|A WORD FROM THE EDITOR-IN-CHIEF|
|ON THE 114th ELECTORAL MEETING OF THE CROATIAN FORESTRYASSOCIATION|
|ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPERS|
|Vukelić,J., A.Alegro, V.Šegota||UDK 630* 188 (001)||211|
|Altimontane-Subalpine Spruce Forest with Laserpitium Krapfii (Laserpitio krapfii-Piceetum abietisass. nova)in Northern Velebit (Croatia)|
|Summary: This research describes a new association of spruce with Laserpitium krapfii(Laserpitio krapfii-Piceetum abietisass. nova). Occurring in the subalpine belt of northern Velebit, it reaches altitudes between 1,200 and 1,600 m. Here, the association is developed as a permanent stage under the strong influence of the microclimate of more humid, colder and shadier sites. Locally, it descends into sinkholes and lower slopes all the way to the beech-fir forest (Omphalodo-Fagetum). It is generally incorporated within the belt of pre-alpine beech forest with large white buttercup (Ranunculo platanifoliae-Fagetum). Some stands are highly productive, but in a large part of the range the community has a protective character.
The phytocoenosisLaserpitio krapfii-Piceetumhas macro-climatic features of the prealpine beech forest, in whose belt it is situated. However, its occurrence is predominantly determined by the microclimate modified primarily by the relief, altitude and other geomorphological factors (Cindrić 1973). The average annual temperature of the subalpine belt of northern Velebit is 3.5 °C, and the average annual precipitation is 1,898 mm (in the period 1961–1990, data from the State Hydro-Meteorological Institute). The parent material is made up of limestone breccias and limestone-dolomite blocks which often resurface. The soil is organogenic and organomineral calcomelanosol in mosaic with calcocambisol. In relation to calcomelanosols of other forest communities in the Zavižan area, calcomelanosols in this community are the richest in total nitrogen and humus content. Martinović (in Cestar et. al. 1977) found neutral reaction and base saturated adsorption complex in the humus-accumulative horizon and in the cambic horizon in calcomelanosols. He attributes his finding to the fragmented dolomitized limestones and breccias which supply the soils with ample quantities of calcium. It is very important to point this out, because in relation to other spruce associations, the studied Velebit community is significantly richer in species of the order Fagetalia. The average soil pH determined in water for the depth layer of 0–5 cm amounts to 5.50.
Table 1 presents 12 phytocoenological relevés of the association Laserpitiokrapfii-Piccetumwith 140 species of higher plants and 25 moss species. Of this, 58 species of higher plants and 6 species of moss occur in more than 40 % of the relevés. Spruce is completely prevalent in the tree layer and is frequently accompanied by beech (often deformed and of poor vitality) and mountain ash, while the bottom of the sinkholes and the lower positions are reserved for fir. The shrub layer, in addition to the species from the tree layer, contains another 16 species. The dominant species includeRubus idaeus,Vaccinium myrtillusand Rosa pendulina. Rubus saxatilisis dominant in more stony areas and Daphne mezereum in more temperate areas. The ground vegetation contains 119 species, of which 48 participate with the 3rddegree and more. Of 25 moss species, Dicranum scoparium, Polytrichum formosum, Ctenidium molluscum, Tortella tortuosa and Isothecium alopecuroides occur in over 40 % of the plots.
From the sociological standpoint, the dominant species are so-called “picetal” ones, characteristic of spruce forests in the larger part of Europe. Among them, Polystichum lonchitis, Luzula sylvatica, Veronica urticifolia, Valeriana tripteris, Adenostyles alpina, Hieracium murorum, Oxalis acetosella,Homogyne sylvestris,Gentiana asclepiadeaand others have the highest participation. Together with mosses, there are 36 species in all. Other significantly represented higher categories and lower units include as many as 39 species of the order FagetaliaPawl. 1928 (22 species with over 40 %). The allianceAdenostylionBr.-Bl. 1925 and the order AdenostyletaliaG & J. Br.-Bl. 1931 are represented with 20 species, of which 9 with over 40 %. In terms of participation, species of the order Erico-PinetaliaHorvat 1959,Cirsium erisithalesandCalamagrostis variaare very important. Other categories contain 69 plant and moss species, of which 13 occur in over 40 % of the relevés.
