from optimal, theoretical estimating models of timber quality. A more precise estimation of quality classes and stand structure quality and thus the value of its timber stock, allows efficient management planning towards primarily regeneration of forest (or stands) parts with most disrupted structure. In Croatia timber is traditionally classified by its purpose (e.g. Croatian standards HRN (1995)) as opposed to the newer standards (e.g. Croatian standards HRN EN 1361-1 (1999)) which are based on the Western European practice where timber is classified according to its quality, without prejudice of its purpose.
Previous research into the possibility of forming patterns and finding the best model to evaluate the quality class structure suggest the limited use of certain models due to stratification of the sample according to the level of tree species, management class, silvicultural forest type, age class, cutting type, the revenue type, share of dieback trees, etc. This paper explored the factors influencing the qualitative (quality class) structure of the remaining trees in elderly and mature pedunculate oak stands of central Posavina. Based on results of the qualitative structure variability, habitat and economic variables, structure models were constructed to estimate the volume of quality classes according to Croatian standards EN 1361-1.
Within the pedunculate oak management class in middle Posavina (size of 29 190 ha) randomly was chosen 37 stands older than 100 years with reduced stocking where was placed 146 circular plots with radius of 35 m. On average, the plots covered 5 pedunculate oak trees closest to the plot centre. According to Danhelovski method qualitative structure of selected observed trees was estimated and calculated. On the observed plots has been estimated a wide range of habitat, stand and economic variables (Table 1). Equalizing the volume of quality classes was conducted by quality formula (3) which is in previous studies (suitable function for equalizing the quality class volume depending on DHB) marked as suitable. Breast height diameter of mean tree (d_SPS) and the volume share of quality classes A and B (vABp) were chosen in this study as the dependent variables in the process of multivariable research influence of factor groups; stand, environmental and management factors by multifactorial analysis of variance.
The total volume of sample trees of 3 964 m3 mostly constitutes quality class D (30 %) while the remaining three quality classes are equally represented,(about 20 %) (Table 1). The complex influence of stands and habitat group variables to breast height diameter of mean tree is much less important than the economic variables group (Tables 3 and 4). As expected, site index and canopy density significantly affect the qualitative structure of pedunculate oak trees through the length of the trunk, height of first branch and other factors (Table 3). Identified arithmetic mean tree breast height diameter (SPS) of pedunculate oak (64 cm) and an average content of 35 % volume of A and B quality classes (Table 2) indicates the exceptional quality of the stands. Explanation of the volume variability for each quality class by function (3) is in the range of 92.1 % for quality class DO to 63.4 % for quality class C (Table 5).
Comparison of modelled and estimated quality class structure (Figure 2) indicates the acceptability of the selected models. The volume distribution per quality classes indicates homogeneity above DBH of 67.5 diameter class and pointing the fact that the oldest trees retain their quality (Figure 3) above DBH of 70 cm. The quality and tree value does not necessarily follow the stand value for the fact of constant dieback and sanitary cutting which declines stand stock and the volume proportion of pedunculate oak, and thus the value of the stands. In these circumstances it is necessary to find and isolate structurally maintained and stable forests parts where should be accumulated value increment in order to establish a balance at rotation period and improving the forest age structure.
Key words: Pedunculate oak; mature stands; stand structure; quality class structure
TESLAK, Krunoslav ŠL
ČAVLOVIĆ, Jura ŠL
BOŽIĆ, Mario ŠL
BELJAN, Karlo ŠL
|Miroslav Balanda, Ján Pittner, Milan Saniga, Ján Jaďuď, Lucia Danková, Marián Ďuriš
| UDK 630*815 + 612 *
(Picea abies L. Karst) (001)
|STAND DYNAMICS OF THE SUBALPINE SPRUCE (Picea abies L. Karst) FOREST – A DISTURBANCE DRIVEN DEVELOPMENT
The paper deals with the stand dynamics of subalpine Norway spruce forest in the Low Tatras Mts., Slovakia. The recent state of subalpine spruce forests is unsatisfactory because of the extensive windstorms followed by bark beetle outbreak. The study is focused on the reconstruction of historical disturbances affecting this locality in the past. The research was conducted on the model locality Mt. Veľký Bok in the Low Tatras, central Slovakia. After the harvesting of snags we cored spruce stumps (N=60). Boundary-line criteria (fig.1) were used for evaluation of growth releases. We reconstructed local disturbance chronology and tree recruitment chronology. Three distinctive peaks of growth releases were revealed, in 1860−1880; 1920−1940 and 1980−2000. The identified disturbance periods were confirmed by examination of historical sources. Regarding the tree recruitment patterns, 50 % of analyzed trees met the criterion of gap recruitment. The temporal position of recruitment waves fairly corresponds with occurrence of a major disturbance. According to obtained results, we can state that the large-scale wind disturbances are the natural part of subalpine spruce forest and the overall dynamics of investigated forest is driven by combination of gap and patch dynamics.
|Dimitrios N. Avtzis and Dinka Matošević
|UDK 630*453 (001)
|TAKING EUROPE BY STORM: A FIRST INSIGHT IN THE INTRODUCTION AND EXPANSION OF Dryocosmus kuriphilus IN CENTRAL EUROPE BY mtDNA
The chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus, poses one of the latest additions to the long list of exotic pests that invaded Europe. After its introduction in Italy, chestnut gall wasp expanded rapidly in Europe in a very short period of time. Analysis of a polymorphic mtDNA locus from nine European populations verified the Chinese origin of this invasion. Moreover, the results revealed traces of a severe bottleneck during the phase of introduction that reduced considerably the genetic diversity. It was also shown that the rapid and successful post-introductory expansion was accomplished by a single mtDNA haplotype that has spread in three European countries. The paradox of successful establishment despite the absence of genetic diversity could be attributed to the synergistic effect of several agents. Uniparental propagation and general-purpose genotypes, lack of natural enemies and human-mediated transport seem to have facilitated the invasion and subsequent expansion of D. kuriphilus in Europe.
