|DEVELOPMENTAL STRATEGY (STRATEGIES)
|When we watch television, read daily and weekly press, attend specialist gatherings or follow them via themedia, we keep hearing the same: “we lack developmental strategies”; in other words, we lack a general developmental strategy at the State level, as well as at the level of economy, education, science, local community, etc. Thisis only understandable, since, conditionally speaking, the sum of these strategies or of their more important parts,would form a general strategy at the State level. Thus, for example, the round table held in the Croatian Academyof Sciences and Arts on the topic of „Forests, Soils and Water – Invaluable Natural Resources of Croatia“ statesthat there is no agricultural developmental strategy, either. The limited space of this column does not allow us toask more than only a few questions that we consider important for the developmental strategy of our profession.First of all, do we have a strategy of development at all? Are we perhaps talking about the Strategy passed by theCroatian Government in the distant 2003? Suffice it to say that it is endorsed by the Forest Law, which advocatesmanagement according to the principles of sustainability.
The new Forest Law has already been discussed in this column, while the need to modernize the valid Law hasbeen dealt with in the Current Topics column. The Ministry has formed a Commission for the new Law, but afterthe initial start, it ceased with its activities. Does the profession know why its work has stopped? Would some articles perhaps be in collision with what we have signed in the pre-accession negotiations with the EU? Allegedly,the public will be informed about what we have signed in several days, but do we know who has conducted the negotiations in the name of the profession? Since the forestry profession has its roof organisation, the CroatianForestry Association, it would be only logical that the attitudes and the cadres (we do not mean the political ones)should be coordinated at this level and then presented to the State and the EU. Yet, if a professional opinion is required, then it is generally sought from the company Hrvatske Šume. We have nothing against it, but in principle,Hrvatske Šume represents the interests of a company, which might be guided only by their own interest and mightbe in collision with the general opinion of the profession. What about afforesting burned areas? What about forestbiomass? Are any efforts being taken in order for this important renewable energy source to be finally consideredat the state level? Has it been included in the Energy Development Strategy programmes, as well as in employment programmes (we have already written about how many new work posts this would open)? Why are theredoubts about the scientifically verified date on the possible available biomass quantities in the near future of over4 million tons, which equals about 2 million tons of oil? Why is the State “not happy” with a domestic energysource instead of an expensive imported one? Do we continue to plan the sale of chips or do our plans extend tothe final product, the energy? What about private forests and how do we guarantee equal business conditions regardless of ownership? As we can see, even when we have plans, we get on with them but we do not finalize them.
In this issue of the Forestry Journal, the article by Domac, J. et al. discusses the development of the domesticpalette market. In 2009, eight Croatian manufacturers planned to produce 212,100 tons of pellets, but in realitythey produced 92,000 tons, of which 98% were exported, and only 1,850 tons (2%) were sold on the home market.In addition to savings and to the ecologically more acceptable heating method in relation to classical heatingwith fuelwood, there is also the question of employment, especially in the home metal industry (furnaces,pipelines, etc.). Where is the Energy Development Strategy now? What about the developmental strategy in timber processing; what is the extent to which we produce semi-products, and what quantities and kinds of finalproducts that we manufacture ensure added value and higher employment? Do we link this strategy to the developmental strategies of domestic manufacturers of tools, glues, varnishes, and other products, which again implies higher employment?
These are only some of the questions, but there are many more. You are invited to ask other questions and toraise issues that should be part of the Developmental Strategy (hopefully, the State will do the same). Finally,think about who will include the answers to these questions into our developmental strategy and, with the help ofvarious lobbies, “force” them into the general Developmental Strategy at the state level? Parliamentary electionsare approaching, and it will be interesting to see what strategies particular political parties advocate and indeed,if they have any strategies at all.
|IZVORNI ZNANSTVENI ČLANCI
|Kutnar,L., D. Matijašić, R. Pisek
|UDK 630* 907 : 629 + 114.4 (001)
|Conservation Status and Potential Threats to Natura 2000 Forest Habitats in Slovenia
|Summary: An example of the possible use of selected forest-stand based indicators for evaluation of conservation status was shown in case of the Natura 2000 forest habitats of Slovenia, and the potential threats to habitat types were identified. Using the existing forest-management system, and two levels of ICP Forests monitoring as sources of data on the size of habitat, tree composition, developmental phase and stand regeneration, growing stock and increment, dead wood, and level of naturalness of habitat, an attempt of evaluation of the conservation status of the forest habitat types of EU community interest (Habitat Directive 1992, Natura 2000) is presented.
