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HR  EN   



Scientific-technical and professional journal
of Croatia Forestry Society
                         Issued continously since 1877.
       First issue of this web edition start with number 1-2/2008.
   ISSN No.: 1846-9140              UDC 630*https://doi.org/10.31298/sl

Portal of scientific
journals of Croatia
   Issued by: Croatian Forestry Society

   Address: Trg Mažuranića 11, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
   Phone/fax: ++385 1 4828477
   e-mail: urednistvo@sumari.hr
   Editor in Chief: Boris Hrašovec

Uredništvo   97
When we talk about the value of forests, we always stress that, in addition to classical commercial values, forests also have non-market values. In principle, non-market forest values are up to fifty times higher than classical commercial forest values, depending on the ecological (hydrological, water protective, anti-erosion, climatic and antiemission), social (aesthetic, health, recreational, tourist) and ecophysiological (genetic, biodiversity, physiological) function of forests. Non-market forest roles are evaluated on the basis of estimates; yet, the majority of the users of these forest roles are reluctant to accept and pay for this value, although it is, in the words of some authors, as priceless as a mother’s love for her child. The classical commercial value can be determined in a much more exact manner, since evaluations are based on measurable parameters: quantity, quality, use of timber depending on the species, manner and degree of finalization, market demand, and finally, market prices of forest timber products to highly finalized products of the wood processing industry.
The management plan prescribes management tasks and goals, while the necessary amount and quality of silvicultural treatments govern the quantity (increment) and quality of forest timber products. The aim is, naturally, to produce as many and as high quality products that a given forest tree species can offer, and place on the market not only some forest wood products but all of them, with the final objective of achieving the highest possible market price. It would stand to reason, with regard to the proximity of the product unburdened with high transport costs, that the buyer should be, conditionally said, a home wood processing company, which would finalize and adequately use a good quality forest product in line with the set management goal. This would create additional value and ensure job opportunities. A buyer who pays a realistic price for a forest wood product will not make parquet out of a veneer log, because it will simply not be profitable.
Almost 80% of forests in Croatia are state-owned; therefore, those who engage in such unprofitable businesses, or allow and even stimulate others to participate in wasting national wealth and devalue the work of several generations of forestry experts, should be sternly cautioned. Wood processing companies, on the other hand, by manufacturing and exporting semifinal products, open the door for others to create additional value. There are currently very few serious final product producers; the number of semi-product manufacturers is slightly higher. On the other hand, there are “innumerable” sawmill operators. Are we at all aware of the basic facts: who are the producers, what kind of products are produced from our high-quality raw material, how many jobs are opened and how many are “frittered away”, does the work force receive legal pay or are they paid underhand, is profit invested in personnel, equipment and new technologies in order for the producer to become competitive, or does the producer, lured by extortionate interest invest in, for example, apartments? Now that the housing market is declining, they pay for raw timber with apartments. Incidentally, most of them find raw timber too expensive, although it participates in overall production costs with less than 20%. The price is not even market price, because it is not dictated by the market but by, conditionally said, the state (so much for market-oriented economy!). Payment dates are another story altogether: 60 to 90 days on average, which implies that the coefficient of claims due is only four, which should seriously worry not only every manufactur, but particularly the state. It is wood processing companies that rely on the certified status of Croatian forests in the sale of their products, but they are not concerned at all that this status is the result of investment in silviculture and forest protection. In addition to the issues relating to cost rationalization and reorganization in forestry, there is the question of final products: why is no effort put into finding a more profitable method of harvesting unused wood biomass from forests instead of selling chips (which should be the job of local financial services)?. Finally, why do we not produce and sell the final product – energy, instead of biomass (like Austria, the example). What about wood products from private forests? Who addresses this issue, since the Law on Forests and all other laws apply to all forest owners?
As we can see, there are many questions on both sides, and if we could find objective answers to them, we would find a solution that would be beneficial for all. The main question here is: can we do it, and even more importantly, do we want to do it?

