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HR  EN   

9-10/2012

WEB EDITION


Scientific-technical and professional journal
of Croatia Forestry Society
                         Issued continously since 1877.
       First issue of this web edition start with number 1-2/2008.
   ISSN No.: 1846-9140              UDC 630*https://doi.org/10.31298/sl
PAPER EDITION
DIGITAL ARCHIVE

HRČAK
Portal of scientific
journals of Croatia
   Issued by: Croatian Forestry Society

   Address: Trg Mažuranića 11, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
   Phone/fax: ++385 1 4828477
   e-mail: urednistvo@sumari.hr
   Editor in Chief: Boris Hrašovec


     
 
RIJEČ UREDNIŠTVA
 
Uredništvo   429
EMPLOYMENT IN THE FORESTRY SECTOR      
Current events in state companies, relating particularly to surplus employees and laying off , or as today’s coin word is "providing for", show that the forestry sector has about 2000 employees who should be "provided for". It is an interesting phenomenon: in all state companies the surplus employee problem is solved by employee retirement, early retirement or severance pay. One may think that the main objective of the Government is not to reduce unemployment but achieve a 1:1 ratio between the employed and the retired (despite the fact that the ratio is unfavourable, largely owing to a large number of retired people who have not earned their pension from work, at least not from the retirement fund). Financial means are available for severance pays but not for incentives and creating new jobs for surplus employees. Th e real issue is this: either the management is not interested or not capable of fi nding new jobs, or there is a third reason, unknown to us. In terms of surplus employees in forestry, we naturally mean the company Hrvatske Šume Ltd, since this company manages over 90% of the forest area in Croatia, the site of almost all forest production.
Before the Home War, the forestry sector employed about 16,000 people and had positive business. Today, there are 8.500 employees, while nominally, there should be 6,000 employees. It would be interesting to analyze the calculation for the above number of employees. We have urged the authorities on several occasions to analyze the current condition by focusing primarily on the jobs needed to maintain the principle of sustainable management and determining on the optimal number and expertise of those needed to accomplish the set tasks. In fact, the owner (the State) should, through its competent Ministry, prescribe and strictly control the fulfilment of the tasks based on midterm forestry strategy. It should also identify whether a company responsible for management is capable of performing all the needed tasks, or whether it will, striving for profit, either conduct the jobs negligently or even worse, completely omit some activities necessary for the forest, constantly postponing them for "better times", without considering negative longterm consequences. The owner should, in accordance with the general economic strategy, insist on a comprehensive, rational and acceptable use of forest goods. Th is would generate a different approach to a rational, market based use of classical forest products, biomass and nonmarket forest values as a renewable natural resource. Forests are a renewable natural resource, but in certain areas they can also become nonrenewable. For example, if a forest is not regenerated aft er a fi re, erosion will set in and the forest soil will disappear. Forests can also become nonrenewable in places where intensive irrigation activities cause a drop in groundwater levels, consequently leading to forest dieback.
What has changed in forestry that workforce has dropped below 40% of the prewar employee number? Work technologies? Maybe, but not drastically: chain saws were also used before the war and assortments were hauled from forests with tractors, cable cars and forwarders. The changes that have taken place relate mainly to increased security and protection at work, which does not implicate a lower number of workers. Even if there were major changes, they would relate primarily to physical workers. What about engineers and technicians? For several years now, engineers have not been employed permanently but temporarily and on various contracts. According to the latest governmental decision, all of them will lose their jobs. If we remember correctly, the natural outflow of highly educated forestry staff is about 40 a year, which equals the number of newly graduated forestry engineers. Today’s sophisticated jobs that have replaced classical physical labour in the past should, logically, open more vacancies for forestry technicians. The editorials of the Forestry Journal, the scientific and professional forestry paper, aim to encourage thinking and taking stands on current affairs, but also seeking solutions to current events. Not only has the term forestry "disappeared" from the name of the competent ministry, but it also seems that forestry has become "the last hole on the flute", an old term meaning that is has the lowest and the most neglected position, in the state. Not even the employees, let alone the forestry profession outside this system, have any idea of what is happening in the company Hrvatske Šume Ltd. Has it always been like this, or have important changes in forestry been discussed democratically, or sometimes undemocratically, at the level of the profession? Do we have the right to know that is going on in the Ministry and in Hrvatske Šume Ltd? Yes, we do, because every owner has the right to know that is happening with its ownership. The State is the owner of the forest as the good of general benefit only formally, while the real owner is all of us, unless some of those who have been entrusted with the management of our ownership believe that "The State, It is I".