In total, the Natura 2000 forest habitat types in Slovenia represent almost one third of all forest area, and the prevailing forest habitat types are Illyrian Fagus sylvaticaforests, Luzulo-Fagetumbeech forests and Illyrian oak-hornbeam forests. Considering the direct influences of human activities and potential effects of climate change the floodplain and lowland forests of Alluvial forests with Alnus glutinosaandFraxinus excelsior, Riparian mixed forests of Quercus roburand other broadleaves, as well as Illyrian oak-hornbeam forest, are among the most threatened forest habitat types. Taking into account the small area of habitat type and the set of different threats, the priority habitat types of Tilio-Acerionforests of slopes, screes and ravines, (Sub-) Mediterranean pine forests and Bog woodland are also endangered.
Despite the large number of factors threatening the Slovenian forests, the high level of studied parameters indicates the favourable conservation status of forest habitat types. However, the additional focus on the EU priority habitat types and on rare habitat types on the national level has been suggested to improve the existing forest management planning system, and additional forest-relevant indicators specific to particular habitat types have to be incorporated in the system.
Key words: biodiversity; favourable conservation status; forest management planning; habitat type; indicators; monitoring; biodiversity; favourable conservation status; forest management planning; habitat type; indicators; monitoring
|Lubojacký,J., J. Holuša
|UDK 630* 453 (001)
|Comparison of Spruce Bark Beetle (Ips typographus) Catches Between Treated Trap Logs and Pheromone Traps
|Abstract: The numbers of Ips typographus beetles captured in treated tripod trap logs (tripods) were compared to catches from Theysohn pheromone traps (TPTs). In 2010, at each of the three localities, five TPTs and five tripods baited with Pheagr IT pheromone evaporators were installed with 10 m spacing. Weekly inspections were made during the entire period of I.typographus flight activity (April 30 – October 1). The tripods were treated with insecticide Vaztak 10 SC on April 23, 2010 and then repeatedly every seven weeks along with the renewal of the pheromone evaporator. The study showed that the TPTs trapped approximately one-third more beetles than did the tripods. The TPT captures showed a dominance of females over males, while in tripods the sex ratio was balanced. The TPTs and tripods both trapped approximately the same numbers of males, but the females were distinctly more numerous in the TPTs. In both cases, more adults were captured during spring than in summer.
Keywords:Ips typographus, tripod trap logs, pheromone trap, sex ratio
|Posavec,S., M. Šporčić, D. Antonić, K. Beljan
|UDK 630* 649
|Inovation Fostering – Key Factor of Development in Croatian Forestry
|Summary: By Croatia’s approaching to the EU a new and large market is opening, which is full of large potential, but also of great challenges. Modern business in such conditions demands from managers of state and other organizations constant changes and adaptation to the demands of the market, as well as activation of its full capacities and potentials. Forestry is not an exception, and it must, with its own innovations, become competitive and profitable on a global level. Rural development is one of the primary goals of EU, and forestry is directly enrolled in technological, organizational and production and recreational changes which have happened or will happen, in order to secure its development. Global processes which demand adaptation to and opening of the market are set in motion, and in this context forestry needs new products and services with high added value. The innovations are regarded as an instrument which can improve competitiveness of forest products and which can strengthen the development of forestry and wood processing, and in these way secure successful reactions to the challenges, and be a lever of further development of forestry sector.
