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HR  EN   



Scientific-technical and professional journal
of Croatia Forestry Society
                         Issued continously since 1877.
       First issue of this web edition start with number 1-2/2008.
   ISSN No.: 1846-9140              UDC 630*https://doi.org/10.31298/sl

Portal of scientific
journals of Croatia
   Issued by: Croatian Forestry Society

   Address: Trg Mažuranića 11, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
   Phone/fax: ++385 1 4828477
   e-mail: urednistvo@sumari.hr
   Editor in Chief: Boris Hrašovec

Uredništvo   277
A tax levied for non-market forest functions has again become the topic of heated arguments, which makes us wonder whether this paves the path to its complete abolishment. We have repeatedly pointed out that wood as a raw material for primary and final processing is only a secondary product of sustainable forest management, while the real and multiple value (up to 50 times higher than that of wood) relates to non-market forest functions. We have tried to the best of our ability to present to the decision-making politicians, non-biologists and quasi biologists all the outstandingly beneficial functions of forests, such as protection against water and wind induced soil erosion, torrent prevention and balancing water relations, water purification and supply of sources of potable water, favourable effects on climate, purification of polluted air, beneficial effects on agricultural activities, enhancement of the beauty of the landscape, development of tourism, provision of relaxation and recreation areas, conservation of biological diversity and genofund, mitigation of the greenhouse effect and many others. It is for these reasons that the most responsible tasks of foresters is to maintain the forest in its optimal condition. The company, which the state as the main forest owner has en- trusted with the management of state forests, invests the funds obtained from the sale of wood assortments in the preservation of non-wood forest functions in the areas of so-called commercial forests. Other legal persons performing the economic activity in the Republic of Croatia also pay a tax on non-market forest functions. The collected funds are invested in the areas in which there is no classical economic forest product, i.e. wood assortment. This tax used to be 0.07% of the total turnover, but was reduced to 0.0525% on July 1, 2010, and further reduced to 0.0265% on February 24th, 2012, to be finally threatened with complete abolishment. This tax is perceived by some as parafiscal; moreover, they argue that it should be the first to be revoked. This line of thinking is more than astonishing: why is it normal to pay for listening to music but not for something vital for the human life as the forest? Some taxes may be called imposts, but the significance of the term "impost" is not precisely defined and depends on the pur- pose for which it is used. In this case it would be more suitable to use the term "fee".
It would be interesting to see who would be exempt from paying this "heavy" impost. The Croatian Forestry Association has held a number of meetings devoted to this topic and has used four pages of text to express its views regarding the compensation for non-wood forest function. It has listed in detail all the non-market forest functions, the percentages of the former and current tax, the taxatively used means for the biological restoration and protection of forests during 2012 (about 253 million kuna) and the anticipated consequences of abolishing the tax on non-market forest functions. It has provided a list of 20 leading legal persons (8 in domestic ownership) who would be exempt from paying this "parafiscal impost" if it was abolished. As an illustration, we mentioned (in percentages) only 5 out of 15 important items that are financed from the tax: about 17% relates to managing forests on karst, 13.5% was invested in privately owned forests, 12% relates to guarding forests, 10% was invested in the forest infrastructure and 10% in demining, amounting to about 62.5% overall. Exemption from paying the "parafiscal impost" would target the biggest payers. We listed only 5 out of the 20 big payers, whose payments reach almost 50% of the amount paid by the 20 monopolists: for example, INA – Croatian oil company (61.6 million kuna), Konzum retail chain (32.6 million kuna), Croatian Electrical Company (30.5 million kuna), Croatian Telecom (18 million kuna), Zagrebačka Banka (17.6 million kuna), Privredna Banka (12.4 million kuna), etc. A minor compensation amount of 265 kuna per 1 million kuna income which a legal person pays for non-market forest functions was also calculated. Finally, the Croatian Forestry Association proposed some solutions.
Let us return to the sentence at the beginning of this text "We have tried to the best of our ability to present... and highlight the fact that Croatia boasts 95% of the natural forests with high biodiversity, which is the result of staunch adherence to the principles of sustainable management which we, unlike Europe, have never abandoned. Despite numerous debates and written materials, acknowledgements by foreign experts and a set of valuable scientific monographs, we have evidently failed to convince the present day politicians of the richness in our possession and of the rare and highly valuable asset we are bringing to the EU. We simply cannot reach them, because there is not one person among them to advocate the forestry profession. Our colleagues, members of the ruling Coalition, keep silent and are content with not being asked anything, thus deserving a poor grade for their political and professional reputation. To make matters even worse, they allowed yet another shame to be inflicted on the profession by electing an agronomist as Vice Minister of Forestry. In vain were all the promises that the last nail in the "coffin of forestry" would not be driven. If the article on a fee for non-market forest functions is excluded from the new Forest Law, as is being hinted, then the first task of the new Vice Minister will have been successfully accomplished. It seems that there is no need to consult the Forest Act Commission or organize a public debate. The owner of Konzum can promptly buy a new yacht at which he will expectedly welcome a great "friend of forestry", the Minister of Finance, who is allegedly the initiator and advocate of this idea.
We are left to deliberate on what to do next, for we are all too familiar with the consequences of such a decision.
Editorial Board

