|A WORD FROM THE EDITOR-IN-CHIEF|
|ON THE EVE OF THE 40thANNIVERSARY|
|When I returned from a study sojourn in Switzerland in the autumn of 1967, I found a proposal suggesting that I become the editor-in-chief of the Forestry Journal, on condition that I should firstbeits technical editor. I accepted the proposal without any hesitation. At that time forestry was burdened with numerous problems. The socialist-communist system in Yugoslavia was based on planned economy and pseudo-ownership relations among isolated forest administrations, some of which could not even engage in the primary task of tending young forests due to a shortage of means for biological reproduction. Herds of goats inflicted severe damage to state forests in the Mediterranean region despite a ban on keeping goats and grazing. The state water management administration, in collusion with the electrical power industry, simplyinformed the forest management industry that a hydropower station was being built and that the machinery had entered aforest and started construction operations (e.g. Varaždin, Varaždin Hydropower Station).
This is how it all began. I became the editor of the Forestry Journal in January 1970 and have held this post eversince. Our mission has always been to advise and guide all those encountering problems in forestry-related work bystaunchly applying the regulations of the Forest Law and some fundamental postulates and principles of the forestry science. We have done this through the Croatian Forestry Association (established in 1864), a society that traditionally mergesthe forestry science and profession. In the beginning, the form of communication was oral, but when the magazine “Forestry Journal” started coming out, we switched to the written word. Our mission has been expressed in the columns “A Word from the Editor-in-Chief” and articles written by other members gathered in the column “Current Affairs”. As anillustration, the late 1980s were marked with increased forest decline, so the pages of our journal were filled with articles addressing this serious issue.
The year 1990 denoted very important social changes in Croatia, which culminated with Croatia gaining completeindependence after the Homeland War in 1995. However, the war caused overall devastation of the forests, while miningmade them inaccessible. Croatian forests experienced revival in the free homeland with the introduction of a new forestmanagement field, which finally solved the problem of sustainable management. The professional approach to forests overthe past 200 years has resulted in natural forest stands completely adjusted to their sites. It is the natural diversity and thewealth of species that discriminates Croatian forests from European ones.
Every change for the better necessarily brings along some undesirable aspects. Large forest areas in Croatia are beingre-converted to cater for different purposes (roads, oil pipelines, transmission lines, golf courses, permanent vine and olivecultures, construction of relief and navigation canals and hydropower stations, etc.). In the past two years we have beendealing with the national ecological network, which is an idea advocated by the EU, although this idea is not applicableto our natural forests.
As always, I would like to take this opportunity to wish all the readers of “Forestry Journal” Merry Christmas and a Very Happy New Year 2010. On behalf of Petar Jurjević, M.Sc, president of the Croatian Forestry Association, Damir Delač, B.Sc. general secretary, Hranislav Jakovac, B.Sc, technical editor of “Forestry Journal“, and myself, I wish youevery success in your business and happiness in private life.
Professor Emeritus Branimir Prpić, Ph.D.
PRPIĆ, Branimir ŠL
|ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPERS|
|Čater,M., P. Simončič||UDK 630* 243 (001)||569|
|Photosynthetic Response of Young Beech (Fagus Sylvatica L.) on Research Plots in Different Light Conditions|
|Abstract: In view of evident changes in the reaction of European beech (Fagus sylvaticaL.) to environmental changes, five plots with young trees of the same age were established and studied on natural beech sites. Beech trees were equally distributed along the light gradient and were divided according to light conditions. The parameter used for evaluation of light conditions was the indirect site factor (ISF) obtained by the WinScanopy analysis. Three groups of canopy – light conditions were defined: stand conditions (ISF<20), edge (20
Differences between canopy, edge and open area responses were confirmed with high significance on all plots as well as between studied forest complexes. On plots from Kočevje region, young beech indicated more shade tolerance, the response to increased light intensity and different CO2concentration was greater than the response of young beech on Pohorje plots within the same light intensities. Responses of trees on plots in managed and virgin forest were also different: young beech response in virgin forest plot was more shade-tolerant, compared to response of young beech from plots in managed forest.