The speciesLaserpitiumkrapfii and Campanula velebitica are characteristic of the association,Knautia drymeia,Petasites albus,Mycelis muralisand Mercurialis perennisfrom the Fagetaliaorder are differentiating species, whereas Hypericum richerisubsp.grisebachii,Valeriana montana,Geranium sylvaticumandTrollius europaeushave prominent diagnostic importance. The association belongs to the suballianceVaccinio-PiceenionOberdorfer 1957, although the participation of elements of the suballiance Abieti-PiceenionBr.-Bl. in Br.-Bl. et al. 1939 is somewhat higher. However, the synecology of the subalpine belt, the complete dominance of spruce and the secondary role of fir, as well as the presence of species of the subalpine belt, firmly indicate the suballianceVaccinio-Piceenion. The abundance of differentiating species of subalpine in relation to montane spruce forests include Valeriana montana, Rubus saxatilis, Cirsium erisithales, Viola biflora, Polystichum lonchitis, Trollius europaeus, and slightly lessSaxifraga rotundifolia.
According to the Code of Phytocoenological Nomenclature (Weber et al. 2000), relevé No. 5 in the fifth column of Table 1 is the nomenclatural type.
Table II analyzes the relationship of the association towards related spruce subalpine associations in Croatia and in adjacent areas, ranging from the pre-alpine region to the central Dinaric range. Column 1 contains an important zonal association of the pre-alpine and alpine phytogeographic area of Slovenia and south Austria (Adenostylo glabrae-PiceetumM. Wraber ex Zukrigl 1973 corr. Zupančič 1999), while column 2 presents the community from the subalpine belt of the Dinaric phytogeographic area of Slovenia on carbonate parent material (Lonicero caeruleae-PiceetumZupančič (1976)1999). Columns 3 and 4 present Horvat’s association ”Picetum subalpinum croaticum”, mainly from western Croatia. Column 5 shows 6 relevés of the association “Calamagrostio variae-Piceetum” (nom. invalid) from northern Velebit (Bertović, 1975), and column 6 presents 12 new relevés of the association Laserpitio krapfii-Piceetum. Columns 7–9 feature subalpine spruce forests of Bosnia and Herzegovina, two of which /column 7,Sorbo-PiceetumFukarek 1964, column 8 Piceetum(illyricum)subalpinumHorvat 1950listeretosumethomogynetosumFukarek 1969/ were taken from Zupančič’s analysis (1990). Column 9 provides seven relevés from Vlašić (Lakušić et al. 1982).
The floral composition of spruce forests in Velebit, in relation to other Dinaric spruce communities, is characterized by lesser participation and cover of Alpine-boreal species (Lonicera nigra,Lycopodium annotinum,Huperziaselago, Listera cordata, Calamagrostis arundinacea, Rhytiadelphus loreus) and higher participation and cover of the species from the Fagetalia order and lower units. This is attributed to several reasons, such as the biogeographic position of Velebit and the resulting ecological factors, the lithological-pedological properties of the substrate and the influence of a strong beech belt which surrounds smaller complexes (and fragments) of coniferous forests. West Croatian and particularly Slovenian spruce forests are under a strong Alpine influence, while Bosnian-Herzegovinian spruce forests have retreated deep into the continental part. It is therefore logical that the association Laserpitio krapfii-Piceetummanifests a more “fagetal” character and that its composition contains species of beech forests that are either absent from other spruce associations or are much less represented. Compared to the subalpine spruce forest “Calamagrostio-Piceetum” described earlier, the new association occurs at lower positions and covers more humid, colder, shadier, much less stony and soil-rich sites. Locally, it descends into sinkholes and lower slopes to the altitude of 1,100 m. Fir is still considerably present, but the other mentioned association is above the upper fir boundary.
