|A WORD FROM THE EDITOR-IN-CHIEF|
|AT THE END OF THE YEAR|
|When a year is ending, it is a custom to draw a line under the results, analyze the achievements and decide whether the tasks set at the beginning of the year have been completed with more or less success. This time, however, we will focus on what is in store for us in the year 2011. It was on the proposal of the Croatian delegation at the 2007 UN Ministerial Conference in New York that the year 2011 was declared the International Year of Forests. It is common knowledge that the year 2002 was the International Year of Mountains, the year 2003 was dedicated to water, the year 2006 to soil protection, the years 2007, 2008 and 2009 were the International Years of Planet Earth, and the year 2010 was the International Year of Biodiversity. All these declarations and celebrations are aimed at highlighting the problems of the preservation and improvement of their condition, as well as stimulating the public to join the experts in nature protection effort. The world population is rapidly increasing (in the mid nineteenth century there were 3 million people, compared to the current number of almost 7 billion people). Technological advancement, irresponsible treatment of the nature, and unscrupulous profiteering pose a serious threat to nature. The forest is the most complex ecosystem which requires particular attention. As we can see, the international community has made full acknowledgement of this fact by dedicating one year to its celebration. Yet, love for the nature is not enough; what we also need is the knowledge of its aspects, in this case of forests. This is the argument which we often use in our dialogues with various modern nature protectors.
The working group of the Ministry of Regional Development, Forestry and Water Management has planned a variety of activities to mark the International Year of Forests, to which the Croatian Forestry Association will contribute with their action programme. Most of the activities are educational in character. The Croatian forestry profession should use this opportunity to present itself to the public in the proper light and to disclaim the most frequent and usually negative public perception of forestry as the art of the axe and the log. There is no need to discard the log, because as the final product it becomes a useful object in the life of the man, but the public should know that it is only a by-product of silviculture, protection and regeneration of forests. Incidentally, the price of this log in Croatia is far below its market value. What we must focus on are the non-market values of the forest (commercial, ecological and social), which we ensure with our professional work based on the principles of sustainable management. We should explain why we advocate silvicultural treatments in forests, or in other words, why we support active rather than passive protection. It is a known fact that people appreciate the value of a thing only after they have lost it, which we would on no account want to happen to forests. In implementing the programme of marking the International Year of Forests2011, we expect full support of the media. Unfortunately, articles in the daily press related to forests and forestry are generally negatively intoned; in other words, instead of being educative, they prefer to focus on so-called “cases”. Forests and forestland cover 46% of the land area of Croatia. They have been preserved and tended by the forestry profession, so it seems almost incredible that the national television, except for some feeble attempts, does not have at least one regular informative-educative programme on forests and forestry. If we can watch the Agricultural programme and the programme about the sea every Sunday, then there is no reason why we should not watch a similar programme on forests and forestry. Can we have such a programme at least in the International Year of Forests2011?
We expect that the forestry profession will use the International Year of Forests as an opportunity to present itself in the proper light.
In conclusion, we wish all the readers of the Forestry Journal Merry Christmas and a Very Happy and Successful New Year 2011.
Professor Emeritus Branimir Prpić, Ph.D.
PRPIĆ, Branimir ŠL
|ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPERS|
|Vukelić, J., A. Alegro, V. Šegota, I. Šapić||UDK 630* 188 + 174.7 (001)||559|
|Nomenclatural-Phytocoenological revision of the Association Calamagrostio variae-Piceetum dinaricum Bertović 1975, nom. illeg. in Croatia|
|Summary: Common beech (Fagus sylvatica) forms a strong vegetation belt in the sub-alpine region of the Croatian Dinaric range, with natural forests of common spruce (Picea abies) occurring as azonal communities in some specific localities of this belt. The association Laserpitio krapfii-Piceetum Vukelić, Alegro etŠegota 2010 inhabits sinkholes and northern, colder and shadier slopes from 1,100 to 1,400 m above the sea, while shady and open ridges and peaks above 1,400 m are occupied by the spruce forest described by S. Bertović (1975) under the name of Calamagrostio variae-Piceetum dinaricum Bertović 1975. Bertović’s name of the association is illegitimate (articles 31 and 34a, International Code of Phytocoenological Nomenclature - ICPN, Weber, Moravec and Theurillat 2000) since the name was already used by Schweingruber in 1972 for an association in the Randalpen in Switzerland. One of the objectives of this research was to revise the nomenclature and propose a new name for the phytocoenosis (Hyperico grisebachii-Piceetum), as well as define the diagnostic species and other features. We used a method of the Zurich-Montpellier Phytocoenological School with a six-degree scale. The floral composition was classified according to the social affiliation of the species. The plant nomenclature was adjusted to the Flora Croatia database (Nikolić 2010), while mosses were adjusted according to Koperski et al. (2000).
