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HR  EN   

5-6/2009

WEB EDITION


Scientific-technical and professional journal
of Croatia Forestry Society
                         Issued continously since 1877.
       First issue of this web edition start with number 1-2/2008.
   ISSN No.: 1846-9140              UDC 630*https://doi.org/10.31298/sl
PAPER EDITION
DIGITAL ARCHIVE

HRČAK
Portal of scientific
journals of Croatia
   Issued by: Croatian Forestry Society

   Address: Trg Mažuranića 11, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
   Phone/fax: ++385 1 4828477
   e-mail: urednistvo@sumari.hr
   Editor in Chief: Branimir Prpić


     
 
A WORD FROM THE EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
 
Branimir Prpić   236
HOW TO SECURE THE FUTURE OF YOUNG, NATURALLY MANAGED FORESTS IN CROATIA DURING RECESSION      
General recession and shortage of money is taking their toll not only on wood industry but also on forestry as an economic branch that depends on timber processing. Apart from taking care of environ­mental protection, forestry also provides social and ecophysical forest functions of general benefit. In the European Union today, the value of non-market forest functions exceeds that of timber by thirty, or even fifty times. The most valuable non-market forest functions include the water protection role, i.e. drinking water, and the carbon sink function, which reduces the quantity of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and slows down global warming.
An important reason for the good structure of state forests in forest ecosystems managed on a close-to-nature principle is tending. Tending practices are applied to forests until the age of twenty, or maybe thirty (the first, and half of the second age class).
The consequence of silvicultural measures undertaken at the mentioned age significantly affects the future forest structure and its role in supplying raw material and non-market functions. The forestry profession has been particularly successful in the application of tending related to negative and posi­tive selection of young trees. If these silvicultural treatments are omitted, a stand will be formed in dis­cordance with close-to-nature forest management and the provision of raw material and non-market functions. One negative example of the absence of tending in pedunculate oak lowland forests is their conversion into pure hornbeam forests. In combination with present-day effects of global warming and a drop in groundwater levels, such cases will gain in frequency.
Even though the financial condition is difficult, forestry should strive to find the means for the appli­cation of tending measures; otherwise, the consequences will be catastrophic. Adverse consequences may span over two to three generations of forestry experts.