Typologically, the association Laserpitio krapfii-Piceetumcan provisionally be divided into three types of stands. Stands with a standard composition are found on upper and centrally positioned, shady, moderately fresh slopes with an average floral composition. They frequently contain equal amounts of species from the order Fagetalia. The second type occurs on drier, more illuminated, more exposed localities that also include meadow edges (most frequently Nardetum strictae), while the third type of stands is developed in narrow and restricted sinkholes and on the slopes leading to them. Species of the order Adenostyletaliadominate on colluvial soils with more moisture and longer presence of snow. Cicerbita alpina,Ranunculus platanifolius,Stellarianemorum,Poa hybridaand some others are particularly prominent. In some earlier research into spruce forests of northern Velebit (Vukelić and Tomljanović 1990), this stand type was identified as an independent associationAdenostylo alliariae-PiceetumHartman 1994.
VUKELIĆ, Joso ŠL
|Pernar,N., D. Bakšić, I. Perković, D. Holjević||UDK 630* 116.2 + 114.7 (001)||229|
|Impact of Eroded Terrain Recovery on Soil Proporties on Flysch – Case Studies of Abrami and Butoniga in Istria|
|Summary: The impact of biological and technical soil protection measures, as well as the effect of eroded terrain recovery on soil properties, i.e. its regeneration, was investigated in two localities on flysch in Istria. Seven research plots in the erosion research polygon in Abrami were restored for the purpose of measuring annual sediment production by erosion. The condition of soil was investigated in five plots and its regeneration was compared in terms of terrain recovery methods. Two plots were excluded: one because the terrain was completely eroded and turned into bare marl detritus, and another because it was established only recently, therefore, soil properties have not yet been changed by the treatment.
Near the village of Grimalda we analyzed the condition of surface soil in the part of the terrain that was afforested in 1982. We made two separate analyses: one in an established black pine stand and the other on abandoned grassland displaying natural progression of forest vegetation.
According to our research, the soil in all five plots in the Abrami polygon is equally carbonate, while the pH value shows alkaline reaction. These properties are the consequence of past erosion processes, which have led to predominantly bare, homogeneous, detritus of flysch. As a result, the remaining material has similar properties regardless of the applied recovery methods. Soil in the areas that are not severely eroded is eutric cambisol, while severely eroded slopes are characterized by shallow regosol. Several recovery methods were applied. In the plots restored for the purpose of monitoring sediment production by erosion we analyzed the impact of a) high bench terraces with drywall crowns, b) low and mildly sloping bench terraces, c) classical planting with black pine into holes, d) planting with black pine into bench terraces and undersowing with a grass mixture and Spanish broom, e) planting with black pine into bench terraces without undersowing, and f) areas with varying initial vegetation condition and varying slope degrees.
It was found that technical recovery measures had a key role in the reduction of sediment production by erosion, especially in the early stage of the experiment. It was also found that very slow vegetation progression on steep slopes results in very slow soil regeneration. Thus, despite natural colonization with black pine, canopy closure is very slow, while the humus-accumulative soil horizon is poorly developed and fragmented. On milder slopes that are not severely eroded, the undisturbed expansion of natural vegetation (fire protection) produces equal effects on soil properties (and its protection, regeneration, and similar) as does biological recovery with planting black pine. This was confirmed by research in the Grimalda locality. The only difference is slightly higher soil water permeability in the pine culture.
The annual sediment production by erosion in the experimental polygon of Abrami partially coincides with the organic matter content. These processes are reversely proportional, which indicates that soil humization and regeneration will be more rapid if erosion prevention is more efficient, or in other words, if better technical and biological recovery measures are applied.
