|45TH EFNS ENDS SUCCESSFULLY|
|Following Croatia’s selection four years ago to host the 45th European Foresters’ Competition in Nordic Skiing (EFNS), the event was held from February 17 to 23, 2013, in the area of Delnice and Mrkopalj. The competition was sponsored by the Government of the Republic of Croatia and organized by the company Hrvatske Šume Ltd. The original plan to prepare the venue Zagmajna above Mrkopalj had been abandoned due to lack of interest of the local community as a partner and the impossibility to ensure artificial snow. An alternative venue that provided the greatest certainty of natural snow was Vrbovska Poljana above Begovo Razdoblje (this area has been used as a reserve variant for skiing competition for years). Activities to prepare the venue for the competition were launched two years ago.
Owing to the dedicated work of the employees of Hrvatske Šume Ltd and expertise of the foresters from Gorski Kotar, all the work, including the widening of the forest road and parking areas, preparing the competition polygon with the shooting lanes, and arranging the skiing tracks and the accompanying facilities was accomplished at the highest possible level.
In accordance with the programme of the fi rst and fourth day of the event, the meeting of the European foresters began with seven specialist excursions to the adjacent areas containing specific professional, cultural and tourist contents. The event was rounded off with two specialist lectures, evening debates and the competition itself. The extent with which we as a host have managed to present our forests, forestry and forestry profession, as well as our country as an attractive tourist destination, is best illustrated by oral and written commendations of all the participants, who consider this as one of the best organized EFNS meetings.
For the majority of about 600 participants from 21 European countries this was the first visit to Croatia. The impressions they gained, however, prompted most of them to announce a family visit to Croatia in the near future. The weekly stay of the participants in the area of Gorski Kotar also provided the local population with some financial benefits through board and lodgings, catering services and economic and tourist offer. Namely, all travelling, accommodation, food, excursions, competition and insurance costs were covered by every team themselves in the amount calculated by the host, while extra expenditures that were made depended on individual wishes and offer by the hosts.
The 45th meeting of European foresters ended with a closing ceremony and announcements of the competition results, gala dinner, socializing and passing the EFNS flat to the Finnish representatives, hosts to the 46th EFNS in March 2014.
All these events received positive coverage by paper and electronic media; yet, there were also those who gave sensationalist, malevolent and untrue comments aimed at denigrating the company Hrvatske Šume Ltd.
In the end, we would like to remind the readers of the sometimes forgotten fact that the participation of the Croatian team in the EFNS has since the beginning been organized and even financially supported by the Croatian Forestry Association.
|ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPERS|
|Dževada SOKOLOVIĆ, Dragutin PIČMAN, Ahmet LOJO, Safet GURDA, Muhamed BAJRIĆ, Haris KOLJIĆ||UDK 630*383+686 (001)||7|
|DETERMINATION OF OPTIMAL SECONDARY FOREST ROAD NETWORK LAYOUT|
In this paper different instruments and softwares for collecting and analysis of data influencing on planning of the socondary network of communications have been applied. By means of them data has been given which present actual picture of factors of terrain and factors of forest in the department. These factors are necessary to enable right solutions in the sense of selection of optimum technology of work in the phase of skidding and in the sense of designing and construction of optimum network of communication in the department. The existing secondary network of communication in characterized by very long tractor roads (19.492,17 m), high absolute openness (201,35 m/ha) and low ratio openness efficiency (calculated via number of trees) 28,86 %. The secondary network of roads designated as variant I is characterized by less length of roads in comparison with existing one (by 53 %), lower absolute openness, high relative openness (calculated via number of trees) which amounts to 95,55 % and significantly higher ratio of openness efficiency (calculated via number of trees) which amounts to 73,82 %.
The qualitative indicators of the network of tractor roads estimated on the basis of examples serve as one of the foundations in occasion of the procedure of elimination of roads from existing network. Because of that from the existing network the inefficient roads have been eliminated which have also been characterized by higher percentage of damages. Besides that, on the basis of condition of skid road it is possible to make calculation of the costs of rehabilitation of tractor road after exploitation. The secondary network of communication of variant I has got lower total costs of labour in all phases (from skidding to rehabilitation) by 1.883,80 € or 9,23 % and lower unit costs of labour by 0,88 €/m3 or 9,19 %. The costs of rehabilitation of skid roads of variant I are much lower than for the existing network. In total amount direct costs of rehabilitation are lower by 6.493,41 € or 59 %. This difference in total costs of rehabilitation of tractor roads is the consequence of less length and higher percentage of undamaged skid roads of variant I.