Professor Branimir Prpić, PhD

    authors:
    PRPIĆ, Branimir    ŠL
 
 
ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPERS
 
Tikvić, I., Ž. Zečić, D. Ugarković, D. Posarić  UDK 630* 429 + 851 (001) 237
Damage of Forest Trees and Quality of Timber Assortmets of Pedunculate Oak on Spačva Area      
Summary: Management with forests of pedunculate oak, the principal commercial tree species in Croatia, is burdened with increasing instances of tree decline and dieback. A combination of factors, such as decreased height and diameter increment, lower value of wood assortments, disturbances in planning and management and rising management costs, have made this the most important management and ecological problem in Croatian forestry. Tree decline is a gradual, continuous, or in some cases, rapid loss of tree vita­lity. In forestry, tree decline is assessed on the basis of the exterior appearance of a tree, i.e. on the basis of tree damage assessment. Tree damage relates to crown, stem and root damage. Crown damage assessment is based on crown defoliation and changes in leaf colour. Tree dieback is sudden death of trees due to diseases or a complex action of adverse factors. It can often stem from a continuous decline of trees and a disturbed stability of forest ecosystems. In Croatia, the most severely affected tree species are the two principal ones: pe­dunculate oak and silver fir. Tree decline and dieback incur high financial los­ses, amounting to as much as 40 % of the potential market value of forest assortments. However, a decrease in non-market forest functions is much more serious. The economic consequences of tree decline are reflected on the quality and lower value of wood assortments. Dieback of pedunculate oak trees leads to sapwood degradation and a decrease in assortment diameter, which may amount to as much as 33 % of the diameter.
The goal of research was to determine the impact of pedunculate oak da­mage on the structure and volume of wood assortments. Research was con­ducted on tree samples from four management units in Vinkovci ForestAdministration, along the Županja - Lipovac road. Wood volume utilization of dead and differently damaged trees of pedunculate oak was analyzed.
Tree crowns along the Županja - Lipovac road were found to be more defo­liated compared to those in the “Spačva basin” area. Crown defoliation of pe­dunculate oak was about 60 %, which indicates decreased tree vitality. Severely defoliated and dead trees manifested significantly higher biotic da­mage in relation to slightly and moderately defoliated trees. The percentage share of veneer logs and class I logs, as well as stacked wood, was higher in trees with the first and second defoliation class. The share of lower class logs (II and III class), as well as the percentage share of waste was higher in trees with higher defoliation classes. Of the total wood volume, there were 20 % of veneer logs in defoliation classes 1 and 2 (slight and moderate defoliation), and 10 % of veneer logs in defoliation classes 3 and 4 (severe defoliation). Ac­cording to the percentage share of assortments in the total technical roun­dwood, there were 37 % of veneer logs in trees with defoliation classes 1 and 2, and 18 % of veneer logs in defoliation classes 3 and 4. The proportion of lower-class technical assortments was higher in higher classes of crown defo­liation. The proportion of second class logs in defoliation classes 1 and 2 was 11 %, and in defoliation classes 3 and 4 it was 19 %. The proportion of third class logs in defoliation classes 1 and 2 was 15 %, while in defoliation classes 3 and 4 it reached 19%. There was more waste in defoliation classes 3 and 4 (30 %), and slightly less in defoliation classes 1 and 2 (27 %).
Tree damage lowers the quality of logs and lessens the income from pedun­culate oak management. Tree damage assessment may reduce the amount of snags and increase management yields. Timely and appropriate tree damage assessments have a positive effect on overall management with pedunculate oak. The selection of damaged trees for felling is a key factor that ensures the quality of the wood matter in disturbed and unstable forest ecosystems.
Key words: damage trees; pedunculate oak; timber quality; utilization

    authors:
    TIKVIĆ, Ivica      ŠL
    ZEČIĆ, Željko      ŠL
    UGARKOVIĆ, Damir    ŠL
    POSARIĆ, Darko    ŠL
 
Trinajstić, I., Z. Cerovečki  UDK 630* 188 (001) 249
Festuco drymeiae-Fagetum Magic 1978 Association (Aremonio-Fagion) in the Vegetation of Northwest of Croatia      
Summary: The beech and mountain festuc forwst association (Festuco drymeiae-Fagetum Ass.) was described for the first time in Slovakia (Magic 1978) and later it was discovered in Slovenia (Cimperšek 1988). In Croatia, this association was first noticed by Regula – Bevilacqu (1978) and analyzed in the area of Strahinjščica in the status of subassociation as the Fagetum illy­ricum boreale festucetosum drymeiae subass. In the status autonomous asaso­ciation, the beech and mountain festuc forest for territory of Croatia wasreported by Cerovečki (2002), Baričević (2002) and Škvorc (2006), but attri­buted the authorship to Cimperšek (1988) which lather proved to be accor­ding to Magic (1978) incorrect.
So far in the forest vegetation of north-west Croatia, the ass. Festuco dry­meiae-Fagetum has been studied on the mountains between the Drava and Sava Rivers in Hrvatsko zagorje, on Mavcelj, Ravna gora, Strahinjščica and Ivan­čica. Its floristic composition is shown in Table 1. On the basis of the floristic structure, it can be distinguished a typical, moderately mesophilous ausbass. Festucetosum drymeiae and markedly thermophilous subass. fra xi netosum orni, showing the floristic connection with the ass. Opstryo-Fagetum.
In the mountain belt of the north-west Croatia on the slighily and modera­tely inclined slopes Festuco drymeia-Fagetum Ass. present interms of forest management the most valuable forests where the cominon beech achieves its maximumw with respest to the wood mass production and quality.