The association Hyperico grisebachii-Piceetum is distributed above an altitude of 1,400 m (slightly lower on Samarske Stijene). It grows on distinctly rocky peaks, ridges, hooks, karrens, and upper, steep and sun-exposed slopes. The sites of this association are basically characterized by the rockiness of the terrain, which almost always exceeds 40 %. This contributes significantly to the broken tree canopy layer and to the composition of shrubs and ground vegetation (Figure 1). The soils mostly consist of different subtypes of calcomelanosol, from organogenic, over organomineral to browned soils, and less frequently of shallow calcocambisol (Bakšić et al. 2010). According to the macroclimatic features of the Zavižan set, the average annual temperature is 3.5 oC and the average annual precipitation amount is 1,898 mm (Vučjak meteorological station on Northern Velebit – 1,594 m, period 1061 – 1990). The ecological amplitude of the occurrence of the community is very narrow, whereas the specific relief, pedological and climatic conditions are unfavourable for the successful growth of forest vegetation.
Ten phytocoenological relevés (Table 1, relevés 1– 6, Zavižan area; 7 and 8, Smrčeve Doline area; 9 and 10, Samarske Stijene area) contain 153 species of higher plants and 31 moss species. The interrupted tree layer is completely dominated by spruce, while the shrub layer, in addition to the species from the tree layer, contains further 18 species. Lonicera caerulea inc. subsp. borbasiana, Clematis alpina, Vaccinium myrtillus, Rosa pendulina, Salix appendiculata, Rubus idaeus, Sambucus racemosa and Juniperus communis subsp. alpina feature in more than two thirds of the relevés. From the sociological standpoint, there is a prevalence of so-called “picetal” (spruce) species, characteristic for spruce forests of the major part of Europe. Together with mosses, there are 38 such species in all. They are decisive for the sin-systematic position of the association and their participation is higher than in the marginal phytocoenosis Laserpitio krapfii-Piceetum. The species Calamagrostis varia, Cirsium erysithales, and even Carex ornithopoda, which belong to the order Erico-Pinetalia, deserve special mention in terms of participation and cover. Of other higher categories, the order Fagetalia Pawl. 1928 and lower categories consist of 31 species, of which 7 occur in over 40 % of the relevés. The alliance Adenostylion Br.-Bl. 1925 and the order Adenostyletalia G. & J. Br.-Bl. 1931 are represented by 17 species, with 5 species occurring in over 40 % of the relevés. The species of these syntaxa occur in a considerably lesser amount than is the case with the phytocoenosis Laserpitio krapfii-Piceetum mentioned above.
The comparison of the newly-nominated phytocoenosis Hyperico grisebachii-Piceetum with Shwaingruber’s Calamagrostio variae-Piceetum shows big differences, as well as their absolute independence. Over thirty species from the Dinaric Alps (e.g. Salix appendiculata, Sambucus racemosa, Lonicera caerulea subsp. borbasiana, Festuca bosniaca, Hypericum richeri subsp. grisebachii, Cardus acanthoides, Geranium macrorrhizum, Achillea clavene, Gentiana lutea subsp. symphyandra, Ribes alpinum and many others) are missing from stands of spruce forest with small-reed in the Austrian Alps (Willner and Grabherr 2007, columns 7 and 8, Table 34). On the other hand, these stands contain more than 100 species which were not recorded in the Dinaric association. Of these species, Larix decidua, Pinus sylvestris, Polygala chamaebuxus, Sesleria albicans, Homogyne alpina, Carex alba, Hepatica nobilis, Erica carnea, Campanula cochleariifolia, Ranunculus nemorosus and others are particularly prominent in terms of occurrence or participation. The investigated spruce association differs from subalpine spruce forests growing in Slovenia (Zupančič 1999) and in other Dinaric regions (Vukelić, Alegro and Šegota 2010).