Key words: chestnut gall wasp; invasive pest; post-introductory expansion; population bottleneck
Avtzis, Dimitrios N.
MATOŠEVIĆ, Dinka ŠL
|Oto Nakládal, Petr ŠENFELD, Milivoj FRANJEVIĆ, Hana UhlÍková
|UDK 630*453 (001)
|COMPARISON OF ALL SEASON AND STANDARD TYPE OF ECOLURE® DISPENSER EFFICACY IN TRAP CATCHES OF EUROPAEAN SPRUCE BARK BEETLE (Ips typographus (L.))
I. typographus is the most serious pest of spruce forests in Eurasia. Pheromone traps are usually used in forest protection against this pest. In this study, two types of pheromone dispensers (ECOLURE CLASSIC and ECOLURE MEGA) were compared in terms of its efficiency in 2010. ECOLURE CLASSIC were capturing averagely more beetles in compare of all season dispense ECOLURE MEGA during all season. No statistic difference was recorded only during first 10 days of the season. In the rest of season (next 123 days) the ECOLURE CLASSIC captured statistically more beetles then ECOLURE MEGA. That is why, type and quality of pheromone dispenser significantly influences the number of trapped beetles to the pheromone traps.
Key words: efficiency; pheromone dispenser; ECOLURE; Ips typographus
FRANJEVIĆ, Milivoj ŠL
|Petra GROŠELJ, Lidija ZADNIK STIRN
|UDK 630*629 (001)
|BETWEEN COMPROMISE AND CONSENSUS IN GROUP DECISIONS IN FOREST MANAGEMENT
Forest management has become increasingly complex since economic profit became only one of several important management objectives. Considering a diverse set of goals requires the use of multi-criteria decision making. When the only goal was to maximize timber production, the planning process often involved only one decision maker: the forest owner. In the last 20 years, however, planning has changed to include the interests of multiple stakeholders, including local communities, public representatives, hunters, environmentalists, and recreationists, each of which has different knowledge, experiences, prospects, and interests. The formation of a group of stakeholders can be based on participatory planning. The main challenge in group decision making is to resolve the conflict of the group’s objectives and preferences. Aggregating individual preferences is not only a mathematical problem but also a philosophical one. We present the analytic hierarchy process as suitable multi-criteria method, which has been already applied in areas such as forestry and harvest scheduling, biodiversity conservation, regional planning, and forest sustainability. A case study of the forest area at Pohorje, a mountainous area in northern Slovenia, was conducted in order to implement the described theoretical findings. The aim of the study was to select the optimal alternative for Pohorje development. We identified five possible alternatives based on indicators of sustainability. The alternatives were compared by several stakeholders according to the results of a SWOT analysis performed at a workshop of stakeholders, who discussed individual chapters of forest management scenarios. The results of the analysis show that the alternative benefits for people, which takes into account all of Pohorje’s important aspects, is the most appropriate for Pohorje development.
Key words: forest management; multi-criteria decision making; analytic hierarchy process; group decision making; compromise; consensus; Pohorje; Slovenia
ZADNIK STIRN, Lidija
|HUNTING AND HUNTING OPPORTUNITIES IN THE DISTRICT OF SENJ IN THE PERIOD FROM THE 19th TO THE BEGINNING OF THE 20th CENTURY
Nine years after the foundation of the First Croatian Hunting and Fishing Association in Zagreb (1891), the Hunting Club of the District of Senj was established in Senj on August 6th, 1900. It was founded by several affluent Senj hunters, who were guided by the concept of "sensible hunting and hunting for pleasure", in line with the Club Rules. Based on the 1893 Hunting Act, in the very first year of its existence the Association took a lease on all the hunting grounds in the Senj District, including the town hunting ground, which, admittedly, did not have defined areas, but was a "pathway for migration birds". Franjo Krajač from the renowned Senj family of Krajač was appointed the Club’s first president, together with five hunting inspectors, who were united in the task of putting a stop to poaching and illegal hunting activities. The most hunted game species included the European hare (Lepus europaeus), fox (Canis vulpes), stone marten (Martes foina), rock partridge (Alectoris graeca), grey partridge (Perdix perdix), common quail (Coturnix coturnix), woodcocks (Scolopax sp.) and wild duck. Roe deer were hunted in the upper parts of the hunting ground (Krivi Put, Vratnik), while the then unprotected brown bear (Ursus arctos), wolf (Canis lupus), wildcat (Felis silvestris) and European otter (Lutra lutra) were hunted only exceptionally and in minimal numbers. These wild animals would sometimes climb down as far as the bottom of the Senjska Draga canyon. Along with the Club members, other guests were also permitted to hunt the game and they were exempt from paying the hunting fee. If necessary, the club rules could be amended and complemented at an annual meeting.
Key words: the Senj county hunting club; hunting club rules; Senjska Draga; poaching; brown hare; rock partridge
FRKOVIĆ, Alojzije ŠL