    authors:
    TRINAJSTIĆ, Ivo    ŠL
    CEROVEČKI, Zdravko      ŠL
 
Roth, V., T. Dubravac, I. Pilaš, S. Dekanić, Z. Brekalo  UDK 630* 232.3 (001) 257
Acorn Size of Pedunculate Oak (Quercus robur L.) and Sessile Oak (Quercus petraea Liebl.) as a Factor in Growth and Development of Seedlings      
Summary: Investigations were carried out on three samples of Pedunc­led oak (Quercus robur L.) and three samples of Sessile-flowered oak (Quer­cus petraea Liebl.), of different plumpness (Table 1).
Seeding was performed on two locations in November 2003 in the forest nursery of the Division for Nursery Production, Forest Research Institute, Ja­strebarsko (45o 40’ N, 15o 39’ E) and in the nursery “Zdenački Gaj” (45o 35’ N, 17o 05’ E), Forestry Office of “Grubišno polje”.
At the end of the first vegetation (15th October, 2004) measurement of heights of the investigated samples was performed. At the end of the second vegetation (Autumn 2005) measurements of the heights were performed, and on an average sample determination was also made of the mass of dry matter in the above ground part of the investigated Peduncled oak and Sessile-flowe­red samples (2+0).
Influence of the acorn plumpness on the height of one-year plants (1+0) and two-year plants (2+0) of Peduncled oak and Sessile-flowered oak, was evident on both localities in the nursery part of the test (Tables 1 & 2, 6 & 7, Graphs 3 & 4). Bigger acorns of pedunculate and sessile oak produce one-and two-year old seedlings of significantly greater height.
The quantity (mass) of the dry matter in the above ground part of the inve­stigated samples of Peduncled oak and Sessile-flowered oak, at the age of 2+0, also showed marked differences, conditioned by the plumpness of acorn (Table 8, Graphs 5 & 6). According to the acorn size, biomass of dry matter of above-ground parts of seedlings of pedunculate and sessile oak at age of two years can be two to five times greater.
Increased ability of sorption in soils with greater clay content is probable cause for lower productivity of soil in “Jastrebarsko” nursery, inspite of its greater content of nutrients (N, P and K). Retention of nutrients on the surface of clay particles makes them inaccessible to the plants, and causes reduced growth of seedlings. Another probable cause of weaker growth of seedlings is the impaired water holding characteristics of soil in “Jastrebarsko” nursery. According to the soil texture, heavier soil in “Jastrebarsko” has a lower aera­tion in the rooting zone, which together with prolongation of reduction conditions favors inferior water-air conditions in comparison to the “Zdenački Gaj” nursery.
All three samples of Peduncled oak and Sessile-flowered oak showed mar­kedly greater heights, as well as the mass of dry matter in the above ground part, in the nursery with lighter mechanical composition of soil.
Key words: acorn plumpness; Peduncled oak (Quercus robur L.); plant heights; Sessile-flowered oak (Quercus petraea Liebl.)

    authors:
    ROTH, Valentin    ŠL
    DUBRAVAC, Tomislav      ŠL
    PILAŠ, Ivan      ŠL
    DEKANIĆ, Stjepan      ŠL
    BREKALO, Zdravko    ŠL
 
Jakovljević, T., K. Berković, G. Tartari, B. Vrbek, J. Vorkapić-Furač  UDK 630* 425 (001) 267
Atmospheric Deposition in Forest Ecosystem of Europe and Research of New Methods for Determination of Phosphorus and Ammonia Within a Framework of ICP Forests      
Summary: The ICP Forests and EU Regulation aim to conduct intensive and continous monitoring on forests ecosystem as a means of evaluating the damage caused atmosferic pollution and other factors influencing forest con-dition.There is no doubt that phosphorus and nitrogen are among the most im­portant elements for the biosphere and its biochemical cycles. Therefore, to get the most correct information about the concentration of different types of these elements is invaluable for understanding the control and creating bioc­hemical cycles.In this work the implementation and validation of new colori­metric method on automatic analyser for determination of phosphorus and ammonia has been investigeted. The investigation was performed on samples precipitated water in the forest ecosystem.Until now standard methods, spec­trophotometry has been used for determination of phosphorus and ammonia.In the validation procedure following criteria have been investiga­ted: graphical analyses of measured results, accuarcy, linearity in the working range, the limit of detection, the limit of quantification and the repeatability. The results showed that the method for determination of phosphorus and am­monia on automatic analyser is linear in the range of investigation (Table 1), while the t-test has showed that differences between these two methods are not significant being 99,99 %. From the control charts it is obvious that the repeatability (Figure 7 and 8) of the results obtained with new method is good. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification shows more sensibility (Table 2). Therefore, the new method seem to be a good alternative to the standard methods and can be used in the scientific research of ICP Forests because is adapted to specifics of samples from forest.
Key words: ammonia; automatic analyser; CP Forests; phosphorus; precipitated water; spectrophotometry; validation method

