|A WORD FROM THE EDITOR-IN-CHIEF|
|ON THE ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE COMPANY “HRVATSKE ŠUME” Ltd|
|Changing trends of life are forcing us to increasingly view forestry, and indirectly timber processing, from the aspectof economics. The Faculty of Economics in Zagreb, which has been entrusted with the task, has accomplished the jobwith utmost professionalism and meticulousness.
The role of forestry is twofold: on the one hand forests must be preserved in their proper condition so that they couldprovide beneficial functions in the biosphere, and on the other, they must fulfill human demand for timber, the noblestof the raw materials that exist in the living nature.
For over 160 years, the forestry profession has strived, with ups and downs, to retain this sensitive balance throughits NGO, Croatian Forestry Association. We like to believe that we have successfully accomplished this mission for generations to come. Today, Croatia has over 90 % of natural forests that fulfill both roles mentioned above, which differentiates us from the majority of European countries. The Croatian Forestry Association has participated in the debateon the restructuring organized by the Faculty of Economics, and has also held a separate discussion at their ManagingBoard. At the former gathering, which was attended by representatives of the Croatian forestry practice and science,some basic postulates were enhanced as the key elements of the future structure of the profession.
The greatest gift of Croatian forestry to the world – sustainable management – should be further improved and developed. According to the conclusions of the 1992 Rio de Janeiro Conference, sustainable development should be transposed to all fields of life. This refers particularly to sustainable conservation of all non-timber functions that are rapidly becoming our greatest wealth. We should continue to pay non-timber forest function fees for the purpose of restoring our continental and Mediterranean forests damaged by anthropogenic impacts.
We should continue with the maintenance of forest infrastructure – forest roads, forest keepers’ cabins, hunting lodges, trade union resorts and others. Working conditions in forestry are extremely hard, so shelters, resting places andother amenities must be provided for forestry workers. Great quantities of ecologically suitable building material areideal for meeting these requirements.
The choice of forestry cadres should be left to the forestry profession itself. Political decisions in this field can befatal, since these decisions are largely influenced by interests and profits of other professions (e.g. the Danube – Savacanal and other operations that alter water conditions at the detriment of forests, permanent cultures in theMediterranean, etc.). Experienced and reputed cadres should be promoted to the top of the profession (Ministry,Direction), while younger professionals should prove themselves in forest administrations and offices. Although we haveresisted decentralization of the forestry organization for almost 20 years, it is a sine qua non for progress.
Forestry should be within the Ministry together with forest protection and state administration for water management. The minister should definitely be a forestry professional, while national parks and nature parks that feature forestsas the basic phenomena should be managed by the company “Hrvatske Šume” Ltd, whose professionals have proventime and again that they know how to conserve nature. In addition, this would save considerable means for the State.
Professor Emeritus Branimir Prpić, Ph.D.
PRPIĆ, Branimir ŠL
|ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPERS|
|Seletković,I., N. Potočić,A. Jazbec,T. Ćosić,T. Jakovljević||UDK 630* 232.2 + 232.3 (001)||469|
|The Influence of Various Growing Substrates and Slow-release Fertilizers on the Growth and Physiological Parameters of Common Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Seedlings in a Nursery and Following Planting in the Field|
|Summary: In this paper the results of the experiment testing the influence of various growing substrates (Lithuanian peat, Humofin substrate, Stender A400 substrate) and slow-release fertilizers (Osmocote Exact Standard 5-6 M and 12-14 M)on the growth and physiological parameters of Common beech (Fagus sylvaticaL.) seedlings in a nursery and in the field conditions following planting. The trial was set up in the nursery of the Forest Research Institute Jastrebarsko, as a randomized block with eight treatments and four repetitions. Concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium and chlorophyll were determined in the leaves of seedlings. Seedling heights, root collar diameters, and biomass of leaves, stems and roots were measured at the end of the first vegetation season. Seedlings were then moved to the nearby beech forest area where rejuvenation by planting of beech seedlings following the final cut was planned. After two years the heights and root collar diameters of planted seedlings were measured. Fertilization with Osmocote Exact had a positive influence on the concentrations of mineral nutrients and pigments in leaves, and growth of seedlings. Out of three tested substrates, Lithuanian peat was the most appropriate for growing beech seedlings. In control treatment, Stender substrate was the best since it comes with some mineral fertilizer already added. The differences in growth dynamics among seedlings treated with different fertilizers can be of great importance regarding the influence of weeds after planting.