Key words: eroded terrain recoveri; forest floor; soil organic matter; soil regeneration
PERNAR, Nikola ŠL
BAKŠIĆ, Darko ŠL
|Pentek,T., H. Nevečerel, K. Dasović,T. Poršinsky, M. Šušnjar, I. Potočnik||UDK 630* 307 + 383 + 377 (001)||241|
|Analysis of Secondary Relative Openness in HillyAreas as a Basis for Selection of Winch Rope Length|
|Abstract: For quality and rational forest ecosystem management the existence of an optimal spatial laid network of primary and secondary forest traffic infrastructure is necessary. There are different parameters for the quantitative and qualitative assessment of the existing network of forest traffic infrastructure as well as to define unopened or insufficiently open forest areas. The relative openness (primary or secondary) in combination with the GIS buffer tools, is a very effective tool in analyzing quantity and quality of primary and secondary forest roads, but also very distinct and descriptive overview of results of the analysis. Research is conducted in management unit “Bovan-Jelar” Forest office Perušić located in the mountainous region of Lika. GIS study area is formed and the cadastre of primary and secondary forest roads was established. Analysis of a secondary openness was performed of skidder type Timberjack 240 C equipped with Adler two-drum winch rope length 30, 45 and 60 m. Unopened areas are defined and, in selected subcompartments, for the length of the winch rope of 60 m, the proposed route of the future skid roads that will improve the existing secondary forest roads network. Secondary openness analysis is performed again a and obtained results are compared with the current state of secondary openness.
Key words: GIS; hilly area; planning; relative openness; road density; secondary forest roads
PENTEK, Tibor ŠL
NEVEČEREL, Hrvoje ŠL
DASOVIĆ, Katarina ŠL
PORŠINSKY, Tomislav ŠL
ŠUŠNJAR, Marijan ŠL
|Klobučar, Damir||UDK 630* 629 (001)||249|
|Using Geostatistics in Forest Management|
|Summary: The possibilities of forest measurements have been significantly improved nowadays, by using georeferenced maps, implementing remote sensing, developing artificial intelligence, using the global positioning system and geographical information system. Moreover, the exact position (x, y) of the measurement (of variables) of the specific location (Z) in the forest allows the monitoring of the information and the analysis of the so called continuous model of spatial variation, as opposed to the discrete model of spatial variation which is assumed to be homogeneous.
Ever since geostatistics was introduced to geoscinces (Krige 1951, Matheron 1965), it has been implemented in many areas whose interest lies in analyzing spatial data. Geostatistics is based on the concept of regionalized variable (which means that the value of the variable depends on the sampling area).
The goal was research and presentation of using geostatistics in the forest management, with the aim of improving the present approach to using and mapping the forest inventory data for Croatia. The geostatistical analysis was performed on a part of an management unit “Banov Brod”, Pitomača forestry administration, for three structural elements (variables): number of trees (N), basal area (G) and volume (V). The research included the compartments /subcompartments 9a, d, e, 10 a, b (Figure 1), with the total area of 69, 57 ha.
In order to determine the anisotropy, semivariogram surface maps of each of the elements were made. The semivariograms were used as a measure of spatial dependence, and experimental and theoretical semivariograms were calculated. The experimental semivariogram for each structural element was calculated after multiple fitting of number and width of lags. The parameters used for Ordinary Kringing interpolation of each of the structural elements were obtained from the theoretical semivariogram model.
The interpolation of structural elements was also conducted by using the inverse distance method. The testing of the interpolation model was done by using a numeric cross-validation approach. Furthermore, the usefulness of making a variogram cloud in the spatial structural elements’ analysis was shown. Three programs were used during this project: VARIOWIN 2.21; SURFER 8.0™, and STATISTICA 7.1 ™.