Key words: Beech; CO; light; photosynthesis; response
|Ballian, D., E. Mujanović, A. Čabaravdić||UDK 630* 165 (001)||577|
|Variability of Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) in the Provenance Trial Glasinac – Sokolac (Bosnia and Herzegovina)|
|Summary: Experimental regional division of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Bosnia and Herzegovina was initiated with development of framework of the program “Revision of existing and selection of new seed stands, and study of biological traits of Norway spruce, silver fir, Scots pine and European black pine in the function of production of qualitative seed needed for forestry in SRBiH”. During 1989 test surface in Glasinac filed – Sokolac was established with 11 provenances, material from two seed plantations and control group.
Research was carried out on diameters, basal areas, heights, volume of medium tree, and total volume per ha of trees which are 21 years old.
Analyses carried out on size of medium diameter, basal area, height, and volume on the test surface showed that provenance Romanija-Glasinac had best results. Taking into consideration poor conditions in the place of origin of this population, conclusion could be made that their good results were obtained based on the extremely competitive selection in the unfavorable conditions, and on qualitative genetic construction.
Although the trait of survival is not statistically processed because it belongs to the group of qualitative traits, it is very significant because it does not have direct influence to the trait of volume per ha. The best survival was demonstrated by the provenance Romanija-Glasinac, and the poorest by the provenance Zavidovići with minimal portion of survived plants.
Statistically significant difference was determined by analysing the height of trees in the test surface, meaning that differentiation between the provenances is still present on the test surface. The best provenances are Romanija-Glasinac, Šipovo, and Bugojno.
According to the soil type, which is in this case brown limestone (calcocambisol), sea level, and ecological conditions at the Glamoč plateau, the best provenance is Romanija – Glasinac which has the best productivity under these conditions.
Obtained medium heights for Scots pine in this experiment showed that some provenances go above site class I. if they are compared with data from volumetric tables for even aged forests. According to the Wiedemann’s volumetric tables, the provenance Romanija – Glasinac is significantly larger in regards to average basal area and volume from volumetric tables for the site class I. of habitat.
Reliable conclusions about productive possibilities of some species, and of a provenance inside some species, can be made only after one third of estimated fertilization. Having that in mind, obtained results up to now are only partially reliable when making conclusions about which provenance is the best for introduction on the defined habitat while good conclusions will be reached in the following period.
Present variability intra and inter provenances, which is registered in this experiment, can be used for subsequent selections of material when installing intensive clone or seed plantation.
Key words: bosal area; diameter; provenance trial; Scots pine; volume
|Andrašev,S., M. Bobinac, S. Orlović||UDK 630* 165 + 561 (001)||589|
|Diameter Structure Models of Black Poplar Selected Clones in the Section Aigeiros (Duby) Obtained by the Weibull Distribution|
|Abstract: The present study was performed in an experimental plantation with six 20-year-old black poplar clones in the Section Aigeiros(Duby). The diameter structure models were constructed using the Weibull probability density distribution with three parameters based on periodical measurements of diameters at breast height. The unidentified parameters were calculated by the so-called “hybrid system” (Knoebel, et al, 1986): location parameter (a) was calculated by percentile method, scale parameter (b) and shape parameter (c) were calculated by moments method. The applied method of estimating the location parameter (a) showed that in 90.6 % of the study sample, the parameter “a” ranged between 50 and 90 %, and in 52.4 % of the sample, “a” ranged from 80 to 90 % of the minimal diameter. With higher plantation ages, location parameter (a) and scale parameter (b) also increased with small oscillations, which was confirmed by the significance of the correlation coefficient of 0.71 and 0.73 respectively. This was shown by the shift of the curve of diameter structure model to the right, towards larger diameters, and in a wider range of diameters at breast height with a lower relative frequency of the modal degree. In the initial period, F-ratio of all three parameters of diameter structure model decreased and reached the minimal value in the eighth year, and the predominantly increasing trend started in the twelfth year, which points to the changes in diameter structure of the study clones depending on the age. The plantation growth elements (dg, G) and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, as well as the analysis of variance test and LSD test for the percentage of the number of trees with diameters at breast height above 40 cm, confirmed the grouping of diameter structure models of the study poplar clones in two groups. This makes it possible to define the differentiated management procedures with individual groups.