Key words: biomass; Common beech; height and root collar diameter; nutrient status; Osmocote Exact Standard; photosynthetic pigments
SELETKOVIĆ, Ivan ŠL
POTOČIĆ, Nenad ŠL
|Tanušev,V., J. Ištvanić, M. Moro, J. Butković||UDK 630* 333 + 83 (001)||483|
|Yield of Low Quality and Small-Sized Diameter Common Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Logs in Rough Dimension Stock Production|
|Summary: By agreement, and in practice sometimes without that agreement, to sawmills sometimes are delivered logs which do not fit regulations for standard saw logs. Often those logs are below standard quality or dimensions. Namely, sawmills compensate the lack of standard saw logs, in aspiration to fully use own capacities, by processing round wood with smaller dimensions; so called thin round wood. In this form of sawmill raw material, diameter dimensions and more often quality are below regulations for sawmill raw materials (sawmill logs). Diameter of thin round wood can range from 15 to 24 cm, and length can range from 2 m and above.
Apart from thin round wood, high quality stacked wood in form of split or round wood (pulpwood, firewood, chemical conversion wood and others) can be used as input raw material. Nevertheless, that sort of raw material is infrequently used in large industrial sawmills, due to the problematic profitability of sawmill processing and unique sawmill technological basis. Considering the yield at sawing of these logs it is apparent that it is different from yield at processing of standard sawmill raw material.
Research aim of this paper was to determine volume yield, lumber value yield and log value yield of common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) logs with smaller diameter and quality during their processing dimension stock and flooring components. The study is based on common beech trees harvested in Bosnia and Hercegovina. The object of research were beech logs divided into three groups with mid diameter ranging from 18 to 20, 21 to 23 and 24 to 26 cm (Table 1 to 3). Primary sawing of logs was performed by using live sawing technique on long band saw. All obtained sawn boards were sawn up into dimension stock and flooring components by cross – rip sawing method.
The best log volume yield in the form of dimension stock and flooring components showed logs with mid diameter ranging from 24 to 26 cm, followed by logs with diameter from 21 to 23 cm, and logs with diameter from 18 to 20 cm, with mutual insignificant difference (Figure 1 and Table 8). Results show that the best quality dimension stock and flooring components were sawn from logs with mid diameter ranging from 21 to 23 cm, followed by logs with diameter from 24 to 26 cm, and logs with diameter from 18 to 20 cm (Figure 2 and Table 9) . The best log value yield results showed logs with mid diameter ranging from 24 to 26 cm, followed by logs with diameter from 21 to 23 cm, and logs with diameter from 18 to 20 cm (Figure 3 and Table 10).
The results confirmed some previous research. They indicate the possibility of successful processing of this kind of raw material regarding the research of technological criteria. In doing so, raw material selection and its qualitative classification is very important. Quality criteria and dimensions of dimension stock and flooring components which will be produced from that raw material are also important. In this paper the usage of three very confined diameter groups was compared. It was determined that there is slight but insignificant mutual difference. With further research it should be considered if there is any sense comparing such confined diameter groups, namely experiments should be set so that wider diameter groups are compared. Considering the market status of beech sawmill products, more attention should be given to economic indicators and success criteria of sawmill processing of this form of sawmill raw material.
Key words: Common beech (Fagus sylvaticaL.); dimension stock; log value yield.; log volume yield; low quality and small-sized diameter logs; lumber value yield; sawmilling production
IŠTVANIĆ, Josip ŠL
BUTKOVIĆ, Jurica ŠL
|Šušnjar, M., D. Pičman,T. Pentek, D. Horvat, H. Nevečerel, K. Greger||UDK 630* 383 + 432 (001)||493|
|Working Characteristics of Terrain Leveler Machine in Forest Fire Road Construction and Carst Melioration|
|Summary: The paper deals with performance of terrain leveler Vermeer T855 in forest fire road construction and carst melioration. Research was caried out in the Mediterranean region on southern part of Croatia (Dalmatia) exactly on the area of forest office Zadar and forest office Buzet. The research was performed during three weeks of the machine work and the following parameters were recorded on a daily basis: effective time, fuel consumption, number of broken knives, length of the processed route, working depth and type of surface. The data gathered covered 22 working days in total. The basic classification of the working days was made according to the depth of work and type of surface. The first 13 days the working depth was 40 cm and during first 3 days the fire-prevention road route was on the ground of loose stones, and the following 10 days, on hard stone ground. During 9 days of work on the depth of 75 cm, the machine was working 6 days on the ground consisting of loose stones and 3 days on hard rocky ground.
