|SOMETHING ABOUT RESTRUCTURING
|The positive report on Croatia’s credit rating issued by the Fitch Agency gave rise to hopes for the progress of Croatian economy in the near future. The Prime Minister and the members of the Government commented on the report, thanked the citizens for their patience and announced further tasks aimed at fostering the growth of economy. Talking about measures to be undertaken in state companies, the Minister of Finance stressed that they should first be restructured. He gave the example of Croatian Railways, Croatian Roads, Croatian Waters and Croatian Forests and concluded that there would also be layoffs, because we need our own means for investments and not for spending.
We constantly hear about restructuring: let us fi rst clarify this term and propose measures for restructuring in forestry, or more precisely, in the company Hrvatske Šume. According to the dictionary of foreign terms, the Latin term structura means to construct, put together, organize, compose: hence, to restructure means to reconstruct or reorganize something. Instead of being restructured by the Austrians, whom we refused, we were restructured by the Irish, to whom we paid several hundred thousand dollars for teaching them something about forestry, then the economists who also learned about forestry for an indefinite sum of money, but all this came to nothing. As usual, Croatian forestry experts and scientists were not good enough for the job, despite the 250-year-long tradition of successful work and over 100 years of higher forestry education, off ering, among others, courses in economics and organisation of work in forestry. The Croatian Forestry Association expressed its own attitudes (www.sumari.hr), which are still very topical. One former head of the company Croatian Forests said at the beginning of his mandate that "we should restructure ourselves, otherwise somebody else will do it for us", but again, nothing was done. Yet, the prediction was right, and we should not be in wonders now. Th e company Croatian Forests is not the creator of forestry policy; instead, it executes tasks of rational management set down by the owner (the State) via the Ministry equipped with the most expert personnel. In the opinion of the forestry profession, the primary things that require restructuring are the organisational structure, competences and controlling. We do not at all agree with the General Manager of Croatian Forests, who claimed at the 116th regular meeting of the Croatian Forestry Association Assembly that there were no developed technologies of work in forestry. Our tradition of over 250 years of organized work in forestry, where technologies developed in accordance with new scientific-specialist knowledge, has resulted in the best preserved forests in Europe. We agree that some things, but only if based on a coherent concept, should be changed. This refers particularly to decentralisation and to the number of Services in the Directorate, which increase with every political change in the power structure, leading to a growing number of employees, who constantly arrive but never go back to the operational level. This constitutes yet another form of centralisation and leads to unnecessary multiplication of jobs, as well as the reduction or even abolishment of competences of managers of forest administrations and forest offices as the basic cells of all economic activities. It is not enough to “decentralize” people: competences related to independence in the choice of expert personnel at all levels should also be decentralized. Personnel should be selected according to the knowledge criteria and not according to party membership. Financial freedom should be subordinated to positive business making, since this stimulates creativity, new ideas and general success. Th e first step would be made if a well equipped Planning Service in the Directorate and forest administrations and Internal Control Services were formed at all levels, who would focus on general rationalisation of work and business. As for layoffs – it is pointless to even discuss this issue in view of the immediately available quantities of energy wood lying in forests, burned areas to be reforested (otherwise there will be erosions), and neglected silvicultural activities. The point of restructuring in forestry is not in laying off redundant personnel but in the necessary execution of the prescribed tasks and in the broadening of economic activities that are geared towards the general progress of the society. We remember the time when politics did not meddle into the forestry profession, and when all the forestry tasks based on the principle of sustainable management were carried out, about 16,000 workers were employed, a number of economic activities in rural areas were activated and business was positive.
|IZVORNI ZNANSTVENI ČLANCI
|Krunoslav Teslak, Jura Čavlović, Mario Božić
| UDK 630*624+653
(Pedunculate oak) (001)
|The even-aged forest development computer program SIMPLAG: design, structure and application
Forest management planning in many cases is based on predicting of the development and future state of forest resources. A numerous stand development and forest development models are used as a support in forest management. During the last two decades the development and use of simulation models aimed to design of an integrated computer application as useful support for managing not only the forest but the natural resources in general.
This paper presents the architecture of the computer program SIMPLAG, for simulation of development of an even-aged forest, particularly of pedunculate oak forests with an irregular structure (age class distribution, understocked old stands). The main components of the program are stand structure development models, the module for planning of stand regeneration (spatial and temporal) and the algorithm for the creation of the management scenarios. Development of the program was aimed to achieve: simulations of the pedunculate oak forest development based on the different management scenarios, and possibility of choosing of an appropriate management options which could lead to improving of the forest and stand structure in a long term.
