|A WORD FROM THE EDITOR-IN-CHIEF|
|ON THE REGENERATION FINAL FELLING IN EVEN-AGED FORESTS|
|In “Šumarski list” I have already written on final felling in even-aged forests. Croatian forests considerablydiffer in quality from most European forests by their natural composition, which is similar to virgin forests fromwhich they originate. However, most people are outraged when they discover an area upon which we have carried out final felling. To myself a mature forest is by far more beautiful than the “disaster” resulting from our expert operation named forest regeneration. The proud tall trees that decorated the landscape suddenlydisappeared; we are irritated by their remnants, the stumps, cut off crown tops, furrowed soil, and skidder traces.
To justify this procedure, let me now explain to non-foresters the reason for the such “disasters”. Following afinal cut, among the lush grass the expert eye of a forester will notice young plants quickly appearing from theseeds of the cut trees, freed from their shade. A young forest is born. With silvicultural care, it will soon soothe thewounds caused by the cut. A forest cannot be regenerated without pain. Left to nature, it first grows old, and thendecays. Depending on the species, dead trees on the ground will decay between twenty (beech) and eighty (fir)years. The regeneration starts during the decay, but it develops slowly and lasts more than half of the life of our naturally managed forest. The “disaster” would thus lasts for about fifty years; thanks to the forestry science, it takesonly about ten years.
The procedure named regeneration felling consists of several cuts aimed at achieving future young trees of genetically best quality, with maintaining the existing forest association. Several tree species are here considered.Their regeneration and the achievement of mixture ratio require great experience and expert skill. Sustainable management, the axiom established in 1991 in Rio de Janeiro is taken into consideration. The most complex plant formation in the continental part of the world, forest with its perfection can be a model for the survival oftechnocoenosis.
In order to cause the least possible public irritation, before determining the area for final felling we shouldkeep to the FSC Certificate and invite the local authorities, schools, green-peace associations and hikers to inform them on the procedures. We should show them the forest areas that have been successfully regenerated. Inthis way we can prevent the protests of those who regard final felling as devastation and even destruction of forest. Even some mycologists that regard final regeneration cut as ecocide show such ignorance.
Professor Emeritus Branimir Prpić, Ph.D.
PRPIĆ, Branimir ŠL
|ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPERS|
|Idžojtić, M., M. Zebec, I. Poljak||UDK 630* 271 (001)||5|
|Revitalisation of the Lisičine Arboretum|
|Summary: The Arboretum Lisičine is located on the Papuk mountain. It is managed by Hrvatske šume d.o.o., Zagreb (Croatian Forests Ltd., Zagreb), Forest Administration Našice, Forest Office Voćin. It was founded in 1979 on an area of about 45 ha. In the northern part of the Arboretum there is a natural beech forest. The southern part, which is the arboretum in the true sense of the word, is divided in 3 parts: 1. horticultural part, on which ornamental trees and shrubs are planted, 2. part planted with European and Asian plants, 3. part planted with American plants. During the Homeland War the Arboretum was occupied and devastated. A part of the plants dried out, some plants were not properly cultivated, many of them were placed too close to each other, and some turned out to be invasive and spread without control over other parts of the Arboretum. In addition, black locust, blackberry bushes and other species started overgrowing the cultivated plants. Since 2006, within the project “Revitalisation of the Lisičine Arboretum”, the arrangement of the Arboretum has been on-going. In each individual case decisions have to be made about what needs to be done to preserve as many plants as possible. There is no documentation about the plants, and the determination and marking of the plants has to be done successively field by field. In the horticultural part, on 12 fields, 416 different taxa of 113 genera have been determined. Of these 202 are deciduous, whereas the others are evergreen or leaf-exchanging. The most represented genera are: Picea (32 taxa), Juniperus (23 taxa), Chamaecyparis (23 taxa), Prunus (20 taxa), Pinus (15 taxa), Thuja (14 taxa), Berberis (13 taxa), Viburnum (13 taxa), Taxus (12 taxa), Spiraea (12 taxa), Acer (11 taxa), Cotoneaster (11 taxa), Abies (9 taxa), Cornus (9 taxa), Ilex (9 taxa) and Sorbus (9 taxa). The horticultural part can serve as the model part for arranging the whole Arboretum, having priority during revitalisation. Numerous conifer cultivars are specially valuable, so that we can say that the Lisičine Arboretum is one of the richest living collections of different conifer species in Croatia. Due to the value and uniqueness of the Lisičine Arboretum, as much effort as possible has to be made for its arrangement and later maintenance, so it can serve for education and scientific research, as well as relaxation and strolls of visitors.