The selection of optimum technology of work in the phase of skidding of forest wooden products and establishment of optimum network of communication in the department are very important for forestry company which manages these forests and for the forest as the natural object and broader social community.
Key words: secondary forest roads; secondary openness; planning of forest roads; GPS and GIS
PIČMAN, Dragutin ŠL
|Gregor BOŽIČ, Mladen IVANKOVIĆ, Lado KUTNAR|| UDK 630*165+187
(Fagus sylvatica L.) (001)
|GENETIC STRUCTURE OF EUROPEAN BEECH (Fagus sylvatica L.) SEED STANDS FROM DIFFERENT FOREST SITES OF GORJANCI MOUNTAINS AS REVEALED BY ISOENZYMES|
Two populations of registered European beech seed stands growing at altitudes of 273 m (Vrhovo) and 657 m (Kozarje) a.s.l. in the Gorjanci Mountains were genetically investigated at 16 polymorphic gene loci. A cline from minor to major allelic polymorphism was revealed at gene loci Aco-B, Idh-A and 6-Pgdh-A. The Kozarje population of beech had a slightly higher genetic multiplicity, a slightly higher effective number of alleles per locus (ν), higher observed heterozygosity (Ho) and a higher level of intrapopulation differentiation (δT). Statistically significant differences in the occurrence of alleles between populations were found at 5 of 16 loci. The average genetic distance of Gregorius (1974) was 6.1 %. European beech populations analyzed from different altitudes on Gorjanci Mountains appeared to be genetically differentiated.
Key words: European beech; genetic polymorphism; genetic differentiation; Slovenia
IVANKOVIĆ, Mladen ŠL
|Savo Rončević, Siniša Andrašev, Petar Ivanišević, Branislav Kovačević, Bojana Klašnja||UDK 630*537+262 (001)||33|
|BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND ENERGY POTENTIAL OF SOME EASTERN COTTONWOOD (Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh.) CLONES IN RELATION TO PLANTING SPACING|
The possibility of biomass production was studied in an experimental trial stand with four clones of Eastern cottonwood Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh. cl.457, cl.450, cl.618 and cl. 55/65 and three stand densities a) 1.2 × 1.0 m (8330 plants·ha–1), b) 1.2 × 0.75 m (11110 plants·ha–1) and c) 1.2 × 0.5 m (16600 plants·ha–1). Field trials were conducted on sandy-loamy form of fluvisol.
Total determined volume of trunk, bark, and branches in the first two-year cycle for the used Eastern cottonwood ranged from 27.391 m3·ha–1 in clone 450 at planting distance of 1.2 × 1.0 m, subtreatment (a) to 42.006 m3·ha–1 in clone 618, subtreatment (c) at planting distance of 1.2 × 0.5 m. After renovation of stand using the regeneration force of shoots from the tree stumps the produced wood mass in the second two-year cycle ranged from 54.664 m3·ha–1 in clone 55/65, subtreatment (a) to 79.235 m3·ha–1 in clone 450, subtreatment (b).
In additon to clone selection a significant influence on biomass yeald was also exerted by stand density (number of plants·ha–1).
The largest amount of heat energy would be obtained in subtreatment (c) at density of 1.20 × 0.5 m by combustion of biomass of above ground part of clone 55/65: 364.02 GJ·ha–1 in the first cycle, and 659.83 GJ·ha–1 in the second, or a total of 1023.85 GJ·ha–1.