Built-in stand development models are based on available theoretical models for the pedunculate oak, and on reducing the number of trees due to mortality. According to a separate development models, development structure of the old stands up to time of regeneration (reduction of oak trees due to mortality, thinning and the formation of secondary stand to preserve soil), and development of newly regenerated stands (denser, mixed stands and thus more stable), are projected. There are separate structure development models for four tree species: pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.), narrow-leaved ash (Fraxinus angustyfolia), hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) and "other broad-leaved trees".
Ranking and selection of stands or a part of stands according to regeneration priority are based on the economic criterion. The criterion means difference in potential revenue as a result of decision: prompt stand regeneration or adjournment of stand regeneration for 20 years. Habitat characteristics, structural and economic features of the stand are included too (Cavlovic et al. 2011a). As a base for a rough selection of part of stand for regeneration, the program uses inventory data (0.09 ha circular sample plots on network 100 * 100 m, each sample plot represent 1 ha of the stand).
Calculation of the potential revenues during the projection period is based on the obtained relevant models of assortment structure and the prices of wood assortments, which are integrated in the program.
Through a complex algorithm within the guidelines for the creating scenarios of future forest management (the maximum 10-year regeneration area, minimum and maximum area of the stand for regeneration, the minimum age of stands considered for regeneration, the minimum distance between regenerated stands), allows the numerous projections of the spatial and temporal forest development.
Each step of the projection is showed on an interactive map that can display information for each 1 ha area or stand (group of 1 ha areas) separately (Figure 3, Figure 5). The basis of the spatial view is ESRI shape file that is required to set before creating the simulation. Plotting the spatial view is created by using GDI + programming instructions. The program is fully developed on .NET Framework 3.5 platform, using development tools Visual Studio 2008 and MS Access 2007 database. Used development language is C#.
The SIMPLAG program provides information’s of the spatial and temporal forest development, development of age class distribution, stand development, amount and value of the revenues generated for each step of the projection, according to the different management scenarios. This information’s allow a comprehensive evaluation of a different management scenarios and selection of the most suitable management options.
Key words: Pedunculate oak; projection of stand development; stand regeneration; management planning; selection of management scenarios
TESLAK, Krunoslav ŠL
ČAVLOVIĆ, Jura ŠL
BOŽIĆ, Mario ŠL
|Milan Pernek, Sanja Novak Agbaba, Nikola Lacković, Nikolina Đođ, Ivan Lukić, Stefan Wirth
|UDK 630* 165 (001)
|The role of biotic factors on pine (Pinus spp.) decline in north Dalmatia
In recent years significant decline of pine trees of different species, age, size and position in the forests of Northern Dalmatia has been recorded. This research involves several biotic factors associated with climate extremes, which could cause such harm. In addition to the climate analysis, Pine Processionary Moth, pinewood nematodes, longhorn beetles, bark beetles, needlecast disease caused by fungus were investigated.
Results indicate that the mean temperature and precipitation values in the area of Northern Dalmatia deviated significantly from the mid of 2006 to the end of 2008. In this period, extremely high temperatures and severe droughts were recorded. Climatic extremes, especially drought, can be considered the basic adverse factor causing stress and physiological weakening of pine trees and simultaneously improving the conditions for attacks of various types of pests. Favourable conditions caused linking up of adverse factors, the phenomenon has not been explained so far, and it is a possible cause of drying of the crown portions, and sometimes even dieback of individual trees, and more rarely, group of trees. Drought, as a trigger, weakened pines that were subsequently attacked by several species of pathogenic fungi: Lophodermium pinastri, L. seditiosum, Sphaeropsis sapinea, Mycosphaerella pini, Cyclaneusma niveum and Elytroderma torres-juanii. The largest damages were caused by attacks of the fungus S. sapinea.
Interferences in normal photosynthesis due to needle shedding have further physiologically deteriorated a tree and it was exposed to attacks of the bark beetle species of Tomicus destruens. It followed by tree diebacks with occurrence of some other species of xylobiont insects (weevils, longhorn beetles).