Editorial Board


    authors:
    Uredništvo
 
 
IZVORNI ZNANSTVENI ČLANCI
 
Nikola PERNAR, Emil KLIMO, Darko BAKŠIĆ, Ivan PERKOVIĆ, Michal RYBNÍČEK, Hanuš VAVRČÍK, Vladimír GRYC  UDK 630*114.2 (001) 431
Carbon and nitrogen accumulation in common Alder forest (Alnus glutinosa Gaertn.) in plain of Drava river      
Summary: This research was conducted in a 95-year-old, highly productive stand of black alder growing in the Drava plain in Croatia. The goal was to investigate the main features of carbon-nitrogen accumulation and dynamics in the stand of black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.), as an indicator of ecosystem stability and sustainability of managing such stands.
Soil physiography was investigated in a permanent sample plot sized 1 ha with growing stock of 751 m3 ha–1. In the course of one season of leaf litter decomposition, the forest floor and soil from the A horizon were sampled on three occasions; the first sampling took place after leaf drop in 2009, the second at the beginning of vegetation (April 2010), and the third before leaf drop (beginning of November 2010). The forest floor mass was determined and so was the carbon and nitrogen content in the forest fl oor, in the bark, in the physiologically mature leaf and in the soil, as well as the soil pH value. Dendrochronological analysis was performed on black alder wood specimens to determine wood density and carbon and nitrogen content.
Data from piezometers set up within the plot for the period 1997–2000 were used to interpret the water regime.
According to the research, the soil is Haplic Gleysol (Endoarenic), with a relatively shallow A horizon, of sandy clayey to loamy-sandy texture, of weakly acidic and in the deeper part weakly alkaline reaction. The water regime is characterized by a shallow and stable groundwater level which occasionally causes shallow (up to 20–30 cm) flooding in the out-of-vegetation period, and does not drop below 130 cm in the vegetation period.
The forest floor mass ranges from 4.71 Mg ha–1 after leaf drop, over 3.36 Mg ha–1 in the spring, to 0.51 Mg ha –1 in the autumn before renewed leaf drop, which indicates complete decomposition of black alder leaf litter in a yearly cycle. During this period the C:N ratio decreases from 19 to 14.8. Carbon and nitrogen content in the A horizon increases from autumn to spring, but drops again afterwards. Simultaneously, the pH value significantly drops from autumn to spring, but rises again by autumn. In mid-summer, carbon accumulation in the above-ground biomass of the stand is 214.6 Mg ha–1, while in the soil it is 143.5 Mg –1 on average. On the other hand, nitrogen accumulation is higher in the soil: while it is 2 Mg ha–1 in the above-ground biomass, it reaches over 14 Mg ha –1 (13.8 on average) in the soil. Overall accumulation of organic carbon in the ecosystem is 359.5 Mg ha –1, and of nitrogen it is 15.8 Mg ha–1.
The research has confirmed that this is an exceptionally vital stand, evidently with excellent ecological conditions for the growth of black alder. The vitality and long-term stability of this stand is best reflected in the stable ring width index in the past 80 years, as confirmed by the very large growing stock amounting to 751 m3 ha–1 for a stand aged 93–98 (above the taxation limit of 7 cm).