Editorial Board

Ugarković, D., I. Tikvić, Z. Seletković, M. Oršanić, I. Seletković, M. Blažinkov, M. Mrkonjić Fuka, S. Redžepović  UDK 630* 114.2 + 231
(Abies alba Mill.) (001)
Microbiological Characteristics of the Soils and Natural Regeneration of Forest Gaps within Damaged Forest Ecosystems of the Silver Fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Gorski Kotar      
Summary: Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) is the most damaged forest tree species in Republic of Croatia. As a result of changes in natural biotope fac­tors tree degradation and sudden decline is manifested. Intensive tree decline leads to canopy degradation and creating smaller or larger forest gaps. These advents cause changes in microclimatic and microbiological conditions, and regeneration problems. Researchers are carried out in Gorski kotar, in beech-fir and fir forest areal. The main aim of this research was to determine chan­ges in chemical and microbiological composition of forest gap soil, and natural regeneration within gaps. Chemical and microbiological analyses of forest soil were done. Soil microbiological analyses included determination of total fungi and bacteria count, and presence of microorganism functional groups. According to chemical parameters higher values were found in con­trol plots (canopy) than in large forest gaps. Exception was small forest gap where values of chemical variables were higher than in corresponding control plot (table 2).
In large beech-fir forest gap was found smaller number of asymbiotic nitro­gen fixators and cellulose decomposition fungi than in control plot (table 3).
Small forest gap in beech-fir forest had higher value of individual soil functional microorganism groups than corresponding control plot, except cel­lulose decomposition fungi. The highest soil biogenity was found in small fo­rest gap (table 4).
In large fir with hard fern forest gap regarding control plot was found si­gnificantly smaller total fungi count and amount of cellulose decomposition fungi (table 5).
Comparing gaps between themselves total fungi count in O1 and O2 beech-fir forest gaps was significantly higher than in O3 fir with hard fern gap. Amount of asymbiotic nitrogen fixators and ammonia forming bacteria was significantly the highest in small gap O2, then in large gap O1 in beech-fir forest, and the lowest in O3 fir with hard fern forest gap (table 6).
Amount of asymbiotic nitrogen fixators, cellulose decomposition fungi and ammonia forming bacteria was significantly higher in beech-fir forest than in fir with hard fern forest (table 7).
The highest number of seedlings was found in gap O1, while other two gaps have had equal plant number. Regarding control plots gap O1 had two times more plants than control. In gap O2 was found two times lower plants number regarding control, while gap O3 had equal plants number as control. Considering plants age in all gaps and control plots was found the highest number of biennial plants (table 8).
Considering percentage of tree species younger than three years, in gaps was found the highest proportion of silver fir, then mountain maple, and the lowest common beech (table 9).
Considering the number of older trees good regeneration with deciduous tree species was found within gaps namely with mountain maple and common beech (tables 10, 11 and 12).
Considering amount of different functional microorganism groups small forest gap O2 has medium, while large gaps have lower soil biogenity. Com­paring large gaps in different forest associations, large gap O1 in beech-fir fo­rest regarding large gap O3 in fir with hard fern forest has significantly higher total fungi count, amount of asymbiotic nitrogen fixatros and ammonia for­ming bacteria. In this research was found different amount of soil individual microorganism groups comparing beech-fir forest and fir with hard fern fo­rest. As in larger forest gaps were found certain changes in soil microbiologi­cal characteristics regarding small gap it can be concluded that large gaps represent specific microbiotops. Namely in forest gaps are found young silver fir plants, while there is lack of older ones. According to height in gaps there are no silver fir plants higher than 50 cm. As large forest gaps are enlarging and not getting smaller, also are good regenerated with common beech and mountain maple plants, were are believe that forest gaps are biotops with exc­hanging tree species.
Soil chemical characteristics in small beech-fir forest gap had higher va­lues, and large gap lower values than control plots. Soil chemical characteri­stics in large fir with hard fern gap had smaller values than in control plots, except soil pH value. In all gaps was found significantly lower amount of cel­lulose decomposition fungi than in control canopies. In large forest gaps was found low, and in small forest gap medium soil biogenity. Microbiological characteristics of soils in beech-fir forests have higher values than in fir with hard fern forest gaps.
Proportion of deciduous tree species (mountain maple and common beech) younger than three years was higher in large beech-fir forest gap, while in small gap was same. In large fir with hard fern forest gap dominate silver fir plants younger than three years.
According to number of plants younger than three years in forest gaps and control plots are dominating mountain maple and common beech plants, while proportion of silver fir plants was small.