Krešimir Greger, Ksenija Šegotić, Tomislav Grladinović, Kristina Bičanić, Ivana Perić  UDK 630* 836 (001) 279
Today’s trend of world market globalization, competition and ever greater demands of customers have highlighted the quality of products and services as the key factor in conquering the market. It all impacts wood processing and furniture manufacturing in the Republic of Croatia due to its constant orientation to export as the only way of achieving market competitiveness.
Research polygons were two factories of board furniture. Relevant data for considered products were gathered over 1.5 years, and then processed to determine factors with strongest influence on the process capability of each polygon. The criteria for determining technological processes capability were selected using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Research has shown that the most influencing criteria on technological process capability are human, material and machine. Based on obtained results, this paper is a contribution to the discussion on traditional and modern quality assurance models, and represents scientific grounds for implementing a suitable stability and capability model.

Key words: furniture manufacturing; quality; AHP method; technological process capability and stability

    GREGER, Krešimir    ŠL
    ŠEGOTIĆ, Ksenija    ŠL
    GRLADINOVIĆ, Tomislav    ŠL
    Bičanić, Kristina
    Perić, Ivana
Branislav Trudić, Marko Kebert, M. Boris Popović, Dubravka Štajner, Saša Orlović, Vladislava Galović, Andrej Pilipović  UDK 630* 165 287
Oxidative stress is known as disturbed balance between antioxidative protection mechanism and production of reactive oxygen species, which can negatively influence on normal biological and metabolical processes in living organisms, such as poplar species. Phytoremediation is promising biotechnical method of cleaning of polluted soils by various pollutants: heavy metals, organic contaminants, pesticides, oil etc. Until today, poplars showed potential for regenerating polluted soils during phytoremediation process. This study represents results of oxidative stress profiles of three poplar clones (M1, B229 and PE 19/66) shoots from Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment, University of Novi Sad, Serbia, while being treated by different concentration of three heavy metals in soil: Ni3+, Cu2+ and Cd2+. Biochemical parameters of oxidative stress which have been analyzed were: content of soluble proteins, intensity of lipid peroxidation, antioxidative capacity by ferric reducing antioxidative power assay and activity of superoxid dismutase. Results showed that the most acceptable phytoremediation response to heavy metal pollution in soil showed clone M1. Great differences between B229 and PE 19/66 clones were in response on soil heavy metal contamination, directly suggesting of not being suitable for possible phytoremediation application.

Key words: poplar clones; oxidative stress; phytoremediation; shoots

    Trudić, Branislav
    Kebert, Marko
    Popović, Boris M.
    Štajner, Dubravka
    Orlović, Saša
    Galović, Vladislava
    Pilipović, Andrej
Behiye Banu BILGEN, Murat ALAN, Yusuf KURT  UDK 630* 165 297
Importance of Effective Clone Number in Seed Orchards: A Comparative Study on Seven Conifer Species in Turkey        
The Mediterranean Basin is one of the major plant diversity centers in the northern hemisphere. The Eastern Mediterranean Basin is also a hotspot region of gene diversity for conifer species. In this study, Turkey’s conifer seed orchards were investigated for their effective number of clones. The mean census number of clones (N) was estimated 33.12. The mean effective number of clones (Nc) was calculated as 27.59. The mean relative effective number of clones (Nr = Nc/N) was 0.827. The estimated proportional gene diversity was found 0.973, with a range from 0.922 to 0.983. Thus, considerable attention should be given to use nearly equal ramet numbers during seed orchard establishment and management operations. Threats such as climatic change, fire, disease and insects should be considered during seed orchards establishment. High number of populations from wide range of species should be sampled and seed orchards should be established locally depending on ecological requirements of species. This is also essential for sustainable management of forest genetic resources. Information both from phenotypic selection and molecular genetic analysis should be used to establish future seed orchards.

Key words: climatic change; effective clone number; gene diversity; ramet variation; seed orchard

    BANU BILGEN, Behiye
    ALAN, Murat
    KURT, Yusuf
M. Georgieva, G. Georgiev, D. Pilarska, P. Pilarski, P. Mirchev, I. Papazova-Anakieva, S. Naceski, P. Vafeidis, M. Matova  UDK 630* 453 307
The entomopathogenic fungus Entomophaga maimaiga Humber, Shimazu & Soper (Entomophtorales: Entomophtoraceae) was found for first time in populations of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), in Greece and the Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) after its introduction in Bulgaria in 1999. Monitoring studies were conducted in 2012 in oak stands in three sites in the Xanthi region in Greece, and in three sites in FYROM in the Prilep region. Gypsy moth larvae, predominately in fourth to sixth instar, were collected in May and June. During laboratory rearing, mortality of gypsy moth larvae collected in two sites in Greece ranged from 36.4–89.3%. Larval mortality of L. dispar in the three sites in FYROM ranged from 16.7–87.8%. Dead larvae were analysed under light microscopy for presence of E. maimaiga and other entomopathogens. E. maimaiga was recorded from one site in Greece (Kidaris vill.), and in all study sites in FYROM (Toplica, Belovodica and Krushevo vill.). Azygospores of E. maimaiga were found in the bodies of 78.6% of gypsy moth larvae from Kidaris, and in 8.3–16.3% of the larvae from sites in FYROM. Recent records of E. maimaiga in Serbia and the European part of Turkey, and present findings in Greece and FYROM, indicate that the fungus most probably has invaded gypsy moth populations in other parts of Balkan Peninsula.