So far it is not possible to determine the scope of impact of wood pathogenic nematodes in the chain of pine dieback without further studies. The first results indicate the presence of several species: Bursaphelenchus mucronatus, B. sexdentati, B. eggersi, of which the two first ones are considered as pathogenic. In addition, nematode vector Monochamus galloprovincialis has been determined which may play an important role in possible occurrence of quarantine species of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.
Key words: Tomicus destruens; Monochamus galloprovincialis; Thaumetopoea pityocampa; Bursaphelenchus spp.; micoses of needles
PERNEK, Milan ŠL
NOVAK-AGBABA, Sanja ŠL
|Damir Drvodelić, Milan Oršanić, Zoran Zeman
| UDK 630*233+232.3
(Pyrus pyraster Burgsd.) (001)
|Field performance after reforestation with one year old non-transplanted (1+0) and transplanted (1+1) seedlings of wild pear (Pyrus pyraster Burgsd.)
The paper presents the results of a three-year research into reforestation with one-year-old non-transplanted (1+0) and transplanted (1+1) seedlings of wild pear. The experiments were set on a clear field of section 5b G.J. Dubrava Mokrice managed by the Faculty of Forestry, the University of Zagreb. The soil is pseudogleic and the altitude ranges from 125 to 130 m above sea level. The research focused on field survival, height growth, increment, numbers of primary branches and seedling viability. The transplanted seedlings showed a much better survival rate compared to the non-transplanted ones.
Better survival of transplanted seedlings increases with the number of growing seasons on the field, i.e. with the age of seedlings (9.9 % 10.9 %, 12.3 %). The rate of terminal shoot dying was by 1.57% higher with non-transplanted seedlings. After three seasons the non-transplanted seedlings had an average height of 762 mm (360–1640 mm) whereas for the transplanted ones it was 1142 mm (520–2050 mm). The average root collar diameter of non-transplanted seedlings was 12.15 mm (5.71–22.80) and of the transplanted ones 15.36 mm (6.49–26.29). Statistically significant differences in seedling heights were established with respect to treatment, measurement dates and dates of treatment, and in root collar diameter with respect to treatment and measurement dates. The transplanted seedlings were on average by 392 mm higher and had a 3.28 mm larger root collar diameter compared to the non-transplanted ones, which are statistically significant differences. A statistically significant difference in heights and root collar diameter between non-transplanted and transplanted seedlings was established for all measurement dates. At the end of the fourth field season the transplanted seedlings had a larger number of primary branches compared to the non-transplanted ones while the average viability remained similar.
Both non-transplanted and transplanted seedlings can be used for reforestation. However, for economical purposes of nursery production and reforestation, the use of higher and older seedlings should be limited only to the areas with poor field survival.
Key words: wild pear; reforestation; seedlings; transplanted plants; survival; height growth; increment
DRVODELIĆ, Damir ŠL
ORŠANIĆ, Hrvoje ŠL
|Dinka Matošević, George Melika
|UDK 630*442 (001)
|Diversity of parasitoid assemblages of native and alien leaf miners in Croatia
Leaf miners support rich parasitoid assemblages and majority of these parasitoid species are generalists. Alien and invasive species are global problem and pose direct and indirect threat to ecosystem stability. Leafminers are very successfull invaders and they build up their populations soon after establishment in an new area. Invaders escape from their native parasitoids and have competitive advantage over native species in new area. Native parasitoids adapt to new host and new parasitoid assemblages are established. Croatia has rich native leafminer fauna with recently added alien and invasive species. Phyllonorycter roboris, Phyllonorycter quercifoliella, Tischeria ekebladella on Quercus robur and Q. petraea, Phyllonorycter klemannella on Alnus glutinosa are native leafminers. Phyllonorycter robiniella, Parectopa robinella on Robinia pseudoacacia, Phyllonorycter platani on Platanus sp., Cameraria ohridella on Aesculus hippocastanum and Phyllonorycter leucographella on Pyracantha coccinea are recently introduced invasive species in Croatia.
In this research we tested the following hypotheses: a) native parasitoids have adapted to new hosts, b) these parasitoid species are generalists, c) native and alien species of leafminers with similar bioecological characteristics have similar parasitoid assemblages.
The sites of research were chosen according to the host plant sites, in forests and parks in Croatia. The research was carried out from 2004–2006. Leaves with mines were collected and kept in glass containers in outside insectary until emergence of parasitoids. For each parasitoid assemblage the diversity indices were calculated: Domination index (D), Shannon’s diversity index H and evenness of species E. Cluster analyses for comparison of similarities of parasitoid assemblages was done.