    authors:
    Jakovljavić, tatjana
    Berković, Katarina
    Tartari, Gabriele
    VRBEK, Boris      ŠL
    Vorkapić-Furač, Jasna
 
Degmečić, D., K. Krapinec, T. Florijančić  UDK 630* 156 (001) 279
Factors that Determine Sex of Red Deer Calves (Cervus elaphus L.): Verification of Current Knowledge      
Summary: One of the key factors of hunting economy is the question of reproduction, i.e. quality and sex ratio of the calves. This is especially impor­tant for those kinds of game, the males of which have a trophy. The density of population, dominance of hinds in the population and the amount of precipitation during winter (November-January), are definitely factors that influence the amount of food available (the first is negatively dependant, whereas the other two factors have a positive dependency on food availability), i.e. on the nourishment of the hinds. According to Flint et al. (1997) and Enright et al. (2001), the hinds that are better nourished give birth to a higher percentage of male calves, regardless if we are talking about red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) or fallow deer (Dama dama L.). Kojola’s research (1997) has confirmed similar results for reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.), and Wauters et al. (1995) for roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.).
The research of the factors that may influence the sex of a red deer calf (Cervus elaphus L.) has been conducted in the State hunting ground number XIV/9 “PODUNAVLJE – PODRAVLJE”. The hunting ground is situated in Baranja alongside the rivers Danube and Drava. The hunting ground is ma­naged by the company Hrvatske šume d.o.o. Zagreb, Uprava šuma podružnica Osijek. This paper is based on the cull data of the hinds in the hunting ground during the hunting seasons 2007/2008 (42 head) and 2008/2009 (23 head). The following data has been recorded and analyzed: net body weight of the hinds (body weight of eviscerated head with skin, without head and feet (car­pal and tarsal parts of the extremities)); also during evisceration, embryos or foetuses were removed from uterus, weighed on a gram scale and their sex was determined in utero (Figure 2. and 3.).
The research did not find differences that would point to this particular factor, although there is a change in ratio of male and female foetuses. For the hunting season 2007/2008 sex ratio was 1:21 (45:55 %) for the female foetu­ses, and a year after 1,09:1 (52:48 %) for the male foetuses (Table 1.). The cause of the irregular sex ratio in the hunting season 2007/2008 could be an extremely hot and very dry summer in 2007, or the difference could simply be caused by the sample examined. It was found that the sex ratio of the culled hinds in two consecutive hunting seasons (2007/2008 and 2008/2009) was dif­ferent (1:21, and 1.09:1 respectively). The results of the net body weight tests for the hinds, as one of the key parameters for the population, did not show a significant relevance for determining the sex of future calves. However, alt­hough statistically insignificant, a climate difference in the summers of the two hunting seasons was recorded.
Key words: Cervus elaphus; hind body weight; in utero; red deer; sex of the foetus

    authors:
    DEGMEČIĆ, Dražen    ŠL
    KRAPINEC, Krešimir      ŠL
    Florijančić, Tihomir
 