Key words: gypsy moth; fungal entomopathogen; first records

    Georgieva, Margarita
    Georgiev, Georgi
    Pilarska, Daniela
    Pilarski, Plamen
    Mirchev, Plamen
    Papazova-Anakieva, Irena
    Naceski, Sterja
    Vafeidis, Panagiotis
    Matova, Maria
Željko Španjol, Roman Rosavec, Damir Barčić, Josipa Filipović  UDK 630* 43 313
This paper presents the problem of forest fires and burnt areas on the Forest Administration Senj observed from several aspects. The analysis was conducted on the entire territory of the Forest Administration (FA) Senj. The Forest Administration is an integral part of the  company Croatian Forests. FA Senj is divided into seven forest districts. These are continental forestry office Novi Vinodolski, Krasno, Senj and Crikvenica and forestry office on island of Krk, Rab and Pag.
The analysis was conducted in the FA Senj in period from 1991. until the end of 2009. In this time was established 126 fires. Most fi res occurred in the forestry office Senj, 57, followed by forestry office Crikvenica with 23 fire and forest office Krasno with 19 fires. Size burned area is 3 940.93 ha, and the annual average is 29.37 ha per fire. The causes of fi re in most cases is unknown, as and challengers. In 19.8% of cases as a challenger to the established human factor, and in two cases it was found intentionally causing fire.

Key words: fire; burned area; the Forest Administration Senj          

    ŠPANJOL, Željko      ŠL
    ROSAVEC, Roman    ŠL
    BARČIĆ, Damir    ŠL
    FILIPOVIĆ, Josipa
Marilena Idžojtić, Igor Poljak, Marko Zebec  UDK 630* 271 325
The Lisičine Arboretum is located on the Papuk mountain, Croatia. It is managed by Croatian Forests Ltd. Zagreb, Forest Administration Našice, Forest Office Voćin. In this work the tree and shrub species of a part of the Arboretum are presented, in which plants from Europe, Asia and North America are located. This area was inaccessible before the works within the IPA project of cross-border cooperation between Croatia and Hungary (IPA CBC HU-HR 2007-2013), under the title: "Nature is the first and the precious" have been carried out. The project included the horticultural and infrastructural revitalisation of the Arboretum. 145 taxa (species, subspecies, hybrids and cultivars) have been determined, of which 44 are gymnosperms and the other 101 are angiosperms (Table 1). The determined taxa belong to 59 different genera, the highest number of taxa being from the following: Pinus – pine (13), Acer – maple (12), Abies – fir (10), Quercus – oak (8), Picea – spruce (7) and Betula – birch (6). By comparing the list of taxa from the horticultural part of the Lisičine Arboretum (Idžojtić et al. 2010) it is apparent that 47 of the 145 determined taxa occur in both this and the horticultural part, meaning that there are 98 new taxa. This means that in the whole arboretum Lisičine 512 different taxa have been determined altogether. As especially valuable species – which are probably the only samples planted in Croatia or are very rare – the following can be mentioned: Abies firma (Momi fir), A. holophylla (Manchurian fir), A. homolepis (Nikko fir), A. sachalinensis (Sakhalin fir), Picea engelmannii (Engelmann spruce), Pinus attenuata (knobcone pine), P. coulteri (Coulter pine), P. koraiensis (Korean pine), P. monticola (Western white pine), P. resinosa (red pine), P. rigida (pitch pine), Tsuga sieboldii (Southern Japanese hemlock), Alnus japonica (Japanese alder), Betula alleghaniensis (yellow birch), B. medwediewii (Transcaucasian birch), B. nigra (black birch), B. papyrifera (paper birch), Magnolia denudata (Yulan magnolia), M. obovata (Japanese bigleaf magnolia), Malus coronaria (sweet crabapple), Ostrya virginiana (American hophornbeam), Pyrus betulifolia (birchleaf pear), Quercus dentata (Japanese emperor oak), Q. imbricaria (laurel oak) and Q. variabilis (Chinese cork oak).

Key words: Lisičine Arboretum; Croatia; determination; trees; shrubs

    IDŽOJTIĆ, Marilena      ŠL
    Poljak, Igor
    ZEBEC, Marko    ŠL