In total, 28 taxa of parasitoids from the superfamily Chalcidoidea and 4 taxa from the superfamily of Ichneumonoidea have been found (Table 1). Table 1 shows domination index (D) for parasitoid species found for a host leaf miner. This research compares the parasitoid assemblages of different species of leafminers, the results have been obtained after mass rearings of parasitoids from different localities and different collection times and it does not give detailed insight into parasitism percentages and the seasonal distribution of parasitoid species within a parasitoid assemblage. Table 2 shows values of Shannon’s diversity index H and evenness of species E, and Figure 1 shows dendrogram from cluster analyses grouping leaf miner species according to the similarities of their parasitoid assemblages.
The majority of parasitoid species found are generalist species found on other species of leaf miners from the order Lepidoptera. P. roboris/P. quercifoliella have the most diverse parasitoid assemblage (the highest H value) (Table 2) followed by T. ekebladella. Oaks support rich fauna of taxonomicaly and ecologicaly similar leaf miner species and free exchange of parasitoids is enabled among them. All the parasitoid species found on these leafminers are generalist. They also have the highest E value (Table 2) because they lack specific monophagous parasitoid species. P. klemannella has lower diversity indices H and E because of the dominance of specific parasitoids from Encyrtidae family. P. platani has two dominant parasitoid species Minotetrastichus platanellus and Pediobius saulius. Dendrogram shows that P. roboris/P. quercifoliella, P. robiniella, P. leucographella, Pa. robiniella i T. ekebladella have similar parasitoid assemblages. Very similar are T. ekebladella and Pa. robiniella, both host species grow on the same sites together (oak and black locust) and generalists can search for similar mines: white upper surface leaf mines. The greater linkage distance between P. klemannella i P. platani can be explained with the dominance of specific monophagous parasitoid species in the assemblage. The similarities between parasitoid assemblages of native (P. roboris/P. quercifoliella, T. ekebladella) and alien (P. leucographella, P. robiniella, Pa. robiniella, C. ohridella) leaf miner species show that the native generalist parasitoids have adapted to new hosts. Ten species of parasitoids have been found on C. ohridella, with Pediobius saulius and Minotetrastichus frontalis as two dominant species (Table 1). This research has shown that invasive leaf miner species in Croatia have recruited a parasitoid community similar to the native leaf miner species and that this process has occurred quite rapidly.
Key words: Tischeria ekebladella; Parectopa robinella; Cameraria ohridella; Phyllonorycter sp.; diversity indices; polyphagous parasitoids; adaptation; new host
MATOŠEVIĆ, Dinka ŠL
|Natural heritage of the island of Mljet – the basis of the development of the medical tourism
The island of Mljet is well known for its natural heritage: two salt lakes, forests of Holm oak and Aleppo pine, blatina (brachish water), cliff coasts, sandy coves, caves, richness of underwater life, natural harbours, springs of drinkable water, endemic and medical plants. As a result of awareness of need to protect this amazing natural environment, forests and vegetation are preserved: The one third of the island Mljet was pronounced a national park in the year 1960 to make conditions for systematic nature protection.There are many reasons to encourage health tourism on Mljet: mild Mediterranean climate with green vegetation and possibility for hiking, recreation and sightseeing throughtout the year. Environmental pollution is non existing and for that reason as well, the conditions for rehabilitation in this natural ambience is perfect. To make a progress for inhabitants and guests with this kind of tourism, there should be also infrastructure beside these favourable natural conditions.
Until now has been no official medical tourism on Mljet, although long walks and enjoying in natural beauty of Mljet have always been known for their positive impact on health. Mljet is an island so rich with natural beauty is best place there is for health tourism. It can be explored through leisure mountaineering across the hilltops, walks around the lakes, swimming in sea during summertime as well as looking at intact nature from a boat. As well as great natural heritage, one also has to mention cultural heritage: ruin of an old roman palace (4th or 5th century AD), Benedictine monastery (12th century AD) as well as monastery from the time of Republic of Dubrovnik.
Above all, Mljet is one of rare places on Earth where pollution is non-existent as there is not one factory anywhere nearby. For all of these reasons, Mljet can be visited during any season of the year.
Key words: island Mljet; natural heritage; health tourism
NODILO, Marija ŠL