Potočić, N., I. Seletković, M. Čater, T. Ćosić, M. Šango, M. Vedriš  UDK 630* 232.3 + 422 289
Ecophysiological Response of Sun-Exposed Common Beech (Fagus Sylvatica L.) Seedlings under Different Fertilization Levels      
Summary: The large-scale dieback of Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), pre­sent in Croatia in the past two decades, has led to atypical growth conditions for young Common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) trees on beech-fir sites. This is in contradiction with recent forestry practice and ecological requirements of beech (skiophytic, drought sensitive).
The aim of this study was to improve the fundamental understanding of the influence of light and nutrient availability in early stages of the development of beech seedlings. To determine the ecophysiological response of beech see­dlings to full sunlight conditions, a nursery experiment was established with three fertilization treatments (2, 4 and 6g of Osmocote Exact per 1 liter of sub­strate) to simulate various soil fertility conditions (low, optimal and high avai­lability of nutrients).
For every treatment, total biomass of seedlings (foliage, stem, roots) and the elemental concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium and magnesium in the plant material determined by chemical analysis. Height and root-collar diameter have been measured and roots morphologi­cally analyzed (WinRhizo software package). Light saturation curves (0, 50, 250, 600 in 1200 µmol/m2s) and A-Ci curves (0, 100, 400, 700 in 1000 µmol CO2/l) have been measured (Li-Cor LI-6400) in a controlled environment.
Height, diameter and biomass of seedlings increased with fertilizer dose. Concentrations of N, P and K were growing with fertilizer dose, while Ca and Mg concentrations showed negative effects of overfertilization at the highest fertilizer dose. Root length, surface area and number of root tips were highest in the intermediate treatment while roots were least developed at the highest fertilizer dose.
In all cases assimilation rates of seedlings corresponded well with leaf mass (r2 = 0,59), leaf (r2 = 0,44) and root total nitrogen (r2 = 0,58) and total leaf phosphorus (r2 = 0,45).
Regardless of the conditions of full sunlight and an irregular water supply to seedlings while growing in the nursery, they showed a standard ecophysio­logical response to fertilization treatments, indicating that despite the chan­ged site conditions in beech and fir stands, the seedlings may keep the capacity to adapt to the environment. The most successful development of see­dlings can be expected on nutrient-rich sites.

    authors:
    POTOČIĆ, Nenad      ŠL
    SELETKOVIĆ, Ivan      ŠL
    Čater, Matjaž
    Čosić, Tomislav
    ŠANGO, Mario    ŠL
    VEDRIŠ, Mislav      ŠL
 
Rosavec, R., D. Dominko, D. Barčić, D. Starešinić, Ž. Španjol, K. Biljaković, M. Ožura, N. Marković, D. Bognolo  UDK 630* 432.1 (001) 301
Analysis of Distribution of Areas Affected by Forest Fires on Island of Brač, Island of Korčula and Island of Rab      
Summary: Forests cover approximately one fourth of the land’s surface. As one of the largest oxygen sources in the nature, they are very important for the survival of life on Earth. Forest fires have become an increasingly interesting issue not only for forestry and ecology, which study them as an important phenomenon for the survival of forests themselves, but also for physics. Physics perceives forest fires as an example of a complex system on large, kilometer-long scales. Faithful computer simulations can answer different questions, such as how fires behave, what influences their propagation, how they follow the power law and most importantly, how fires of different sizes can be predicted.
In our work we used the data from the forest administrations of Brač, Korčula and Rab. The data, collected over the time period 1991 – 2000, relate to the number of fires and the size of the burned area. We began with a model in which a fire spreads in a two-dimensional (2D) grid developed by Malamud et al. (1998). There is an accurately defined number of boxes in the grid (Ng), the number of time steps (NS) and the number of fires (NF) for a given fire ignition frequency. Computer simulation modeling provides a burned area AF (AF is the number of trees destroyed in each fire). A non-cumulative number of fires in a defined time period is NF/NS and is given as a function of AF on a 2D grid of 128 x 128 for three frequencies: fS = 1/125, fS = 1/5000, fS = 1/2000. The slope of direction represents the exponent a (the power law applies) which de­pends on the frequency. The number of fires for every time interval is the function of the number of trees burned in each of the fires. For every fire propagation frequency there was the NS = 1.638x 109 of time intervals. There is also a range from small to large fires, with the number of small fires far exceeding that of large ones. Small and medium fires satisfy the power law, with . = -1.02 to 1.09, while large fires exhibit bigger deviations (. = -1.16), as manifested at frequency 1/2000 due to the finite grid dimensions. This is the li­mited size effect, since the fire stops after it has spread across the entire grid.
In our application of the model to the data for Brač, Korčula and Rab, due to the relatively small number of data we used cumulative distribution in order to obtain qualitatively good results. By increasing the initial area interval that contains a given number of fires (A1,………A10), the fire affected area increa­ses and so does the number of fires. This provided a distribution of the cumu­lative area number NCF for an interval. The results of our research show that the cumulative distribution of burned areas in the selected islands follows the power law in accordance with the model by Malamud et al. (1998). A logarithmic presentation of the results is a direction in its major part. The slope corre­sponds to the exponent ., because – dNCF/dAF.AF-.. According to the above model, if we know the parameters of the system we can determine fire propa­gation frequency, which indicates the probability of fire occurrence in an area. A data set for the three Croatian islands shows that, in relation to the obtained slope of direction for the total number of fires . = 1.02 ± 0.02, the fire propa­gation frequency is high, meaning that the probability of fire propagation is lower. However, a more detailed analysis of the two data sets for larger fires results in a greater slope, indicating a high risk of fire in the next several years, particularly in the areas that have already been severely burned (e.g. as many as 55 km2 on the island of Korčula). The obtained results allow us to conclude that in the applied model, the direction slope values coincide for small and medium fires, i.e. for higher spread frequencies, while the model used for larger fires exhibits deviations due to the finite space dimensions. The results provide a stimulus for further research, because it has been shown that if the impact of different parameters related to fire spread in an area is known, it is possible to identify areas with an increased fire risk, particularly in case of small and medium fire distribution.
Key words: Adriatic islands; burned area; complex systems; computer simulations; fire.