To select diagnostic species of the association, we compared ten relevés from Table 1 and used the results of research into the forest vegetation of south-eastern Europe, primarily that of Fukarek (1964), Stefanović (1970), Zupančič (1980, 1999),Zupančič and Acceto (1994), Vukelić, Alegro and Šegota (2010) and other phytocoenologists. Special mention should be made of a broader group of differentiating species which characterize the subalpine, open-canopy rocky sites and which either do not occur in other spruce communities or are present to a much lesser degree. These include in the first place Juniperus communis subsp. alpina, Salix apendicullata, Sambucus racemosa, Hypericum richeri subsp. grisebachii, Achillea clavenae, Gentiana lutea subsp. symphyandra, than Festuca bosniaca, Cardus acanthoides, Carlina acaulis subsp. caulescens, Asplenium fissum, Melampyrum velebiticum and others. Not all of them are primarily forest species; the sites of this spruce forest are frequently interspersed with mountain clearings and massive blocks whose cracks are inhabited by these species. In relation to other spruce forests in Croatia and wider, there is also a group of forest species with high participation and cover that includes Calamagrostis varia, Polystychum lonchitis, Adenostyles alpina and Vaccinium vitis-idaea. These species play an important role in the identification and differentiation of this association, although they cannot be determined as differentiating since they are also present in other Dinaric phytocoenoses.
St John’s wort, Hypericum richeri Vill. subsp. grisebachii (Boiss.) Nyman, proved to be the most suitable species for nominating the association. Its participation and amounts are much higher than in the related phytocoenoses, while its eco-indicator properties are ideally suited to the site conditions of the association. Moreover, it has not been used in the nomination of common spruce communities. In forest communities of Croatia, Hypericum richeri subsp. grisebachii is found in mugo pine stands and in the investigated spruce association. Regardless of the same sin-systematic affiliation, these two associations differ profoundly.
Based on the above, the valid name of the analyzed association is Hyperico gri-sebachii-Piceetum abietis (Bertović 1975) nom. nov. hoc loco. We propose Bertović’s relevé No 5 in Table 17 (Bertović 1975, p. 34) to be the nomenclatural type (lectotypus hoc loco), This will solve the problem of the name and independent status of the association. In the syntaxonomic sense, it belongs to the alliance Vaccinio-Piceion, order Vaccinio-Piceetalia and class Vaccinio-Piceetea.
The phytocoenosis does not have any commercial importance, but is of high protective and natural-scientific significance. The most important stands are found in North Velebit National Park, but the association also occurs sporadically in Samarske Stijene on Bjelolasica and in the Smrekovac area in the Risnjak massif. The composition of the phytocoenosis is not uniform across the entire distribution range. The high ridges on which it grows are relatively distant enclaves with their specific geobotanical and horological features.
Key words: Ass. Calamagrostio variae-Piceetum dinaricum Bertović 1975; ass. Hyperico grisebachii-Piceetum abietis (Bertović 1975) nom. nov. hoc loco; Croatia; Dinaric mountains; floral composition
VUKELIĆ, Joso ŠL
|Zebec, M., M. Idžojtić, I. Poljak, I. Mihaldinec||UDK 630* 164 (001)||569|
|The Variability of Field Elm (Ulmus minor Mill. sensu latissimo) in Croatian Drava River Valley According to the Leaf Morphology|
|Summary: Due to the Dutch elm disease elms (Ulmus L.) have been categorized as a threatened genus within European flora, so that the protection of their genetic resources has been set as the main goal of many multilateral European projects. Due to exceptional sensitivity to the Dutch elm disease, as well as the high variability of morphological features, special emphasis in these studies has been put on the research of morphological and genetic variability of the European field elm, as well as the delimitation of species within U. minor Mill. sensu latissimo complex. The taxonomic structure of this complex, despite very intensive research, including combining of morphometric and molecular-biological methods, still represents an unknown.