An unfavorable status of innovativeness in state forest management company has been found through testing of the opinions and attitudes of its personnel with academic education. All the three hypotheses which have been stated in the research have been confirmed. In this way the analysis of the key questions from the questionnaire have shown that:
Company has a low innovation culture, due to its close to monopolistic position and to its strict hierarchical structure.
Employees seldom or not at all think about innovations. If such attempt exists, it is most frequently discouraged by lack of adequate stimulation and by bureaucratic impediments
Innovations related to production processes are the most common type of innovations that are being developed within the Company. By this innovations related to organization and marketing, and to the development of new products and services are being neglected.
Other findings of the research suggest that 2–4% of interviewees consider that work is being appreciated, and that the level of income depends on the results of work. Approximately same percentage of employees thinks that the Company has a functional system for evaluation of ideas, and that it effectively and in a quick manner make a decision. On the other hand, most of the employees states that there is a potential for innovations, and that the work processes can be improved. As main impediments they stress out lack of financial assets, external sources of funding and lack of information. Compared with other countries of central Europe, a significantly lower level of innovations in Croatia has been observed, especially when it comes to perception of the positive influence of innovation and the success of production.
It has to be stipulated that Hrvatske šume Ltd. in 2005 have made an Rule-book on innovative actions. Some of its most important parts state that the Company is entitled to intellectual property if its is made in the process of fulfillment of work obligations; that its author is entitled to a single payment if the innovation demonstrates direct or indirect benefits to the company. It is also prescribed that its author of applied innovation is entitled to 1% of revenues created by its application, and that the Company will financially stimulate the organizational unit which first begins with its implementation in the case that the implementation requires substantial financial resources.
With regard to the above stated, a legislative framework does exist; however, a system of incentives, evaluation and of rewarding of gifted individuals does not exist. Accordingly, a system of punishment of irresponsible employees also does not exist. Any kind of development of innovations and creativity in a company rests on quality management of human resources and on a system of evaluation of rewarding of work of individuals. Low percentage of innovations in forestry of Croatia can partly be explained by the main impediments that innovative employees meet: bureaucracy, lack of organizational culture, lack of motivation. By this the potential innovators may abandon their ideas and already started projects, or their will be unable to secure funding and support for the continuation of their activities. For these reasons, as addition to the formulated Rulebook, it is necessary to make a quality program of encouragement and rewarding of creativity, which is a pillar for the innovative culture of a company. This research provides a framework picture of the status of innovativeness in forestry of Croatia. It points out to certain problems, but mainly stipulates to importance of innovations as a means for reaching growth and development, and for creation of competitive advantage compared to other forest companies. Findings of the research point out to a need for further analysis on a bigger sample, and to a need for implementation of a broad research about innovativeness in the management of both public and private forests in the forests in Croatia
Key words: creativity; forest economics; innovations in forestry; Innovativeness; creativity; forest economics; innovations in forestry; Innovativeness
POSAVEC, Stjepan ŠL
ŠPORČIĆ, Mario ŠL
BELJAN, Karlo ŠL
|Planinšek,Š., A. Ferreira, A.Japelj
|UDK 630* 116 + 907
|A Model for Evaluation of the Hydrological Role of a Forest
|Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present a method for allocating and evaluating forest areas with hydrological roles and for determining the necessary forest management measures. The method was tested in the Draga watershed, which is characterised by a high proportion of forest cover (83 %). The development of a GIS-based decision support model first required determining the needs for the forest hydrological role as well as the capacity of forest sites for providing that role. The needs for the hydrological role of forest are expressed by external, ecological factors (terrain slope and forest soil types distinguished by their erodibility and ground porosity). A forest’s capacity to assure the hydrological role is expressed by internal, forest stand factors (stand structure, stand density and the degree of stand naturalness). The merged variables describing the needs and capacity were further divided into three groups: low-medium-high needs and high-medium-low capacities for providing the hydrological role. Overlapping the needs and capacity revealed locations where the needs exceed the capacity, and where erosion problems may occur in the field. A side-result of the model is the list of necessary forest management measures for enhancing forest hydrological role that can be applied to every combination of external and internal factors.