Key words: forest gaps; microbiological characteristics of the soils; microorganism functional groups in the soil; natural rege­neration; Silver fir; tree decline

    UGARKOVIĆ, Damir    ŠL
    TIKVIĆ, Ivica      ŠL
    SELETKOVIĆ, Zvonko    ŠL
    ORŠANIĆ, Milan      ŠL
    SELETKOVIĆ, Ivan      ŠL
    Blažinkov, Mirela  
    Mrkonjić Fuka, Mirna  
    Redžepović, Sulejman  
Kutnar, L., A. Kobler  UDK 630* 188 + 111.8 (001) 113
Prediction of Forest Vegetation Shift due to Different Climate-Change Scenarios in Slovenia      
Abstract: By using an empirical GIS model, the potential spatial chan­ges of forest vegetation driven by expected climate change have been analy­sed. Based on the three different scenarios predicting climate warming in Slovenia (the mean, pessimistic and optimistic scenarios), the simulation sho­wed that the share of vegetation types will be altered under the impacts of cli­mate change, and the shift of vegetation belts upwards might be expected.
By the year 2100, the share of mesic beech forests is likely to decrease. From ecological, – nature-conservation – and forest-management points of view, the predicted decrease of the share of Dinaric fir-beech forests is espe­cially important. The model predicts an increase of the share of thermophilous forests from the present 14% to a range between 50% (according to the optimi­stic scenario) and 87% (according to the pessimistic scenario). A significant part of the coniferous forest with Picea abiesand Abies alba predominating might be converted to deciduous forests.

Key words: climate change; climate scenarios; forest vegetation; model; simulation

    Kutnar, Lado    
    Kobler, Andrej    
Buzjak, N., S. Buzjak, D. Orešić  UDK 630* 111 +120 : 164 (001) 127
Floristic, Microclimatic and Geomorphological Features of Collapsed Doline Japage on the Žumberak (Croatia)      
Summary: Collapsed doline Japage is located in the western part of Žumberak Mt. (Fig. 1), formed in tectonically crushed Upper Cretaceous carbo­nate layers (limestone and breccia). Apart from karstification, which is evident in two speleological features, its development is today mostly affected by the slope processes (collapsing, landsliding and soil creeping). The length of the peripheral axis of the collapsed doline Japage is 64 m in the N-S direction, and 63 m in the E-W direction. In terms of dimensions, it is the largest such pheno­menon on the territory of Žumberak. The depth between the lowest point of the periphery and the bottom is 15 m. The highest altitude difference is 37.7 m. The doline’s volume is 54.000 m3. The measurement of microclimatic parameters in Japage (carried out from 2007 to 2009) proved temperature inversion during the warm part of the year (Fig. 2). The relative air humidity is higher at the bottom, and lower towards the margins of the doline’s rim (Tab. 1). During the vegetation period in 2007 and 2008, the flora of Japage doline was also re­searched. Plants growing at various depths and expositions were registered, and a part of them was recorded in the profiles N-S and E-W (Fig. 5). The listed plants underwent the analysis of ecological indicator values and life forms. Al­together 59 plant taxa were registered (Tab. 2). Seventeen of them, i.e. 29% of the total number of the recorded taxa is protected by the Nature Protection Act, and three are listed in the Red Book of Vascular Flora of Croatia as near threa­tened (NT). The life form analysis showed the predominance of hemicryptophy­tes and geophytes, corresponding to the moderate climate zone Japage belongs to. Ferns were the predominant species, particularly in the lower part of the doline and at its bottom, which has less sunlight and higher air humidity and soil moisture compared to the doline’s upper marginal parts (Fig. 6). Based on the analysis of ecological indicator values of the doline’s floristic composition (Fig. 7), we came to the conclusion that the soil in Japage is moderately moist, mostly low acidic to alkaline. It is a shadowy habitat predominated by wides­pread plants that can grow in colline, mountainous and sub-alpine areas.