Key words: poplar; clone; plant density; biomass; energy value
|Magda Sindičić, Tomislav Gomerčić, Primož Polanc, Miha Krofel, Vedran Slijepčević, Nina Gembarovski, Martina Đurčević, Đuro Huber|| UDK 630*135+14
(Lynx lynx) (001)
|KINSHIP ANALYSIS OF DINARIC LYNX (Lynx lynx) POPULATION|
Genetically identified kinship relationships enable us valuable insight into wild animal pedigrees, which are almost impossible to reconstruct by direct observations. Data on pedigrees are of fundamental importance for analysis of reproductive success, inbreeding, selection and gene flow. Dinaric Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) includes animals from Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. The species is strictly protected in all three countries, being threatened by loss of genetic diversity and poaching. Kinship analysis of 91 genotypes, on 19 microsatellite loci, using program Colony provided data about family groups with offspring sharing one or both parents. A total of 21 (72 %) out of 29 analyzed offspring, whose samples were collected in the 2000–2010 period, were related to each other, confirming low population number and presence of inbreeding.
Key words: microsatellites; pedigree; Eurasian lynx; Lynx lynx; Dinaric Mountains
|Emanuel Kula, Alena Pešlová, Petr Martinek, Pavel Mazal||UDK 630*145.7 (001)||51|
|THE DEVELOPMENT OF CATERPILLARS OF GYPSY MOTH (Lymantria dispar L.) FEEDING ON FOOD AFFECTED BY NITROGEN|
In laboratory rearing, affects were monitored of the differentiated content of nitrogen (17.17–38.89 mg.g–1) in birch (Betula pendula Roth) leaves on the development, mortality and consumption of food of caterpillars of Lymantria dispar L. The low content of nitrogen in food was the cause of the higher mortality of caterpillars, smaller weight of pupae and the prolongation of development. Caterpillars of future males fed on food with the insufficient content of nitrogen needed the higher amount of food to complete their development. This experiment supported a hypothesis that spring phytophages preferred tissues with the higher content of nitrogen. Caterpillars can respond to the above-standard content of nitrogen similarly as to the lack of nitrogen.
Key words: nitrogen; stress; Betula pendula; Lymantria dispar; caterpillars; laboratory rearing; development
|Jovana PETROVIĆ, Nenad STAVRETOVIĆ, Srećko ĆURČIĆ, Ivana JELIĆ, Bojana MIJOVIĆ||UDK 630*411+442 (001)||61|
|INVASIVE PLANT SPECIES AND GROUND BEETLES AND ANTS AS POTENTIAL OF THE BIOLOGICAL CONTROL: A CASE OF THE BOJČIN FOREST NATURE MONUMENT (VOJVODINA PROVINCE, SERBIA)|
The main aim of the conducted research was to determine the presence of invasive plant species in the protected natural area of the Bojčin Forest Nature Monument. Floristic and vegetation study of the Bojčin Forest was conducted through several vegetation periods (from March 2009 to November 2011). The presence of 185 plant species recorded in the area of the Bojčin Forest reflects its flora richness. Out of the total number of recorded species, 31 taxa are listed as invasive plant species (Table 1), which makes 16.76% of the total flora of the Bojčin Forest Nature Monument. Among them, there are nine woody plant species and 22 herbaceous plant species. Among the tree species, Amorpha fruticosa L. should be particularly emphasized. It forms a thick shrub formation by the Jarčina Canal with reed [Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.] (Fig. 1). Also significant is the presence of the species Symphyotrichum lanceolatum (Willd.) Nesom, forming an edge of width of 4 m between forest and meadow where the all other plant species were repressed (Fig. 2). The greatest number of determined invasive plant species belong to the family Asteraceae (eight species), then to the families Fabaceae and Rosaceae (three species each), Amaranthaceae and Oxalidaceae (two species each), whereas the other families had a single invasive species each.
During the 2011 year, insect fauna in the area of the Bojčin Forest was studied, with special emphasis on economically important species. It was found that the Bojčin Forest is inhabited by a total of 93 insect species. Among them, very significant are ground beetles (family Carabidae), especially some of them acting as predators of many insect pests. Ground beetles were registered in the Bojčin Forest with total of nine species and three subspecies. Three ant species were registered in the researched area of the Bojčin Forest. Some ground beetles and ants have been proved as a good group to reduce numbers of certain weed species, as they use seeds of these pests as the food. These insect species may be used in biological control of some harmful invasive plants.
Research results should provide a basis for development of strategies for monitoring the state of unwanted species and planning measures of their reduction in order to protect the autochthonous flora. Only careful and responsible management of the natural area would maintain the abundance of these species at the current level.
Key words: Bojčin Forest; invasive species; environment protection; nature protection; biological control