Key words: black poplar; clones; diameter structure; Weibull distribution.
|Sinković,T., S. Govorčin,T. Dubravac,V. Roth,T. Sedlar||UDK 630* 891 (001)||605|
|Comparison Some Physical and Mechanical Properties ofAbonos and Recent Oak (Quercus robur L.)|
|Summary: Abonos, eban and bog-wood are the terms for wood exposed to the effects of water and processes of humification in soil for a long period of time. Abonos of several tree species has been discovered so far, but the most common and also most valued is the oak abonos, often named black oak-wood, or bog-oak. Black color of bog-oak is the result of chemical interaction of tanstuff in the wood and iron in water. Water in the environment in which bog-oak is formed provides unfavorable conditions for the development of microorganisms and fungi that would otherwise decompose the wood. Deposition of minerals from the water ensures conservation and durability of wood structural elements. Aforementioned processes that form the bog-oak also change its chemical structure, and physical and mechanical properties. Time period for which the wood was under bog-oak forming conditions spans from several thousands up to several tenths of thousands of years. Uniqueness and high value of bog-oak stems from its durability, aesthetical features, black color, acoustical properties and old age. From bog-oak wood following products can be made: veneer, high-quality and high-value furniture, parts for musical instruments, high-value objects for everyday use, etc. Bog-oak wood is also very highly esteemed in artistic circles among sculptors and other artists. According to past experience, bog-oak is usually found purely by accident, most often during the construction works for the regulation of stream and river beds, ameliorative works, or because of the exploitation of gravel. Equalizing the terms bog-oak and archeological wood by some authors does not reflect the specific properties of those materials. Archeological wood is not necessarily, or very rarely is bog-oak wood, due to the usage of a number of tree species during history other than oak. On the other hand, bog-oak is archeological wood simply because of its age, even if in some cases it does not have any true archeological value.
Samples for this research of technical properties of bog-oak wood were supplied by Benković Hrvoje and Franjić Darko from the area of Oštra Luka (Orašje, Bosnia and Herzegovina). Bog-oak was accidentally found on that area during the exploitation of gravel. After the discovery, it was very difficult to extract and transport parts of trees and stems of bog-oak from the depth of six meters. Divers extracted the wood from the river bed, and wood was transported to the river shore by attaching barrels to the extracted wood. Extracted parts of trees and stems were transported to the roofed warehouse and partly wrapped in plastic foil to slow down the process of drying. Wrapping in foil is necessary to prevent cracking of bog-oak wood in the case of rapid loss of water during drying. Process of slow drying has to be constantly supervised in order to prevent forming of mold. This is achieved by adjusting the surface of bog-oak under plastic foil. After the successful drying of bog-oak wood (i.e. down to the 12–18 % of water content), it is possible to saw the bog-oak wood into desired assortments. Sawed assortments are once again exposed to the process of drying to achieve water content of 12 %. Samples for this research were extracted from bog-oak assortments prepared in the way described above.
Goal of this research is to determine technical, i.e. physical and mechanical properties of bog-oak wood, and to compare them with same properties of recent oak wood. Comparison is possible due to the fact that both materials originate from the same area within the distribution range of pedunculate oak (Quercus roburL.). Values of physical and mechanical properties of pedunculate oak wood were taken from the oak wood from Topolovac and Boljkovo.