Key words: black alder; forest floor; A- horizon; dendrochronological analysis; carbon accumulation; nitrogen accumulation

    authors:
    PERNAR, Nikola      ŠL
    Klimo, Emil  
    BAKŠIĆ, Darko      ŠL
    Perković, Ivan  
    Rybníček, Michal  
    Vavrčík, Hanuš  
    Gryc, Vladimir  
 
Joso VUKELIĆ, Dario BARIČEVIĆ, Irena ŠAPIĆ  UDK 630*188 (001) 445
Submontane-sub-pannonian beech forests of northern Croatia      
Summary: A new association of beech forest with Swordleaved Helleborine – Cephalanthero longifoliae-Fagetum ass. nova was described in the collinesubmontane belt of northern Croatia, on the southwestern edge of the Pannonian Plain. The method of the Central European Phytocoenological School (Braun-Blanquet 1964) was used in the research. Statistical comparison was performed by using programs TURBOVEG (Hennekens & Schaminée 2001) and PRIMER 6 (Clarke & Gorley 2001). MDA and UPGMA methods were made by use of Bray-Curtis similarity index. The association was presented on the basis of 15 new and 132 already published phytocoenological relevés (Table 1). In Table 2 and Figure 3 the association Cephalanthero longifoliae-Fagetum was compared with the related beech forests of the Illyrian floristic province (northwestern Croatia, eastern Slovenia, northern Bosnia), then with the Central European association Galio odorati-Fagetum from the colline-submontane positions of Austria and southern Germany, and finally with beech forests of the Carpathian part of Romania.
The association Cephalanthero longifoliae-Fagetum is distributed at altitudes from 200 to 700 m, with terrain inclinations usually ranging between 10 and 20 degrees. It grows in the temperate climate with average temperatures from 9.5 to 10.7 °C and average rainfall from 800 to 1,100 mm. The parent bedrock is made up of loess and rhomboid layers generally overlaid with luvisol in a humusaccumulative horizon of medium acidity (pH about 5). The association is characterized by a relatively poor and homogeneous floristic composition, the absence of numerous species of the Illyrian alliance Aremonio-Fagion (the associations Hacquetio-Fagetum, Lamio orvalae-Fagetum, Vicio oroboidi-Fagetum), the distinct prevalence of the species Festuca drymeia, Carex pilosa and Rubus hirtus, and the constancy of the species of Central European beech forests from the alliance Fagion sylvaticae and the order Fagetalia (Figure 2). Species of warmer and drier sites occur in moderate quantities.
A synhorological analysis of the investigated association (according to Poldini 1992) gave the relatively expected results. Of the 206 species, 77 % belong to the widely distributed floral geoelement which does not characterize the southern edge of the Pannonian Plain in any particulars (cosmopolitan, circumboreal, Eurasian, EuroSiberian, European, Mediterranean-Atlantic and others). In relation to beech forests of the Dinaric region, the studied stands completely lack the Illyrian and southeastern European species that are important for the alliance Aremonio-Fagion, such as Rhamnus alpinus ssp. fallax, Geranium nodosum, Stellaria nemorum ssp. glochidiosperma, Scopolia carniolica, Euphorbia carniolica, Calamintha grandiflora, Omphalodes verna, and Hacquetia epipacis. The species Cardamine trifolia, Cardamine enneaphyllos, Cardamine kitaibelii, Cardamine chelidonia, Lamium orvala, Vicia oroboides, Aposeris foetida, Aremonia agrimonoides, Epimedium alpinum and Helleborus odorus were recorded individually and sporadically only on the edges of the range and in the boundary region with the communities of the Illyrian character. Only Ruscus hypoglossum and Cyclamen purpurascens are more constant in the entire range of the studied association. A large number of earlier works, especially those taken from the overview composed by an international team of phytocoenologists (Marinček et al. 1993), allow for the conclusion that the community Cephalanthero longifoliae-Fagetum lacks the diagnostic species of the Illyrian alliance Aremonio-Fagion and its suballiances, on the basis of which it could be subordinated to them.According to these data and the analysis in Tables 1 and 2, these stands should be classified into the Central European alliance Fagion sylvaticae. The differentiating species towards the association Galio odorati-Fagetum and other Central European associations of the suballiance Galio odorati-Fagenion include Festuca drymeia, Polysichum setiferum, Cephalanthera longifolia, Ruscus hypoglossum, Rubus hirtus, Tilia tomentosa, Fraxinus ornus, and Potentilla micrantha.