The measured data served to calculate on a daily basis the efficiency of the machine expressed in the length of processed route within the time unit as well as the fuel consumption per time unit and the length of the processed route and dependence of number of broken knives on the length of the processed route
The largest average productivity of the machine of 4.30 m/min has been achieved at the work in ground 40 cm deep consisting of loose stones. At the same working depth, the productivity appears to be considerably lower on hard rocky ground (2.42 m/min). A lower efficiency is achieved at larger working depth. A general conclusion can be made that the productivity depends on the working depth and the type of ground. The larger working depth and the harder ground, the lower productivity.
The same sequence occurs when the consumption of knives is examined with regard to the working conditions. On average, when working on the depth of 40 cm in loose stone ground the smallest number of knives are used up. When working at 75 cm in hard stone, the consumption could be from 15 knives/km.
The fuel consumption was researched in regard to the constructed route length and to the effective (productive) working time. There are no more significant differences in fuel consumption within a time unit (from 0.89 L/min to 1.04 L/min) in regard to the working conditions. The average fuel consumption regardless of different working conditions comes to 0.93 L/min. Nevertheless, the differences in fuel consumption according to the length of the constructed road route considerably differ with regard to the working depth and the surface. The consumption of only 0.21 L/m has been registered with the work on the depth of 40 cm in loose stone ground. At the same depth, the consumption is almost double by the route length on the rocky ground (0.41 L/m). As the working depth increases the consumption by route length increases too and the largest consumption was from 0.53 L/m established with the work on the depth of 75 cm in hard stone.
Based on the measurement results and introductory study, we can make a conclusion on use of the terrain leveler Vermeer T855 in construction of the forest fire-prevention roads. The advantage of the terrain leveler lies in a possibility of use of the stone material on the forest fire-prevention roads route as well as in new technology of construction of fire-prevention roads where the operation of a machine substitutes several construction machines.
ŠUŠNJAR, Marijan ŠL
PIČMAN, Dragutin ŠL
PENTEK, Tibor ŠL
HORVAT, Dubravko ŠL
NEVEČEREL, Hrvoje ŠL
GREGER, Krešimir ŠL
|Ballian, Dalibor||UDK 630* 165 (001)||501|
|Genetic Structure of Silver Fir (Abies Alba Mill.) from Western and Eastern Bosnia|
|Summary: Molecular and genetic analysis of Silver Fir (Abies albaMill.) was carried out by acknowledged and verified biochemical markers. Analysed material is from 10 natural populations out of which five populations is from eastern and five from western Bosnia.
Conducted genetic analysis using 9 enzyme systems and 17 alozyme gene loci with 44 alleles showed differences between western and eastern populations of Silver Fir. Variability at some gene loci showed clinal character, although situation at the filed is such that it is very difficult to make a right conclusion. However, some populations from both groups showed certain degree of similarity for certain gene loci due to hybrid zone of Silver Fir where two glacial refugia in western Bosnia are met.
Average number of alleles per loci ranged from 1,65 at Očevija to 2,17 at Oštrelj population, while average number of genotypes per loci ranged from 2,00 at Očevija to 2,88 at Glamoč population. The same ratio was in diversities (Vgem and Vp) while biggest differentiation was in Glamoč population with 0,1984.
Some analysed populations in their genetic structure contain rare alleles what is highly appreciated in later identification of same populations. Detailed analyses on those populations with bigger sample should show right condition. That identification of rare alleles would be used for identification of reproductive material, and during conducting management measures.