Semivariogram surface maps for the three analyzed structural elements did not indicate the presence of anisotropy (Figure 2). As anisotropy was not determined and omnidirectional experimental semivariogram were calculated (Figure 3). All experimental semivariograms can be considered reliable because they contain a great number of pairs of data. What they have in common is the existence of hardly explainable high nugget, that is the difference in the values of close samples or measurement errors, as well as the range, which is bigger than the sampling interval. The omnidirectional experimental semivariogram of the tree volume and basal area (Figures 3a, b) start oscillating very soon, which shows that there is no large range of these two structural elements in any direction. The omnidirectional experimental semivariogram of the number of trees increases relatively quickly so this structural element shows the poorest spatial correlation (Figure 3c). The omnidirectional experimental semivariogram is approximated with the theoretical (Table 2, Figure 3). Sample distribution maps (Figures 4, 5 and 6) show an estimated value of structural elements on either coordinates (x, y).
Structural elements’ assessments through kriging and inverse distance method are tested with cross-validation and a root mean square error was used as an accuracy benchmark (Table 4). The mean square errors of assessment methods are very similar and therefore inconclusive when determining which interpolation method is more acceptable. Thus, a testing of the value differences between the measured data and interpolation methods for the three structural elements (number of trees, basal area and volume) was done by using the analysis of variance of repeated measurements. As visible in Table 5, statistically significant difference between the measurement data and interpolation methods of kriging and inverse distance was not determined.
During the assessment of structural elements’ value (Figures 7, 8, 9) it is visible that the kriging assessment is more compatible with range of measurement values for all three structural elements, while inverse distance method measurements have a significantly lower value range (in other words model cells assessment tend to be around the mean value of incoming data). Consequently, this research considers kriging as the acceptable interpolation method when compared to inverse distance method.
The making of semivariogram cloud is a useful tool because it allows the observation of each variable (structural element) as a distance function (shown on the x-axis) between measured data (variogram values between pairs are shown on the y-axis) within the analyzed area (view of the forest are with locations where measurements were done) on an interactive interface.
In geostatistics the size of area and variable is not a limiting element. Any variable obtained through forest inventory, by tree type or total, can be observed by using a geostatistical analysis. The only condition is that some form of autocorrelation is assumed between them.
Since forest inventory is conducted periodically, the geostatistical method which allows the possibility of monitoring forests in space (spatial structure), also allows monitoring forests in time. The changes of variable(s) in space and time (change of structural elements’ values by tree type and total, health of forests, etc.), as well as the forest management itself, can thus be monitored by continuously mapping two or more successive measurements. In addition, the above mentioned approach also enables the control of forest measurements.
By doing the forest inventory, a lot of information is gathered on the state of forests. Geomathematical tools (geostatistical and neural) enable the data to be used in a more relevant and rational way in space and time, in order to manage forests in a more optimal way.