Key words: ecological indicatory values; flora; geomorphology; Japage; microclimate; Žumberak

    Buzjak, Nenad    
    Buzjak, Suzana    
    Orešić, Danijel    
Sedlar, Z., V. Hršak, R. Šoštarić  UDK 630* 187 (001) 139
Numerical and PhytosociologicalAnalysis of the Junipero sibiricae -Pinetum dalmaticae Domac (1956) 1965 Association and Comparison to Mediterranean Forests Dominated by Pinus nigra Arn. s.l.      
Summary: This study analyses the ecological and syntaxonomical characteristics of theJunipero sibiricae -Pinetum dalmaticaeDomac(1956) 1965 association. This association is present only on higher altitudes of Bio­kovo Mountain situated on the eastern Adriatic coast. With its highest peak at an altitude of 1,762m, Biokovo is one of the hotspots of plant endemism in Croatia. It is highly influenced by the Mediterranean climate which is expres­sed up to the higher parts of the mountain, although, due to its height, it has weakened montane and alpine conditions on the peaks. According to the pre­sent syntaxonomical solution, the researched association belongs to the sub­mediterranean alliance Ostryo-Carpinion orientalis in the Quercetalia pubescentisorder in the Querco-Fageteaclass. Numerical and syntaxonomi­cal analyses suggest thatJunipero sibiricae -Pinetum dalmaticaeon Biokovo differs from all other Dalmatian pine vegetation types. Cluster analysis, Indi­cator species analysis together with Nonmetric multidimensional scaling used to compare it to forests dominated by Pinus nigras.l. from other Mediterra­nean areas (Greece, Iberian peninsula, Corsica and Sicily) suggested it should be classified in thePino-Junipereteaclass, theJuniperetalia haemisp­haericaeorder, and the eastern Mediterranean Berberidocraeticae-Juniperion foetidissimae alliance. The resemblance of Junipero sibiricae -Pinetum dal­maticaewith eastern Mediterranean associations and its inclusion into men­tioned syntaxa is confirmed phytosociologically and ecologically.

Key words: Biokovo Mountain; multivariate analysis; Pinus nigra subsp. dalmatica; syntaxonomy

    Sedlar, Zorana    
    Hršak, Vladimir  
    Šoštarić, Renata  
Nodilo, Marija  UDK 630* 272 153
Garden of the Benedictine Monastery of St Mary on Mljet      
Summary: Desa, the Duke of Duklja, donated the island of Mljet, in 1151. to be exclusive property of Benedictines from Monte Casino, Pulia. Benedicti­nes have built, in end part of 12thcentury, the Romanesque monastery and church of St. Mary on the islet of St. Mary. The monastery was redecorated and some new Renaissance parts were built in 15thand 16thcentury. The complex looked like a Renaissance villa and had a Renaissance garden. A tower and the wall around the monastery and the garden was built in 17thcentury.
This paper present possible renovation and decoration of Renaissance garden inside the monastery complex. Historical literature clearly shows us that ground plan of the garden has been shaped as two quadrates, bounded with grape wine and planted with fruit trees. The gravestone found in the gar­den is a memorial to the builders of the monastery, because they had legal right to be buried in the building. It is a known fact that at the end of 14thcen­tury, the monastery was used as a quarantine, the first one in Croatia. From this fact, we also know that friars were some kind of pharmacists.
The entire islet of St. Mary was olive grove in the past, as evidence we still have about hundred olive trees. During the time, it became a nice promenade for visitors, with maintaining olive grove and paths we get a nice place for long walks for both visitors and native population.

Puača, B., Ž. Najvirt, A. Miličević  UDK 630* 188 + 114 161
Some Pedological-floristic and Economic Features of Forest Stands in Locality Otmanov Vis      
Summary: Forest stands on the Otmanov vis, area of 24,76 ha, with specific geological-lithological, pedological, floristic and eco­nomic characteristics are significantly different from its neighbouring, econo­mic stands. Such habitats provide ecological conditions for the oncoming of a large number of rare and protected species. Intention of the authors was to draw attention to special sites with a desire to conduct detailed phytocoenolo­gical research. Further reseach is needed to accurately define the plant com­munities. In this phase of the study list of flora is incomplete and provisory, and can not completely define the plant communities.
Due to extraordinary biological diversity, habitat should be noted as per­manently preserved. Forest stands in subdivisions 123c, 124d and 128f should be exempted from the regular management and determine the necessary pro­tection category (a botanical forest vegetation reserve).

Key words: Eutric Rankers; Italian oak; Pubescens oak; Trachyandesite; village Gradište

    PUAČA, Berislav    ŠL
    NAJVIRT, Željko    ŠL
    MILIČEVIĆ, Ante    ŠL