Positive values of fixation index in analysed populations in relation to population from central Europe showed that it is necessary to manage them in a more subtle way, because in future they could lose much of their genetic potential for adaptation, although they are not distant from their original refugium in the Balkan, while situation with Apennine refugium is different due to distance. However, analysed populations still have enough genetic variability, as observed in Glamoč population.
Methods with biochemical markers, which are used to determine genetic structure in Silver Fir, gave good image on analysed populations as well as on entire distribution of this species in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Obtained precise results enable us to recommend necessary measures for preserving genetic sources.
Obtained results will ensure good basis for control of reproductive material in Silver Fir, as well as for conducting activities for its conservation using in situ and ex situ methods. Thus, activities in regards to maintaining autochthonic genetic sources should be directed to organisation of denser networks of gene banks, in situ and ex situ, which will be necessary to maintain genetic diversity of populations of Silver Fir having in mind that it is quite endangered in western Bosnia. Based on all that, we can recommend that every ecological niche of Silver Fir should have its gene bank with minimal number of necessary fertile units whose genetic structure was checked in order to successfully preserve ecological and physiological characteristics.
This research encompasses genetic structure of Silver Fir in Bosnia and Herzegovina and genetic regional division of this species can be done. Further attention should be directed to distinction of provenances, and activities should be focused on experiments with provenances with the purpose of experimental regional division by analysing their ecological and physiological characteristics.
|Bobinac, M., S.Andrašev||UDK 630* 25 (001)||513|
|Effects of Silvicultural Measures in Devitalized Middle Aged Oak Stand (Quercus Robur L.) on Chernozem in Vojvodina|
|Summary: Past experience has shown that the application of silcivultural measures to pedunculate oak stands of lessened functional capacity is met with severe restrictions for the achievement of the desired results and goals. This work analyzes the effects of different silcivultural measures in comparative permanent sample plots (P.P. -1 and P.P. -2), undertaken with the purpose of tending the stands and improving the consequences of devitalisation.
Research was undertaken in an artificially established monoculture of pedunculate oak in Vojvodina (.n=45° 49’, .e=18° 39’). The altitude is 88 m, and the soil is chernozem non-carbonate, with the depth of the humus accumulative horizon of about 40–50 cm. Mean annual air temperature is 10.9 °C, and mean annual rainfall is 584 mm.
During the dormant vegetation season, two cross-section diameters were measured with an accuracy of 1 mm on all trees aged 42 and 52. All the marked trees were also measured when they reached the age of 48.
A silvicultural-salvage cut of moderate to heavy intensity was performed in P.P. 1 at the age of 42 and 48. A total of 128 future trees (FT) per hectare were selected in P.P.-1 at tree age 42. At the age of 52, the status was retained by 124 trees. The primary measure in P.P.-1 involved removing the strongest competition against future trees from the stand, so the treatment also had the character of selective thinning. Using similar silvicultural principles, 156 dominant trees aged 42 were selected for comparison in P.P.-2. Of these, 148 trees retained the status of future trees at age 52, while P.P.-2 was left to natural tree selection. During measurements in the year 42, a crown class (CC) and the degree of crown freedom position (CF) was determined for each tree. To assess crown damage intensity (defoliation), classification with degrees 0–4 was used.
Data processing consisted of determining the numerical parameters of diameter structure, while the non-parametric Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (|D| statistics) was used to compare diameter distribution with the distribution of diameter increment. The .2test for independence was used to define dependence of the degree of crown freedom position and the degree of crown defoliation, as well as the crown class and the degree of crown defoliation in sample plots at stand age 42. The effects of different stand treatments were analyzed in the age period 43–52. The current (average periodical) diameter increments (id) obtained with the control method was compared for all the trees in the sample plots and separately for the future trees in P.P.-1, and the comparison trees in P.P.-2. The statistical t-test was used to assess the impact of silvicultural treatments on the increment size.
Growth elements of all the trees and future trees in the sample plots at age 42 and 52, as well as the trees cut at ages 42 and 48, are given in Table 1. Table 2 contains numerical indicators of their diameter distribution. Cumulative curves of diameter distribution of all the trees show that at age 42 the trees in P.P.-2 have a somewhat bigger breast diameter. Due to differential silvicultural treatments and different increment tree reactions, diameter distribution of all the trees and future trees were approximated at age 52, which was also confirmed by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (Graph 1, Table 2).