Key words: alpine watershed; evaluation model; forest; hydrological role; multiple-use forestry; suitability evaluation; alpine watershed; evaluation model; forest; hydrological role; multiple-use forestry; suitability evaluation
|Poljak,I., M. Idžojtić, M. Zebec
|UDK 630* 174 + 652
|Woody Plants of the Zagreb Zoo Garden
|Summary: The Zagreb Zoo garden, which is also the first zoological garden in Croatia, was founded in 1925 in the park Maksimir and still contains woody species that were planted during the formation of the park. Given the importance of trees and shrubs in landscaping, as well as the great historical importance of individual trees, this paper presents a list of woody species and explains the dendrological, horticultural and historical value of the garden.
In the area of about 5.5 ha 238 different species of woody plants from 100 genera were determined (Table 1), of which 38 belong to gymnosperms and 200 to angiosperms. Of these 144 are deciduous, whereas the others are evergreen or leaf-exchanging. The most common genera are: Juniperus(12 species),Prunus(12 species),Salix(10 species),Acer(9 species),Berberis(9 species),Euonymus(7 species),Lonicera(7 species),Picea(6 species),Spiraea(6 species),Cornus(5 species),Cotoneaster(5 species),Fraxinus(5 species),Thuja(5 species) andViburnum(5 species). In total, along with the tropical, subtropical and Mediterranean species in the Tropical House and the Pavilion for Monkeys, there are 262 woody species in the garden. The large number and diversity of woody species, both autochthonous and allochthonous, gives special value to the Zoo and the whole Maksimir Park.
The horticultural value of an area depends not only on plants, their appearance and arrangement, but also on all the other park elements and contents. The essential elements and contents in the garden are wooden benches and low fences that are equal to the ones in Maksimir Park, furthermore educational facilities, paved paths and walkways etc. Out of the large number of buildings and dwellings for animals, the ones of historical significance must be highlighted: The Lion Bridge, Pavilion for Monkeys and the Tower on the First Island. One of the indispensable elements in the Zoo are educational panels and boards. In addition to educational content about animals, the garden also offers its visitors a variety of contents on plant species and natural habitats from which individual animal species originate.
After the time of Haulik, the first list of woody species within Maksimir Park was provided by Ettinger (1889), who stated that a large number of species disappeared from Maksimir due to gardeners’ procedures or the irresponsible behavior of visitors. According to Ettinger (1889) in the whole of Maksimir 162 tree and shrub species were present at that time. This list is extremely valuable and can serve as a basis for planning new planting. Of the trees planted in Hauliks time today a group of four old London Plane trees stand out on the First Island. Apart from that, on the eastern side of the Zoo there are another four significant American Plane trees – two of them located near the Tropical House, and two in front of the former quarters for elephants. Also, it is worthwhile to mention the specimen of white poplar, swamp cypress and yew, of which the swamp cypress deserves special attention, since it is the largest specimen of its kind in Croatia (183 cm in diameter and 34 m in height).
Landscape architect Dragutin Kiš (1981, 1982b) states that the Zoo should undergo pro found changes not only in physical terms, but also in the organization and manner of pre senting animals to visitors. Today, after almost 30 years, significant results can be se en in terms of garden arrangement. Metal grids, wires and concrete were replaced by na tural barriers, such as ditches covered with low vegetation, and water barriers covered with wetland vegetation. To improve the conditions of keeping animals, efforts are ma de to simulate their natural habitats by spatial planning, design of dwellings and plant selecting.
Characteristic species belonging to the forest community of the peduncled oak and common hornbeam grow throughout the area of the Zoo, of which Quercus roburis dominant, followed by Tiliaspp.,Carpinus betulus, Prunus padus, Ulmus minor, Fraxinus angustifolia, Acer campestre,Corylus avellana, Euonymus europaeus, Crataegusspp., Cornus sanguinea, Rosa arvensisand Lonicera caprifolium.