Investigations into the internal structure of these beech stands revealed the local dominance of the facieses of the species Carex pilosa and Festuca drymeia, but in over 60% of the cases they were recorded together. In addition to these two, another very important species in the diagnostic sense is Cephalanthera longifolia, which gave the association its name. This is a warmthloving species of moderately acid to basic, predominantly dry sites, generally distributed in the colline and montane vegetation belt. Most phytocoenologists classify it into the sub-Mediterranean – Euro-Asian species. Sociologically, it belongs to the class Querco-Fagetea with a mild tendency towards the communities of the order Quercetalia pubescentis. The differentiating species Tilia tomentosa and Potentilla micrantha, with the centre of their distribution lying in the southeastern part of Europe, are particularly important for the association. This stresses the transitional character of the association (see Figure 1).
These investigations greatly contribute to the knowledge of the forest vegetation of Croatia and the boundary region of the Illyrian floristic province. The studied beech forests cover about forty thousand ha in Croatia. They have been described under the following names: Carici pilosae-Fagetum (Pelcer in: Cestar et al. 1983, Rauš et al. 1992, Trinajstić and Franjić 1999, Vukelić and Baričević 2002, 2003, Trinajstić 2007, Vukelić et al. 2007), partly under the name of Festuco drymeiae-Fagetum (Baričević 2002, Škvorc 2006, Škvorc et al. 2011, G. Horvat 2011, non Trinajstić and Cerovečki 2009), then as Polysticho setiferi-Fagetum (Baričević, Vukelić and Šapić 2009), while Marinček (1995) comprised them in the association Vicio oroboidi-Fagetum. The first three names were used earlier to describe the communities in other European areas (Germany, Romania, Slovakia, Italy), to which the stands from Croatia do not belong (compare Moriariu et al. 1968, Magic 1968, Ubaldi 1988, Coldea 1991, Oberdorfer 1992, Zupančič, Žagar and Surina 2000, and others), whereas the fourth community, Vicio oroboidi-Fagetum, differs from the former three by its composition and synsystematic affiliation.
On the other hand, this confi rms the assumption by Willner (2002) that a new, insufficiently investigated association which is related to the association Galio odorati-Fagetum in its lower positions begins southeast of the Alpine area and the range of the association Galio odorati-Fagetum. Analogously to the understanding of the scope of the association Galio odorati-Fagetum, the newly established association Cephalanthero longifoliae-Fagetum would be relatively widely distributed on the southwestern and southern edge of the Pannonian Plain and the transition to the Dinaric and Central Balkan area.
Naturally, this does not exclude the establishment of the association Galio odorati-Fagetum southeast of its clearly identifi ed range in the southeast of Austria. In fact, according to the research currently under way, it can be assumed that its southeastern boundary (which Willner considers unclear) lies precisely in the fresh sites well supplied with nutrients on dystric brown soils above moderately acid substrates of the submontane – montane belt of the Croatian Pannonian mountains (Papuk, Psunj, Krndija).
The synsystematic affiliation of association is:
Querco Fagetea Br.Bl. et Vlieger 1937
Fagetalia sylvaticae Pawl. 1928 in Pawl. et al. 1928
Fagion sylvaticae Laquet 1926
Galio odorati Fagenion (Tx. 1955) Th . Müller 1959
Cephalanthero longifoliae Fagetum Vukelić, Baričević et Šapić ass. nova. hoc. loco.
Nomenclature type is relevé 6 in Table 1.