Key words: existing state; Lisičine Arboretum; plant list; revitalisation
IDŽOJTIĆ, Marilena ŠL
ZEBEC, Marko ŠL
|Trinajstić, Ivo||UDK 630* 164 + 188 (001)||19|
|Chorological and Phytosociological Characteristics of Quercus Coccifera L. in Croatia|
|Summary: According to some viewpoints (Camus 1934–1939) all along evergreen part of the Mediterranean the Quercus coccifera agg. comprises two species, namely Q. coccifera L. and Q. calliprinos Webb. According to other viewpoint (Schwarz 1936) the question concerns one species only – Q. coccifera with two subspecies (the subsp. coccifera and the subsp. caliprinos (Webb) Holmboe). The third viewpoint (Greuter and co. 1984) is that the question concerns one species – Q. coccifera, the name Q. calliprinos being reduced to a younger synonym status.
Relatively the most complete data on the presence of the kermes oak (Q. coccifera) in Croatia are given by Haračić (1905). He reports severasl localities for the island of Lošinj in the Kvarner littoral. These are Studenčić, Veli bok, Nerezine and Ćunski. In Dalmatia Q. coccifera is known from the island of Korčula – Lumbarda, Korčula-Dominče (Trinajstić 1985); the island of Mljet – Saplunara (Adamović 1911, Regula-Bevilacqua and Ilijanić 1984, Trinajstić, n.p.); the Pelješac Peninsula – Orebić, Ruskovići (Visiani 1842, Horvatić 1958, Trinajstić 1984, 1985, 1985a) and Potomje (Trinajstić 1984, 1985, 1985a). In the Dubrovnik littoral (Konavli), the kermes oak is known from the region of Ćilipi and Pendovo Selo, to the east of Cavtat (Trinajstić 1983).
The first data on the phytosociological and syntaxonomic characteristics of Q. coccifera in our country are reorted from the region of Orebić on the Pelješac Peninsula by Horvatić (1958) who describes a separate forest association, the Orno-Cocciferetum ass. However, in compliance with the current international syntaxonomic rules (Weber and co. 2000) , binomial “Orno-Cocciferetum” is illegitimate and therefore was necessary (cf. Trinajstić 1984) to alter this name into “Orno-Quercetum cocciferae”, but to keep the suthorship “H-ić. 1958”. Finally, another correction was made to the name of the said association in to Fraxino orno-Quercetum cocciferae H-ić., corr. Trinajstić 2008 (cf. Trinajstić 2008).
Floristic composition and floristic structure of the so far studied stands of the Fraxino orno-Quercetum cocciferae ass. in Croatia are shown in the attach ed Table 1.
TRINAJSTIĆ, Ivo ŠL
|Pandža, Marija||UDK 630* 17 (001)||25|
|The Flora of the Papuk Nature Park (Slavonia, Croatia)|
|Summary: The researches of the Papuk Natural Reserve flora were carried out from 2001 to 2005. The area was formally declared a natural reserve on April 23rd, 1999. It covers 335 km2 approximately. The borders of the Reserve are defined by the law on declaring the Papuk Natural Reserve (NN/99). The Reserve includes parts of the Papuk-Krndija mountains, lying in the east-west directed, along the Kutjevo-Velika-Kamenska-Vučjak-Zvečevo-Voćin-Slatinski Drenovac-Orahovica-Petrov vrh-Kutjevo line and belong to the so-called Slavonija mountains region. Within this region, Papuk and Krndija form one relief body.