From the research results acquired from the testing of physical and mechanical properties of bog-oak and from its comparison with properties of recent oak several conclusions were formed. Average value of density of bog-oak in absolutely dry condition is 0.704 g/cm3, and is 15.8 % higher than that of the wood density in absolutely dry condition of recent oak.
Average value of total radial shrinkage for bog-oak amounts to 10.5 % and is for 105.9 % higher than that of recent oak. Average value of total tangential shrinkage for bog-oak wood is 18.6 %, and is for 104.4 % higher than average value of total tangential shrinkage of recent oak. Average total volumetric shrinkage of bog-oak is 27.6 %, and is for 101.5 % higher than that of recent oak wood. Average value of ultimate strength in static bending for bog-oak wood was 101.3 MPa, which is for 10.8 % higher than ultimate strength in static bending of recent oak wood. Average value of ultimate stress in compression parallel to grain for bog-oak wood was 52.3 MPa and does not significantly differ from the ultimate stress in compression parallel to grain measured in the wood of recent oak, although is 1.5 % smaller.
Key words: abonos; bog-oak (oakwood buried in the ground); physical and mechanical properties of abonos; physical and mechanical properties of recent oak
SINKOVIĆ, Tomislav ŠL
GOVORČIN, Slavko ŠL
DUBRAVAC, Tomislav ŠL
ROTH, Valentin ŠL
|Medvedović,J., J. Milković, M. Tomaić||UDK 630* 111 (001)||613|
|Some Weather and Climate Features of Krasno and the Surrounding Area|
|Summary: Air and precipitation temperatures have regularly and continuously been taken and some atmospheric occurrences recorded in the courtyard of the Krasno Forest Office since July 1999. Measurement data were processed, presented in table and graphic form and analyzed. Most of the phenomena were recorded in the Forestry Chronicle, and only a part is cited in the article. The Chronicle is situated in the Forest Office of Krasno. In addition to the data mentioned above, the analysis also included data from the climatological station Ličko Lešće and the main meteorological station of Zavižan for the period 2000–2008. The analysis in this paper embraced the two most important meteorological elements of weather and climate: air temperature and precipitation quantity. The mean monthly and annual temperatures, as well as extreme temperatures (absolute maximal and minimal) were analyzed in terms of air temperature, whereas the mean monthly and annual values, as well as the highest daily precipitation quantities were analyzed in terms of precipitation.
The weather conditions of Krasno (two stations) were analyzed on the basis of an eight-year data series, as well as on the basis of the data from two meteorological stations (Ličko Lešće and Zavižan). The purpose was to provide forestry experts with as much information as possible on the weather in this part of Lika. Based on the data for the 1061–1990 series, the climate type for this area was determined under the Köppen climate classification. The climate type marked with the formula Cfsbx” (the temperate warm rainy climate) was found to be prevalent in the broader area around Krasno, whereas at altitudes around and above 1,500 m and on Zavižan the climate type was marked with the formula Dfscx” (the snowy forest climate). The mean values obtained from the eight-year period in all the stations fall into the criteria used for the mentioned classification.
The dependence of meteorological elements on altitude was confirmed. For this reason, the forestry experts are advised to give more “weight” to altitude rather than to the distance from the measuring stations during data interpolation for particular forest areas.
According to the Forestry Chronicle, there were dry – rainy years, with plenty of snow and without any snow. There were mass outbreaks of forest pests, but also years conducive to the growth of forest vegetation. It is very important that no series of unfavourable years were formed during the past 8 years of monitoring; instead, favourable and unfavourable years alternated, so that the forests always recovered from the years with adverse weather conditions.
The results of measurements have multiple applications for the forestry science; among other things, they allow a better insight into the life conditions of the area and serve for the drawing up of the chapter on the ecological conditions of forest sites in particular management units.