    authors:
    ROSAVEC, Roman    ŠL
    Dominko, Damir
    BARČIĆ, Damir    ŠL
    Starešinić, Damir
    ŠPANJOL, Željko      ŠL
    Biljaković, Katica
    Ožura, Marko
    MARKOVIĆ, Nera    ŠL
    Bognolo, Dario
 
 
PRELIMINARY COMMUNICATION
 
Perić, S., J. Medak, I. Pilaš, B. Vrbek, M. Tijardović  UDK 630* 413 + 232 309
Initial Research Results of the Possibility of Revitalizing Očura II Querry with Autochthonous Tree and Shrub Species      
Summary: Biological revitalisation of highly devastated areas such as querries, depots and landfills is in Croatia, in terms of permanent green coverage, usually conducted with Austrian black pine (Pinus nigra Mill.). Until now research of other forest tree species utilization and their usage within sanation process haven’t been conducted. With this objective, in the fall of 2007, test field for scientific needs was established for research of biological sanation of querry Očura II with autochtonous tree and schrub species. Basic aim of this trial was to determine the possibility of application of autochtonous tree and shrub species in querry revitalisation. Trial was established in the border part of Očura II querry on already technically improved terracce. On this terracce layer of wasterock from querry was deposed which acts as foundation. Trial was established in two repetitions which depend on the soil type (deposed agricultural or forest humus substrate (soil)). In every repetition seedlings from nursery and from surrounding forest stands were planted. Seven pedological profiles have been dug up and additional observations have been conducted with pedological sonde. For indentification of pioneer forest species which come by nature on Očura querry locality, it was necessary to study and to determine vegetation, floristic composition of forest edges, as well as areas inside of querry on which natural vegetation begun to appear. Selection of plants for extraction was conducted in forest stands, on the top border area of querry, which was planned for clearcut in the near future with the aim of sequent exploitation of querry. Selected species were Flowering ash (Fraxinus ornus L.), Sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.), Black poplar (Populus nigra L.), willows (Salix sp.), and European privet (Ligustrum vulgare L.). 546 plants od forest tree species was planted in total, which include 110 willows and poplar plants, 110 sycamore maple and 110 flowering ash plants and 216 bush species plants, which include 144 European privet and 72 Ruscus aculeatus plants. Selection of Ruscus aculeatus for this trial was based on preservation of individuall speciments of this endangered specie in the vicinity of it’s habitant which will be devastated by exploitation.
The results of test field monitoring indicate very good survival success of young plants. Outplanted plants on the test field were in very good health condition, except Ruscus aculeatus, which was planted with the aim of protection. For now conclusions about success of plants regarding the soil type could not be made, but there is a correlation between survival of plants and their breeding. At the time of survival observation nursery seedlings had higher average survival rate then plants extracted from surrounding stands. There is no difference in survival rate between plants planted on agricultural and forest soil in first year (91,2–91,1 %) but after secund year there are differences (81,8 % on forest soil, 87,7 % on agricultural soil) .
Survival of Sycamore maple is in range from 72,0 % to 93,3 %. Sycamore plants which have been extracted from forest stands have the lowest survival rate while plants planted on forest soil have lower survival (72 %) then plants planted on agricultural soil (73,7 %). Survival of sycamore nursery seedlings is satisfatory on both soil types and it ranges from 88,0 to 93,3 %. Flowering ash nursery seedlings have 100 % survival rate regardless of soil type, but survival of Flowering ash extracted from forest stands is different in relation to soil type. On agricultural soil this survival rate is satisfatory and amounts 93,3 %, while plants on forest soil have 56 % survival rate. Survival rate of willows and poplars ranges from 90,0 to 100 %. The best survival have plants which have been extracted from forest stands and been planted on forest soil, and plants from stands planted on agricultural soil have the lowest survival. Survival of nursery seedlings ranges from 92,0 to 90,0 %. Survival of Euro­pean privet is in the range of 68,8 to 87,5 %. More successful are European privet plants planted on agricultural soil.
The results of this research indicate that adequate species of autochtonous and pioneer forest trees and species have been selected for revitalisation of this querry, taking into account their ecological requirements and biological features.
Key words: autochtonus tree and schrub species; biological revitalisation; pioneer species.; querry Očura II; test field