The floral diversity of Papuk is predetermined by its geological-lithological structure as well as its climatological characteristics. According to Köppen, the climate of the east Slavonija, from Daruvar to Ilok, belongs to cfwb”x” climate (temperately warm and rainy), without dry periods, precipitation evenly distributed throughout the year, the driest period being in winter (Seletković i Katušin 1992). The average year temperature for a 30 year period (1961–1990) measured by the climatological station of Požega, is 10.6 oC and year precipitation quantity is 782 mm.
There are three vegetational zones: (re. Trinajstić 1995, 1998) firstly low-hills area (from 100 to 250 m) belonging to the durmast-oak forests zone; secondly, the mid-hills area (250 to 900 m) dominated by European beach forests and finally the mountainous area (above 900 m) with European beach and silver fir. These three zones include a range of associations, depending on particular conditions of their habitats (floods, lithological base structure etc.).
The phytocenological researches of Papuk (Franjić 2002) resulted with 13 plant associations that form the major part of the vegetation of this area. Forests cover the majority of the Reserve. Apart from forest associations, there are other important habitats abundant in plant species, meadows, forest border-lines, swamp vegetation etc, even though they don’t cover large areas.
There were 1223 species and subspecies of the vascular flora recorded within the Reserve, classified in 121 families and 497 genera. The syntaxonomic analysis and the analysis of the life forms and floral elements were carried out as well (tab. 1–2 fig. 1 and 2).
The taxonomic analysis showed a predominance of the Angiospermae (1171 species, 95.7 %) including the Magnoliopsida (931 taxa, 76.1 %) and Liliopsida (240 taxa, 19.6 %).
M. Pandža: FLORA PARKA PRIRODE PAPUK (SLAVONIJA, HRVATSKA) Šumarski list br. 1–2, CXXXIV (2010), 25-44
The largest number of species belongs to the Asteraceae (106 species,
8.83 %) followed by the Poaceae (96 species, 7.85 %) and Fabaceae (77 species, 6.30 %). Out of 1223 previously recorded species and subspecies, 10 were not confirmed during this research.
The results of the flora life forms analysis of a certain region show the relations between its flora and the general climate characteristics of the region. The most frequent life forms in the flora of Papuk are hemicryptophytes (589 taxa, 48.16 %), therophytes (251 taxa, 20.52 %), geophytes (12.92 %), phanerophytes (12.43 %), chamaephytes (3.52 %) and hydrophytes (2.45 %).
The phytogeographical analysis showed a domination of Euroasian floral element plants (335 taxa, 27,39 %). Widespread plants are represented by as large a number as 18 % pointing to a strong antropogenous actovity.
50 endangered species (4.09 %) from the Red Book list of the Republic of Croatia were found within the borders of the Reserve – six critically endangered, 14 endangered and 30 vulnerable species.
There were also 33 species of the Orchidaceae family found on clearings and meadows. The traditional manners of mowing and grazing of meadows are of essential importance for the preservation of orchids, as the only way to preserve their habitats.
Several adventive plants were recorded within the natural vegetation. Among them, the neophytes (Acer negundo, Ailanthus altissima, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Amorpha fruticosa, Artemisia verlotiorum, Bidens tripartita, Echinocystis lobata, Elodea canadensis, Reynoutria japonica etc.) are particularly interesting. The require observation focused on their spreading and steps for their eradication.
Key words: climatological characteristics; flora; life forms; Papuk Natural Reserve; syntaxonomic; taxonomic and phytogeographical analysis
|Štimac, Milan||UDK 630* 222 + 242 (001)||45|
|Impact of Forest Tending on Structural Characteristics of Coppices in Lika|
|Summary: Our research determined structural elements of different coppice types in Lika five years after they were tended with thinning. Coppices in the region of Lika are characterized by a low degree of applied tending operations and inaccessibility caused by the lack of forest roads. Four morphological types can be differentiated: transitional coppices, typical coppices, coppices in regression and thickets. Field measurements were undertaken in five permanent sample plots. Structural stand elements in these plots were measured at the end of the vegetation period in 2007. Total measurements of breast diameters of all trees were performed by diameter class, storey, tree species and origin (generative, vegetative), and height samples were recorded and increment cores taken for increment assessment separately for seed trees and sprouts from stumps. Seed trees show significantly higher values of structural elements. The fact that seed trees manifest higher productivity and vitality clearly indicates that they should be silviculturally favored regardless of coppice type. Intensities and volumes of the next thinning operation will depend on the average age volume increment and stand age, as well as on the total stand volume at the end of the thinning cycle. In order to increase the basic volume and achieve stand stability, the volume of the next thinning operation should amount to 40–45 % of the ten-year current volume increment.