Key words: beech forests; Cephalanthero longifoliae-Fagetum; northern Croatia; Fagion sylvaticae

    authors:
    VUKELIĆ, Joso      ŠL
    BARIČEVIĆ, Dario      ŠL
    Šapić, Irena  
 
Lea BARIĆ, Miljenko ŽUPANIĆ, Milan PERNEK, Danko DIMINIĆ  UDK 630*443 (001) 461
First records of Chalara fraxinea in Croatia – a new agent of ash dieback (Fraxinus spp.)      
Summary: Chalara fraxinea is a novel disease responsible for common ash (F. excelsior) dieback during last 10 years in many European countries. The disease was also confirmed on narrowleafed ash (F. angustifolia), and on American and Asian ash species.
The symptoms of dieback are especially visible in tree crowns, including wilting and premature leaf shedding, necrosis of bark and wood discoloration. Isolation of C. fraxinea from infected bark and wood on artificial media resulted in growth of morphologically specific colonies. The telemorph of C. fraxinea, Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus apothecia, are developed on leaf petioles from previous year in the litter. Ascospores of telemorph are winddispersed, and are responsible for the rapid spread of this disease.
Presence of C. fraxinea on common ash trees in Croatia was first recorded in Gorski Kotar region in 2009, affecting trees of different ages. In the same year, pathogen was successfully isolated from necrotic bark and wood tissues. In 2010 and 2011, research was expanded on larger territory of Croatia in order to determine distribution of the pathogen. The shoots and branches with developed symptoms were collected from common and narrowleafed ash. In May 2011, four sample plots of common ash were marked in Gorski Kotar region. On each plot, 20 ash trees affected with C. fraxinea were selected for monitoring of health condition changes. The assessment of crown condition (foliage transparency) was made on selected trees on plots, also registering the other biotic (wood decay fungi, insects damage) and abiotic (frost, windthrow, snow damage) factors that could additionally have influence on ash dieback. Leaf rachises with mature H. pseudoalbidus apothecia were sampled from litter for further analyses.
The biology of C. fraxinea species is still unknown, so it is necessary to continue and make further research, to provide disease management and control measures.

Key words: common ash; narrowleafed ash; dieback; C. fraxinea; necrosis; discoloration; telemorph

    authors:
    Barić, Lea  
    ŽUPANIĆ, Miljenko    ŠL
    PERNEK, Milan      ŠL
    DIMINIĆ, Danko    ŠL
 
Vlado GOGLIA, Jozef SUCHOMEL, Josip ŽGELA, Igor ĐUKIĆ  UDK 630*302 + 384 (001) 471
The effectiveness of forest pre-commercial thinning in the context of Directive 2002/44/EC      
Abstract: The first step in developing safety at work measures for protection of vibration-exposed workers is to determine the level of the so called energy equivalent A(8), but it is not the only value needed. The structure of the energy equivalent and the vibration level as well as the duration of each of its components during the usual working day have to be calculated, too. To develop special safety measures frequency-weighted acceleration value at each axe and for all components should be determined, too. The resulting safety measures should reduce the daily vibration exposure to limits set by the "Directive 2002/44/EC", i.e. the corresponding national "Regulations on protection of vibration exposure risks at work". Generally, for vast majority of workplaces daily productivity quotas have been defined which workers are expected to meet and this goes for the forest industry and most of its productive workplaces, too. At the present level of our knowledge of the subject it is not possible to determine if the quotas presently in effect are applicable at all, or will they have to be corrected in accordance with the permitted levels of vibration exposure. Therefore the state-owned company Croatian Forests Ltd. has started the scientific research project with the main goal to determine the interrelatedness of the daily quotas and the level of vibration exposure. The initial research has been carried out at pre-commercial thinning and tending young growth in the area of the Forest Administration Koprivnica. The research results given in the paper are particularly important due to the fact that these operations are performed by workers with a limited fitness for work.