In Croatia, the field elm appears in very different ecological conditions, and it is assumed that populations, especially the ones from climatically contrasting and geographically remote stands, differ from each other.
Croatian Drava River valley is a place of exceptional natural value and very high biological and landscape diversity. This area is protected by law by establishing Regional Park Mura-Drava, which is a part of the future MuraDrava-Danube Biosphere Reserve. Along the Drava River banks, numeruos anthropogenic activities took place (gas and oil exploitation, hydroelectric power plants, hydroregulation by building of dams and canals, excavating of sand and gravel from river bed). These activities resulted in changes in water relations and caused tree dieback in lowland forest ecosystems, which had drastic negative impact on biodiversity of this area. As a consequence of above mentioned activities, the field elm (Ulmus minor Mill. sensu latissimo) is threatened twofold. First - by negative human impact and second – by Dutch elm disease.
Therefore, in this study the variability of five field elm populations (Ulmus minor Mill. sensu latissimo) from Drava River valley, Northwest Croatia has been researched: Banov Brod, Gotalovo, Svibovica, Varaždin and Veliko Polje (Figure 1). Morphometric research of the intra- and interpopulational variability was done on the basis of 10 morphological leaf traits (Figure 2). Descriptive statistics and multivariate methods were used. It was concluded that the analysed morphological traits were very variable. The variability coefficient for populations in total varied from 17,63 % for number of primary teeth in the subapical region to 52,94 % for the leaf base asymmetry (Table 1). There were significant differences among trees within populations and among populations for all measured leaf traits (Tables 2 and 3), except for two traits on populational level: leaf blade length, measured along the shorter side of lamina, starting from the leaf base to the point of maximum leaf breadth (PMPW) and leaf blade width at 90 % of leaf blade length, measured along the shorter side of lamina (PW2). Intrapopulational variability was higher than the interpopulational one (Table 4), except for the following traits: number of secondary and tertiary veins in the subapical region of the leaf (NPSV) and petiole length (PL). According to the results of discriminant and cluster analysis (Tables 5 and 6, Figures 3 and 4), the most similar populations were Svibovica, Gotalovo and Banov Brod. Populacija Veliko Polje differed from other four populations due to strong negative antropogenic influence on its variability. Differentiation of the northernmost population Varaždin can be explained through its geographical position and specific habitat.
The results of this study form an initial base for further research of the field elm in Croatian Drava River valley, where in order to preserve genetic resources of this species, combined morphometric and molecular survey approach is required.
Key words: Drava River valley; morphometric variability; Ulmus minor Mill. sensu latissimo
ZEBEC, Marko ŠL
IDŽOJTIĆ, Marilena ŠL
|Cojzer, M., R. Brus||UDK 630* 182 (001)||581|
|Species Composition and Successional Pathways on Abandoned Agricultural Land in Haloze|
|Summary: In Slovenia, as well as in others parts of Europe, the share of abandoned agricultural land overgrown by forest has been increasing every year. This article deals with this process of succession in Haloze, in the northeastern part of Slovenia. The main aim of this research was to find out how much of the abandoned agricultural land on the studied area has succeeded to forest in the last 20 years, to examine differences in species composition and the density of individuals of tree and shrub species between abandoned areas and younger developmental phases of forest, as well as to point out the strategies of succession on abandoned areas and compare them with the vegetation process of younger developmental phases in forest. Forest area increased by 7 % in the period from 1985 to 2005 in the study region. The results show that the successional process on abandoned land starts with shrub species, while in younger phases of forest, tree species prevail entirely.
Key words: abandoned agricultural land; density of individuals; old-field succession; species composition; successional pathways on abandoned land; the Haloze region.; vegetation process in forest; younger developmental phases of forest
|Cetl, V., B. Barišić, I. Šarušić||UDK 630* 582||593|
|Transfer of Cadastral data into the New State Coordinate System HTRS96/TM|
|Summary: Cadastral data play important role in many fields directly or indirectly associated with their use (land surveying, architecture and urban planning, civil engineering, agronomy, forestry, transport, tourism, etc.). In forestry cadastral data mostly are used to manage forest land through the planning, protection, conservation and sustainable development.