Although the Zoo cannot be considered a park, the fact that it is located within the his torical framework of the protected Maksimir Park must be one of the main guidelines for the selection of plant species in landscaping of the garden. In addition, it is necessary to ta ke care of the autochthonous vegetation in the park and forest area of Maksimir, as well as of plant species as the landscaping element for creating the ambiance of animal habitats.
Key words: dendrological value; historical value; horticultural value; Maksimir Park; shrubs; trees; Zagreb Zoo Garden; dendrological value; historical value; horticultural value; Maksimir Park; shrubs; trees; Zagreb Zoo Garden
IDŽOJTIĆ, Marilena ŠL
ZEBEC, Marko ŠL
|Domac, J., Z. Benković, V. Šegon, I. Ištok
|UDK 630* 537 + 741
|Critical Factors in Developing National Pellet Market
|Summary: The quality of raw material, as well as tradition in wood processing and pronounced trends of increased use of wood residues as a renewable and organic material play an important role in expansion of national pellet industry and market. Although dependent on market demand and economic feasibility in relation to non-renewable energy sources, renewable energy sources can and must be exploited in a better and more effective way.
The use of wood pellets as fuel for domestic stoves and boilers and for cofiring in thermal power plants has been an amazing success story over the past 20 years. Socio-economic impact studies are commonly used to evaluate the local, regional and/or national implications of implementing particular development decisions. Typically, these impacts are measured in terms of economic variables, such as employment, revenue and taxes, but a complete analysis must also include social, cultural and environmental issues. In many ways the social implications arising from local pellets production or any bioenergy activity represents the less clear and concrete end of impact studies; nevertheless they can be broken down into two categories: those relating to an increased standard of living and those that contribute to increased social cohesion and stability.
The primary instruments for the development of renewable energy technologies across the world are international carbon reduction policy drivers. But the development of one type of technology over another on national, regional or local level is often a function of the intricate balance of socio-economic factors in that particular geographical location. The development of wood pellet markets has been very strong in some coutries and almost non-existent in others.
Based on these considerations, this paper is primarily focused on investigating the critical socio-economic factors in developing national pellet markets.
Examples from Austria, Ireland and Croatia highlight some of the key factors that influenced the development and pellet market situation in these countries. Based on initial review, current situation and analysis of these markets, this paper defines critical factors that influence development of national pellet market.
Critical socio-economic factors for the development of national pellet market resulting from presented analysis are the following:
• Financial incentives for investing in wood pellet heating rapidly increase uptake even when pellets are competitive with alternative fuels;
• The existence of a strong sawmilling industry to provide, at least initially, a low cost and readily available source of raw material;
• Stringent quality and sustainability requirements for pellet boilers with regard to emissions, efficiency and security – poor products can permanently damage the market, trigger serious environmental concerns and cause major functional problems;•
• Establishment of effective quality control mechanisms for wood pellets. Establishment of national or international tracking systems that allow identification of the origin of pellets;
• Dedicated educational programs and certification of installers establishing pellet heating systems.;
• Linking of subsidies with quality requirements for boilers and certification of installers;
• Procurement of wood pellet heating in public buildings to provide user confidence and to stimulate the supply chain;
• Development of incentives for energy service companies to enter into the biomass heating market.
In conclusion, looking at the overall situation regarding pellets production and utilisation a strong growth can be expected with political support at the EU level, playing a major role for the extension of the pellet industry into new member states in particular. The ambitious EU target of achieving 20 % of energy supply from renewable energy by the end of 2020 is impossible without dedicated policies to develop renewable heating. In addition, the on-going oil price rally and carbon dioxide reduction targets also encourage the expansion of the markets for pellets.
Key words: market; pellets; renewable energy sources; socio-economic factors; market; pellets; renewable energy sources; socio-economic factors
BENKOVIĆ, Zlatko ŠL