Key words: ergonomics; vibration; exposure; limit values

    authors:
    GOGLIA, Vlado    ŠL
    Suchomel, Jozef  
    ŽGELA, Josip    ŠL
    Đukić, Igor  
 
Igor POLJAK, Marilena IDŽOJTIĆ, Marko ZEBEC, Nikola PERKOVIĆ  UDK 630*164
(Castanea sativa Mill.) (001)
479
The variability of european sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) in the region of northwest Croatia according to morphology of fruits      
Summary: The sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) is an indigenous noble hardwood growing in the forests of the hilly area of continental Croatia, in Istria, and on the islands of Krk and Cres. As it grows in different ecological conditions, particularly edaphic and climate, and in different forest communities, one can assume there is a difference in the variability of populations. In the last few decades, chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica /Murr./ Barr.) has been causing the drying and decay of sweet chestnut trees, while its management is significantly influenced by man, which could lead to the loss of genetic diversity. For that reason, the sweet chestnut is on the list of priority species for the conservation of genetic resources. Success of the measures for the conservation of genetic resources requires insights into the existing variability. For that purpose, the variability of sweet chestnut fruits was investigated in the region of Northwest Croatia using a morphometric analysis. The fruits were collected from five populations (Figure 1), during October of 2010. The populations were rep-resented with 20 trees each, and each tree with 10 fruits. In total, 1000 fruits and 10 morphological characteristics (Figure 2) were analysed and their ratios calculated. The results of the descriptive statistical analysis are presented in Table 1, by population (N = 200) and overall, for all populations together (N = 1000). The average weight of fruits for the 5 investigated populations was 8.3 g. The research conducted proved the variables describing the shape of the fruit and the hilum, and the ratio between the length and width of the hilum and the length and width of the fruit to be the least variable characteristics. Furthermore, lower variability coefficients are proper to the height and width of the fruit, while the thickness of the fruit was proven to be a characteristic of medium variability. High variability coefficients, from 26.3 % for the Samobor Mountains population to 40.1 % for the Kalnik population, were obtained for fruit weight. The most variable characteristics proved to be the variables pertaining to the number and length of intrusions and their ratio to the fruit thickness. The trees within populations differ significantly in all analysed properties, while the differences between populations are significant for the majority of investigated characteristics (Tables 2 and 4). For the majority of measured characteristics it was found that the largest share of variability is dependent on the variability of trees within the population (Table 3). Differences between populations account for the smallest share of variability. A cluster and discriminant analysis (Tables 5 and 6, Figures 3 and 4) established that mutually most similar populations are Samobor Mountains and Markuševac Mountain, followed by the Ivanščica population. Next is the Macelj population characterized by largest fruits, and the Kalnik population that differs the most from the other investigated populations. Th e Kalnik population is the only one present in a sweet chestnut forest with sessile oak (Querco-Castanetum sativae Horvat 1938) and belongs to the group of acidophilic and thermophilic forests, while the remaining four analysed populations belong to sweet chestnut forests of mesophilic character.

Key words: Castanea sativa Mill.; variability; fruits; Northwestern Croatia

    authors:
    Poljak, Igor  
    IDŽOJTIĆ, Marilena      ŠL
    ZEBEC, Marko    ŠL
    Perković, Nikola  
 
Mile RADOČAJ, Mario BOŽIĆ, Mislav VEDRIŠ  UDK 630*569 (001) 491
Applicability of Vertex telemeter in measuring the structure of montane beech stand using variable probability sampling      
Summary: Applicability of ultrasonic telemeter Vertex in inventory of montane beech stand was estimated. Evaluation was based on estimates of structure elements from Bitterlich variable plot sampling, time consumption and costs.
Research was carried out in pure beech stand located near Slunj, in management unit "Mašvina", Forest administration Karlovac, Croatia. Systematic sample of 25 plots was laid on a grid 100 x 100 m. Breast height diameters (DBH) and heights of trees over 10 cm DBH were measured using Variable plot sampling with different metric basal area factors (BAF). Sample trees were selected by Bitterlich stick (BAF 1) and Spiegelrelaskop (BAFs 1, 2 and 4). Distance of borderline trees was checked by Vertex telemeter and measurement tape (BAF 2 and 4). In total, seven combinations of Bitterlich plots (methods) were carried out (Table 1), and circular 20 m radius plots on the same standpoints were set as a reference method.
Diameter distributions estimated from BAFs 1, 2, and 4 were compared to distribution from 20 m radius plots by chi-square test, difference of 0.05 being considered statistically significant. Distributions from BAF 2 and 4 were found to be statistically different (Table 2), with difference mostly coming from number of trees DBHs 10 to 20 cm (Fig. 2).
Number of stems, basal area and volume were calculated for each method per each plot and whole stand (Table 4). All estimates were compared by repeated measures ANOVA with significance level 0,05. No statistically significant differences were found between estimates of N, G and V coming from different methods (Table 5).
Time study and estimation of costs were carried out for measurement methods. Bigger BAFs were found to considerably decrease time (Figure 4) and costs (Table 6), even up to 71 % (BAF 4 vs. BAF 1). Using Vertex instead of measurement tape for checking borderline trees reduced time and costs by 12 % (BAF 4) and 20 % (BAF 2). By economically organizing transport of field crews (two crews using the same vehicle) time and costs were reduced by 8 %.
This research confirmed that cost of forest stand inventory using variable plot sampling can be reduced by use of Vertex telemeter, as well as by choice of appropriate BAFs and economical transport of the field crews.