In past 10 years there are significant changes in legislation concerning the official spatial data which are also reflected on the cadastral data. Certainly two of the most important changes are the introduction of new geodetic datum and map projection, and also transition to real estate cadastre. These processes for a wide range of users will induce new investments in the transformation of existing, or acquisition of new related maps in the new datum and projection if they want to be overlaid with the cadastral data.
Except the transformation to new datum and projection, in the process of transition from land cadastre to real estate cadastre it is necessary to conduct homogenization. This process is needed after transformation, for cadastral municipalities with older cadastral surveys conducted with graphical method. This process is required for solving poor cadastral plan geometric accuracyrelated to graphical method technical limitations. Homogenization is defined with identical points collected by the usage of Digital OrtoPhoto in scale 1:5000 (DOP5).
Since Croatia is on the beginning of this kind of works, this paper examines the transformation methods of cadastral data and the optimal selection of identical point’s density on the sample of cadastral district Brckovljani (Figure 1).
The transformations of cadastral data were performed by the national GRID model transformation and 7-parameter transformation (Table 1). For transformations control purposes, coordinates of 4 trigonometric points measured with CROPOS system (directly in new datum with specified precision of 2 cm) are used. Statistical values for the GRID transformation meet the expectations (Table 2, left), and some improvements in 7-parameter transformation (Table 2, right) could be expected if locally estimated parameters will be used. However, main problems with the local parameters are extra efforts for their district level estimation and related complications with continuity of transformations on district borders. The GRID transformation model, after it become official, seems like appropriate solution.
In the process of homogenization basic principle for the selection of an identical point is its stability since the time of cadastral survey. Most of the cadastral plans (approximately 75%) are created by surveys older than 100 years, so this principle is very difficult to meet. Before the selection of identical points, 200 x 200 meters grid was constructed to support their easier selection and regular distribution. Selection is performed in 3 different densities overlaying DOP5 (density I – 0,16 IP/ha, density II – 0,07 IP/ha and density III – 0,02 IP/ha). For the control of identical point’s density impact on the final results of homogenization, set of 44 control points is used. The situation with geometry of the cadastral plan before homogenization could be seen in Figure 3 and Table 3. Impact of identical point’s density is evaluated comparing statistics on control points before homogenization (Table 3, right), and after this process (Table 4). Only the densest set of identical points (0,16 IP/ha) has statistical indicators better after than before homogenization. Density has crucial impact on the costs of the homogenization process but on this example it is easy to see that savings in this segment could degrade geometry of cadastral plan which is unacceptable.
Key words: cadastre; digital cadastral map; homogenization; HTRS96/TM; transformation
|Kovácsová, P., M. Antalová||UDK 630* 589||603|
|Precision Forestry – Definition and Technologies|
|Abstract: The principle of “precision forestry” is that it uses modern tools and technology to get as much real information as it is possible to improve decision making process and to ensure current goals of forest management. The best known and most frequently used tools of modern technology are remote sensing, navigation systems and geographic information systems. New trends are decision support systems and tools for tree identification and tools for wood material testing and measurement. There is a large interest of the forestry sector in these technologies because as the primary source of data “precision forestry” provides more accurate (realistic) information then currently used sources. Aim of this article is to clarify and inform the professional, but also the general public with the precision forestry, its definition and its tools.
Key words: decision support system; forestry; Geographic Information System.; remote sensing technologies; surveying
|Landekić, Matija||UDK 630* 302 + 384||613|
|Organizational Culture and Occupational Safety in the Croatian Forestry Sector|
|Summary: The first part of the paper represents an overview of the topics (Table 1) related to occupational safety and health presented at the 3rd International conference “Occupational safety and health”, which was held in late September in Zadar. In the introduction, the level of national security in key economic sectors in Croatia (Table 2 and 3) is shown thru usage of standard indicators and beyond. The second part briefly presents the current research done at the Faculty of Forestry in Zagreb with a priority focus on activities that aim to improve level of safety and health of forest workers. Emphasis is placed on the need for establishment of a Center for forest work (Figure 1), as well as for improving the working conditions of technology, quality and occupational safety in forestry, both in private and state forestry sector.