Key words: coppice; Forest tending; Lika; stand structure
ŠTIMAC, Milan ŠL
|Avdibegović, M., N. Petrović, D. Nonić, S. Posavec, B. Marić, D. Vuletić||UDK 630* 682 (001)||55|
|Readiness of Private Forest Owners in Croatia, Serbia and Bosnia-Herzegovina to Cooperate in Forest Roads Construction and Maintenance|
|Summary: State of private forests and needs of private forest owners have not been in the focus of forest economics and policies research in the region of South-Eastern Europe so far. The past socio-political regime used to prioritize public property and management of private forest was therefore neglected for a long time resulting in degradation of forests. The present lack of forest roads is only one of the numerous consequences and sequentially has lead to lower degree of fulfilment of different activities in private forests (silvicultural treatments, planning, and protection).
Nowadays, different processes (transition, restitution, and privatisation) present in region support the development of rural areas where private forests are an important part of rural economy and overall management of natural resources.
Findings of this research show that financially more demanding activities like forest roads construction and maintainance present a motive strong enough to establish interests groups like forest owners associations aiming to reach common goals. Research data was collected as a part of PRIFORT project, financed by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management of Republic of Austria. The main interest of the project was research of the state of private forests and establishment of private forest associations in countries of the South-Eastern Europe.
Theoretical framework was set between the Pluralistic theory and the Theory of Collective Action through which the group behaviour was analyzed. Afterwards, some findings have been confronted with the Exchange theory where better explanations for different behaviour group patterns were found. Homogeneity and heterogeneity of groups were also defined by the Critic Mass theory.
The main hypothesis was “readiness for establishing interests groups is more pronounced in connection to activities which are financially more demanding as forest roads construction”.
Results for all three countries (Croatia, Serbia and B-H) show that private forest owners are interested in cooperation in construction and maintenance of forest roads. Generally, private forest owners are a part of elderly rural population with relatively small forest plots, mainly used for private needs (fuel wood) and with low income. Private forests are fragmented, with average plots smaller than 1 hectare. Most of the private forest owners expressed the need for having interest associations from which they would expect support in different aspects of forest management (Graph 2). The majority of forest owners expressed interest in cooperation on construction and maintenance of forest roads (Graph 1).
Results and conclusions presented in this paper provide useful information for decision makers in government bodies responsible for rural development with special consideration given to possibilities of private forest sector development.
POSAVEC, Stjepan ŠL
VULETIĆ, Dijana ŠL
|Vrgoč, Petar||UDK 630* 973 + 232.3||65|
|Intelectual Property Rights, Plant Breeding and Nursery Practice|
|Summary: The term Cultivar is an abbreviation of the English words cultivated and variety. A Cultivar is the result of plant breeding. In the history of man numerous Cultivars have been created of cereal grains, fruit, vegetables, industrial plants, ornamental plants and forest trees. New products or new Cultivars are sold on the market for profit. Protection of the Cultivar as intellectual property ensures a part of the profit goes to the innovator, i.e. the plant breeder. A Cultivar can be in the form of a clone or in the form of improved seed, and therefore two characteristic strategies are deployed: protection of the intellectual ownership of the plant breeder (Plant Breeder’s Right, PBR) and protection of the commercial name (Trade Mark, TM).
Key words: Community Plant Variety Office (CPVO); Cultivar; intellectual ownership; nursery plant production; PBR (Plant Breeder’s Right); plant breeding; Plant Patent Act; Trade Mark; UPOV
VRGOČ, Petar ŠL