Key words: forest inventory; forest management; geostatistics; kriging; semivariogram.; structural elements
|Redžić,S., S. Barudanović||UDK 630* 189 (001)||261|
|Obrasci bioraznolikosti šumske vegetacije Crvanj planine u Hercegovini (zapadni Balkan)|
|Abstract:The peterns of structure and certain parameters of dynamics of forest vegetation have been studied along the vertical profile of the Crvanj Mt. in Hercegovina (from Ulog to Zimomor, i.e. top of mountain Crvanj). The following communities of the forest vegetation are present: Quercetum petraeae-cerrisB. Jovanović (1960) 1979 subass.seslerietosum autumnalissubass. nova hoc loco; Lathyro nigeri-Quercetum cerris nomen nov hoc loco (Syn.:Quercetum cerris “mediterraneo-montanum”Lakušić et Kutleša 1977), Aceri-Carpinetum orientalisBlečić et Lakušić 1966 /alliancesQuercion petraeae-cerris[(Lakušić 1976) Lakušić et Jovanović 1980] Čarni et al. 2009 andCarpinion orientalisBlečić et Lakušić 1966/;Querco- Carpinetum betuliHorvat 1938 emend Blečić 1958 subass.quercetosum cerrisStefanović 1964 aposeriosum foetidaefacies nov. hoc loco (alliance Erythronio-Carpinion(Horvat 1958) Marinček in Mucina et al. 1993;Lathyro verni-Fagetum sylvaticaeRedžić 2007 nom. nov (Syn.:Fagetum moesiacae “montanum”Blečić et Lakušić 1970), Seslerio autumnalis-Fagetum sylvaticaeBlečić et Lakušić 1970 corr. Redžić & Barudanović hoc loco and Phyteumo spicatae-FagetumsylvaticaeBarudanović 2003 corr. Redžić & Barudanović hoc loco (alliance Seslerio-Fagion sylvaticae nomen nov hoc loco (Syn.:Fagion moesiacaeBlečić et Lakušić 1970). All communities are hemicryptophitic and phanerophtic, with certain proportion of geophytes life form. The balkans, dinaric and SE Europe floral elements are with high proportion and differentiate of those forest communites from similar forest vegetation in other Dinaric Alps region.
Key words: Balkan; Crvanj Mt.; Forest vegetation; Herzegovina; Querco-Fagetea; Syntaxonomy
|Šporčić,M., M. Landekić, M. Lovrić, S. Bogdan, K. Šegotić||UDK 630* 624 + 568||275|
|Multiple Criteria Decision Making in Forestry – Methods and Experiences|
|Summary: Planning and decision making in forestry is characterized with a high degree of complexity due to multiple goals of forest management. The principle of the sustainable development is incorporated in management and utilization of forests and forest land in a way that adheres to biological diversity, productivity, regeneration capacity, vitality and potential of the forest to fulfill, now and in the future, its important economical, ecological and social functions. All of the above complicates the performing of daily forestry operations, while managers are conditioned to perform constant analyzes of all relevant management indicators. The emphasis in these analyzes is put on standardized natural and financial indicators of production and management. In this highly dynamical period for the management of natural resources forestry experts need models in which different accounting and financial data is transformed into easily usable information. In such circumstances methods and techniques that can contribute to more reliable planning and to more objective decision making are of great importance, as are the models of objective analysis and management result-scoring methods.
This paper provides an overview of models which take into consideration simultaneously several criteria, so that they can provide more comprehensive measures of management, and to serve as a background for planning and decision making. Several methods of multiple-criteria decision making has been described and compared. Brief description and comparison presented in the paper includes following multi-criteria methods: data envelopment analysis (DEA), analytic hierarchy process (AHP), simple multi-attribute rating technique (SMART), outranking methods, voting methods and stochastic multicriteria analysis (SMAA). The goal is to explain for which types of tasks and problems these methods can be applied in the field of forestry. That provides an insight into characteristics of the respective methods and a guideline to eventual choice of which method to apply. A valuable contribution on the role and significance of the multiple-criteria decision making models in forestry is provided through cited papers, and specially through concrete example of the application of such models through the research performed within “Hrvatske šume” Ltd. Zagreb. In this research the efficiency of organizational units in the Croatian forestry is evaluated by applying DEA. The results of relative efficiency are based on calculation of output oriented CCR and BCC models. Frequency of efficient units in reference set of inefficient units is given. The sources and values of inefficiencies are established and the impact of structural characteristics on relative efficiency of forest offices is shown. Forest offices are also grouped by Forest Administrations and regions they belong to.