Key words: Vertex telemeter; Bitterlich sampling; sample plots; costs; forest inventory

    authors:
    RADOČAJ, Mile    ŠL
    BOŽIĆ, Mario      ŠL
    VEDRIŠ, Mislav      ŠL
 
 
PRETHODNO PRIOPĆENJE
 
Maja JURC, Miloš ČERNÝ, Dušan JURC  UDK 630*453 501
First record of alien pest Ophiomyia kwansonis (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in Europe and its phytosanitary significance      
Summary: The daylily leafminer Ophiomyia kwansonis (Diptera: Agromyzidae) was found in autumn 2011 at 4 localities in Ljubljana (2 private gardens, public park Tivoli and Botanical garden of University of Ljubljana) (locations: X=101090, Y=459525; X=100891, Y=461620; X=101037, Y=461344; X=99737, Y=462774). In 2012 it was found in the next six new locations: two in Ljubljana (Rimska road and Koseze), in the village Veliko Trebeljevo approx. 25 km air distance from Ljubljana, near the village Šmihel by Pivka, approx. 50 km from Ljubljana, Podturn near Dolenjske Toplice approx. 54 km from Ljubljana and arboretum Volčji Potok near Radomlje approx. 20 km from Ljubljana (locations: X=100496, Y=461632; X=103238, Y=459190; X=96365, Y=480155; X=56886, Y=436145; X=117053, Y=469814; X=66391, Y=503581). The adults were found on the daylilly plants from the end of May till October, when our observation ceased. This is the first report of O. kwansonis in Slovenia and in Europe as a pest of Hemerocalis spp. Its larvae bore longitudinal, whitish, meandering tunnels in the leaves of Hemerocallis plants (ophionoms), weakening them and reducing their ornamental value. Natural distribution of the species is Japan and Taiwan and in 2006 it was noticed in the United States of America where it is still spreading. The fly was not identifi ed until 2011 and thus no legislative measures to prevent its spread were put in place. According to the observations from the USA O. kwansonis is a pest that causes economic damage in different species and ornamental varieties of Hemerocallis. Our preliminary and unsystematic observations show, that in Slovenia, due to the air distance spread of more than 70 km, the suppression of O. kwansonis is not possible any more. The introduction and the spread of this new pest again confirms the inefficiency of the phytosanitary system of the USA and of the European Union. To the authors knowledge no official measures against the pest were put into force in the EPPO region nor in the European phytosanitary system by the middle of October 2012, although the EPPO and SCPH were informed about the confi rmation of the determination by the dipterologist dr. Michael von Tschirnhaus on 6 th July 2012. Daylily trade is the probable pathway of the pest since hibernation occurs mostly underground in the lower parts of withered leaves, which are attached to dormant stolons in trade. Pest status of Ophiomyia kwansonis officially declared by the NPPO of Slovenia is: Transient: non-actionable.

Key words: pest; Hemerocallis; daylilies; Slovenia; forests; ornamental plants trade

    authors:
    Jurc, Maja    
    Černý, Miloš    
    Jurc, Dušan