The central part of the paper presents the status of health and safety at work in the state forestry company in relation to other economic activities in Croatia for the year 2009 thru usage of indicators like ‘number of injuries and number of approved occupational diseases per 1000 employees’ (Figure 2 and 5). In such a comparison state-owned Croatian Forests Ltd. shows a very high index of 29.40 injuries per 1000 employees, which makes the highest index in relation to other economic activities. Simultaneously, the collective activity farming, forestry and fishery is located at the rear with 7.95 injuries per 1000 employees. Comparing approved occupational diseases in 2009, the state forestry company manifests the highest index of occupational diseases per 1000 employees, where the index is approximately 4.6 times higher than the index in the manufacturing industry which is 0.45. There is a significant and alarming differences between the indexes despite the halved number of injuries over the past ten years in the state forestry company, which indicates to a needs for scientific insight to the issue of continuous of numerous risks and high risk of forest work, as well as to standardized work processes and low awareness of employees especially about the importance of proper and sustained use of large and smalls vacation and general timeline.
Key words: economic activities in Croatia; organizational culture; safety and health in forestry; the comparison of the conditions in 2009
|Balenović, I., H. Marjanović, M. Benko||UDK 630* 569 + 587||623|
|Application of Aerial Photographs in Forest Management in Croatia|
|Summary: In forest inventory, in Croatia, data acquisition is performed using exclusively terrestrial methods which are costly and time consuming. With application of remote sensing methods, the need for the field work is reduced which might open the possibility of reducing costs. In the last thirty years various research about possibility of applying remote sensing methods in practical forestry in Croatia were conducted. But, practical applications of data obtained by remote sensing methods were limited mainly to their use for the orientation in the field.
Classical photogrammetric methods were one of the methods that were tested, but also did not find wider application in practical forest inventory. However, development of new digital image acquisition and processing technology has encouraged us to reconsider the application of digital photogrammetry in the forest inventory. The aim of this work is to give contribution in determining the guidelines for application of aerial photographs (digital images) in practical forest management.
In the last thirty years photogrammetry developed from analogue, over analytical to digital photogrammetry. Film based aerial photographs are still used in analogue and analytical photogrammetry, and photointerpretation is performed with analogue or analytical stereoinstruments. In digital photogrammetry film based aerial photographs are replaced with digital images, and photointerpretation is preformed using specialized computer 3D monitor. In the last decades, digital aerophotogrammetric camera (Figure 1) and digital photogrammetric workstation (Figure 2) became the most important tools of digital photogrammetry, especially in geodesy.
In this paper we presented the overview of the past research and results of application of aerial photographs in forest management in Croatia. Research of stand delineation, tree and stand attributes, and other application of aerial photographs in forest management are presented. Most of those researches were carried out with photointerpretation and photogrammetric measurements on film based aerial photographs with analytical stereoinstruments. However, several pioneering researches using digital image analysis were reviewed here as well.
We presented the current state of the technology in the field of digital photogrammetry. Also, a review was given of several selected research from Europe, which described the possibility and limitations of application of modern photogrammetric methods in forest management. Overview of domestic and foreign literature indicates that an application of digital images of high spatial resolution, which can be obtained from digital aerophotogrammetric camera for use at digital photogrammetric workstations, are insufficiently explored, especially for application in forest management. One possible area of application of digital photogrammetry in Croatia is in the management of private forests. Because of the lack of proper management and of inventory data for private forests, we can assume that digital photogrammetry could prove useful in this area of forestry. This could lead to reduction of the required field work and related costs in creating forest management plans. In addition, when obtained, high resolution digital images of forested area are an important document that could be used in future (research and monitoring of growth, forest health, harvesting, etc.). Should costs in data acquisition for forest inventory by employing digital photogrammetry prove to be lower (or in worst case only slightly higher) that those employing classical methods, this should be a strong sign to the forestry community in Croatia to consider the use of digital photogrammetry in forest management.
Key words: aerial photographs; digital photogrammetry; remote sensing; stand parameters assessment; stands exclusion
BALENOVIĆ, Ivan ŠL
BENKO, Miroslav ŠL