In the selection and application of multiple-criteria decision making methods a special attention must be paid to the quality and availability of information which are needed for the analysis and grading of alternatives, according to the set criteria. An appropriate method must be chosen in a way in which all the data available with the reasonable amount of effort and dedication could be utilised as fully as possible. It is also good to apply models which decision makers and other stakeholders can understand, and whose results and calculations they can easily illustrate and interpret. However, practical multiple-criteria decision making applications are usually too “technical”, so real cases and situations are either over-simplified, or they are too complex for application, comprehension and interpretation. In such conditions their application in decision making and management often needs special knowledge and/or help of trained experts. At the same time, the differences in the types of individuals involved in the process of planning and decision making has to be also taken into consideration. People differ between each other in knowledge and skills, and they are differently prepared do participate in analyzes and decision making. Recent studies demonstrate to the usage of hybrid methods, or to the usage of several models and techniques simultaneously. Interactive application of several methods contributes to the efficiency of the analyzes, that is to the objectivity and to the reliability of estimates, but also to learning and raising capacities.
In forestry, planning and decision making is often based on more or less incomplete information, missing information, or sometimes on purely descriptive information. In that way the process of forest management is tackled with much of insecurity, incertitude and risk, which does not allow precise estimates and planning. In that context the methods of multiple-criteria decision making, such as AHP and SMAA, have potential for the wider acceptance in forestry and natural resource management. Multiple-criteria models cannot replace traditional tools and procedures in forest planning; on the contrary, they should be complementary. In that sense, the numerical simulations and optimizations are important for the estimation of future production abilities and decision making related to production planning, although they may not be able to enlist all the relative problems of multi-functional forest management. In that cases their estimations and results, as any other information sources (such as GIS, expert judgments, subjective preferences of descriptive data) can be used within a common framework with the methods of multiple-criteria decision making.
In the last few years, the research and the application of multiple-criteria decision making models has been widely represented in many areas, and especially in the management of natural resources. Additionally, besides scientists and researchers these methods have gained interest of experts and practitioners. In forestry they are applied with an intention of better responding to current challenges in forest management. The complexity of business environment, the imperative of ecological acceptability and business success with simultaneous sustainable management of forests creates a demand for new and more precise models and techniques in forestry. Through development and application of analysis which encompasses different models of multiple-criteria decision making it is possible to contribute to more simplified analysis, planning and foreseeing in forest management. Generally, it is considered that multiple-criteria decision making models in forestry, as in other business systems, can be very strong support to planning and decision making.
Key words: AHP; DEA; forest management; forestry; Multiple criteria decision making
ŠPORČIĆ, Mario ŠL
BOGDAN, Saša ŠL
ŠEGOTIĆ, Ksenija ŠL
|Tomljanović,K., M. Grubešić, K. Krapinec||UDK 630* 156||287|
|Testing the Applicability of Digital Camera Sensor for Monitoring Wildlife and other Animal Species|
|Abstract:It is the legal responsibility of the gamekeeper no matter if it involves public or commune hunting ground, to enforce counting of all game species that constantly or occasionally inhabit the hunting ground. In practice this is conducted by more often regular monitoring, especially of big game, and determining of the numerical status based on annual monitoring. With the use of automated sensor cameras this work has been somewhat made easier. During the usage and testing of features for several years, we have noticed some advantages and disadvantages. Systematic positioning of cameras to well chosen locations within the hunting ground can ensure a good overview of the gender structure, physical condition and trophy strength , in a way and from a distance that was until now considered unthinkable or hardly achievable. During the testing special attention has been given to the very sensor that activates the camera. As a result of the conducted research we got curves that line out the probability with which the passing of wild game will be recorded at a certain distance. Also the angels under which the sensor reacts have been compared and it has been determined that in that segment there are statistically significant differences relating to various distances but also to various sides from which wild games is expected to come. Photographs recorded with the sensor have been used and compared to those recorded in preset intervals. As a contribution some rare, scarcely viewable or protected animal species have been shown, that have in their own manner a bigger or smaller influence and significance to the hunting management of a certain ground.
Key words: automatic digital camera; couning; games; hunting ground
TOMLJANOVIĆ, Kristijan ŠL
GRUBEŠIĆ, Marijan ŠL
KRAPINEC, Krešimir ŠL