Key words: climate; forest vegetation; Krasno; Lika
MEDVEDOVIĆ, Juraj ŠL
TOMAIĆ, Miljenko ŠL
|Glavaš,M., S. Glavaš, M. Budinšćak,A. Vukadin||UDK 630* 443 + 453 + 414||623|
|Pests and Plants Preservation in the “Podbadanj” Nursery from 1993 to 2007|
|Summary: The forest nursery “Podbadanj” was founded a hundred years ago in Crikvenica and it is the only one with such a long production of forest seedlings. The forest administration, the branch department of Senj and the forest enterprise of Crikvenica will celebrate its hundredth anniversary.
With refrence to the above, the preservation component in the “Podbadanj” nursery covering the razdoblje from 1993. to 2007. Will be presented.
Within the above started razdoblje, the following harmful fungi were were found on the plants: Fusarium oxyporum, Lepodermium seditiosum, Cyclaneusma niveum, Phomitopsis juniperovora, Micophaera alphitoides, Sphaera sapinea, Botrytis cinerea, Guignardia aesculi and Clasteroporium carpophylum.
As for the insects, very frequent were plant lice, owlet moths, scales and certain species such as Monarthropaplus buxi, Acantholyda hieroglyphica, Melolontha melolontha, ect.
As a precaution against fungi the following fungicides have been used: Benlate, Cuprablau (9x), Merpan (13x ), Kidan, Antracol, Bavistin (27x), Mythos and Tilt (16x) and Rubigan (17x). To control insects, the following insecticides have been applied: Folimat (11x), Pirox Fluid, Fastac and Decis. The soil and the seeds have been treated against seedlings lodging, mice, snails with the following agents: Captan (12x), Mesurol (35x), Snail poison and Volatan.
The weed killers containing glyphosates that have been applied belong to Cidokor (16x), Mentor (10x), Hercules (16x), Herbocor and Roundup.
It has to be cleared up that in the early 90-ties of the last century, just several tens of thousands of forest seedlings were produced in the “Podbadanj” nursery. There was a turn in 1997. When the turn in 1997. When the number of forest seedlings (mainly in pines and pubescent oak) came to several hundreds of thousands. It was the year when the production of various horticultural seedlings started (about 20000 pcs). The consequence of a more intensified production were the problems related to the preservation as well as the necessity of a more intensive protection.
Key words: fungus; insect; nursery; pesticide; plant; protection
GLAVAŠ, Milan ŠL
GLAVAŠ, Silvana ŠL
BUDINŠĆAK, Mario ŠL
VUKADIN, Andrija ŠL
|Frković, Alojzije||UDK 630* 156 + 945.1||629|
|Vaclav Leo Anderle (1859–1944), Forester and Illustrator – the Founder of Czech Hunting Illustrations|
|Summary: Vaclav Leo Anderle (1859 – 1944) is one of the many Czech and Slovak forestry experts who, about one century ago, spent a part of their working lives in Croatia. By excelling not only in their profession but also in some forestry-related careers, these great men made their new homeland famous worldwide. Being a passionate lover of painting, Vaclav Leo Anderle attended the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna in addition to the study of forestry at the Higher School of Soil Culture. He worked in specialized forestry fields in the country and abroad, mainly on the estate of the large forest owner Thurn-Taxis. He spend more than one decade in Croatia, first in the forest office of Crni Lug in Gorski Kotar, and then in the forest office of Lekenik. As an established landscape and figure artist, he illustrated several popular journals and papers of the time, as well as many works of Croatian men of letters and travel writers. This refers particularly to the trilogy written by Dragutin Hirc, a natural scientist and travel writer, which was dedicated to Gorski Kotar, Lika and the Croatian Littoral. In the later period of his creative painting he specialized in animal art and wildlife and particularly in hunting motifs. In doing so, he laid the foundations of the Czech hunting illustration. He was also a very prolific hunting writer.
Key words: animal artist; Crni Lug; Czech; hunting illustration; landscape artist; Lekenik; Thurn-Taxis.; Vaclav L. Anderle
FRKOVIĆ, Alojzije ŠL