Based on the test for independence applied at age 42, high dependence was found in the monoculture of the degree of crown defoliation on the crown class and the degree of crown freedom position. This indicates that the devitalization process in directly linked with stand structure, i.e. silvicultural treatments in the previous period (Table 3 and 4, Figure 1).
The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test confirmed the difference in diameter distribution of selected trees in the sample plots in the 42ndand 48thyear (Graph 2, Table 2). The thinning indicator (qd) shows that tree selection in the sample plots had the character of low thinning. In the age period between 43 and 52, a more intensive treatment of silvicultural-sanitary cuts (P.P.-1) showed that the current diameter increment was on average higher by 37 % in all the other trees and by 35 % in future trees, in relation to the sanitary cut (Graph 3). Cumulative curves of diameter increment in P.P.-1, for all the trees and for future trees, are shifted rightwards towards higher increment values, in relation to P.P.-2. There are also differences in the shape of the curve, which implies a difference in the variability of diameter increment (Graph 4). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test confirmed considerable differences in the distribution of diameter increment, both for the entire group of trees and for future trees (Table 5). Dependence of diameter increment on diameters at breast height (Graph 5 and Table 6) in all the trees shows moderate correlation ((R = 0.52-0.54), whereas correlation is less distinct (R = 0.28-0.32) for the collective of futures. For all the remaining trees, the importance of a regression coefficient of diameter increment dependence on diameters at breast height confirms that at this developmental stage the recovery from stressful impacts depends on the intensity and character of silvicultural measures and on the tree´s increment potential. For the collective of future trees in P.P.-1 (and potentially for the group of dominant comparison trees in P.P.-2), which are the first object of tending, recovery from adverse impacts primarily depends on the nature and intensity of silvicultural measures.
Key words: devitalisation; diameter increment; impacts of silvicultural measures; pedunculate oak; permanent experiments
|Farkaš,V., T. Gomerčić, M. Sindičić,V. Slijepčević, Đ. Huber,A. Frković, S. Modrić||UDK 630* 156 (001)||527|
|CraniometricalAnalysis and Determination of Sexual Dimorphism in Brown Bear (Ursus arctos L.) from Croatia|
|Summary: Family of bears (Ursidae) have a potential to exhibit various characteristics under the influence of environment and nutrition. The goal of this paper was to analyze craniometrical measurements of brown bear (Ursus arctosL.) population from Croatia with objectives to define them, as well as to determinate differences between sexes. A total of 34 skulls have been
V. Farkaš, T. Gomerčić, M. Sindičić, V. Slijepčević, Đ. Huber, A. Frković, S. Modrić: KRANIOMETRIJSKA... Šumarski list br. 9–10, CXXXIII (2009), 527-537
studied, out of which 13 (38,24 %) belonged to female animals, 20 (58,83 %) to males, while sex was not identified for one (2,93 %) skull. All skulls belonged to adult animals, with the average age of 8,4 years (range 3 to 20 years). A total of 49 measurements were taken on each skull with the 0,1 mm precision, so totally 829 craniometrical measurements have been statistically analyzed. Statistically significant difference between the sexes has been observed in 42 (85,72 %) craniometrical measurements, while for totally 16 (32,65 %) measurements it has been observed that males are absolutely bigger than the female bears (meaning that the smallest males were bigger than the biggest females). For those 16 measures we have defined border values that could help in sex determination. Correlation and equation of regression were calculated for total length of skull and zygomatic breadth. Corelation was r = 0,7961 for male bears and r = 0,6812 for females, while equaton of regression for calculation of zygomatic width using total skull length was: for males - zygomatic width = 0,8365 total skull length - 79,105; for females – zygomatic width = 0,6867 total skull length - 31,247. In comparison of skull features of bears from Croatia with the ones from Slovakia we have found that male bears were almost the same while Croatian females were smaller. Bears in Croatia were smaller than the ones in Romania but the differences among males were smaller, while the females were significantly larger in Romania.
Key words: brown bear; craniometry; Croatia; sex dimorphism; skull; Ursus arctos
FRKOVIĆ, Alojzije ŠL