    authors:
    PERIĆ, Sanja      ŠL
    MEDAK, Jasnica    ŠL
    PILAŠ, Ivan      ŠL
    VRBEK, Boris      ŠL
    TIJARDOVIĆ, Martina    ŠL
 
 
REVIEWS
 
Konjević, D., U. Kierdorf, V. Njemirovskij, Z. Janicki, A. Slavica, K. Severin  UDK 630* 132 319
Wild Boar Tusk Pathology: An Overview of the Current Knowledge and Models of Reparation      
Summary: The wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) is an autochthonous game species in large parts of Europe. Their dental formula comprises 44 teeth resembling closely to the primitive full Eutherian formula. Wild boar tusks are continuously growing maxillar and mandibular canines of male boars. Their large size and the fact that they are protruding from the oral cavity makes them particularly prone to different traumatic impacts. However, due to their enormous defensive and growth potential, tusks can survive broad spectrum of pathological conditions. All mentioned together with the fact that wild boar tusks are preserved as trophies for longer time makes them extremely suitable for studying the dental pathologies. On the other hand, their value as trophies can be restrictive for application of invasive analytic tools. Therefore, we briefly introduce application of computed tomography as tool for virtual analysis. Up to now, a broad spectrum of wild boar tusk pathologies were reported in the literature, including complete and incomplete intra- and extra-alveolar fractures, early trauma to the developing tooth, creation of the duplicate growth zones, deposition of the dentinal bridges with consequent necrosis of the pulp proximal to the bridge, supernumerary teeth, deposition of tetracycline into hard dental tissues, etc. One mandibular tusk showed marked signs of resorption apically, suggesting a spread of the inflammation from the pulp into the periodontium. By reviewing the known models of the reparation of the teeth of limited growth and by comparing these models with continuously growing teeth, one can gain real insight about sources and potential of reparation of the wild boar tusks. The reparative potential of every tooth is composed from possibilities to reconstruct hard dental tissues, to separate infected from intact part and to resist bacterial invasion of the dental pulp. The continuously growing teeth poses potential to deposit not only dentine and cementum, but also their ameloblast at the apical part remains active during the whole life. The potential of tertiary dentine formation is significantly higher than in tooth of limited growth. Their wide conical pulp and large blood supply ensures constant presence of sufficient amounts of immune cells. And fina­lly, recent findings of stem cells in the growth zone of rodent incisors implies on the possibility that stem cells could be present at the growth zone of wild boar tusks also. Their presence allows denovo formation of previously destructed odontoblasts and ameloblasts through the process of differentiation.

    authors:
    Konjević, Dean
    Kierdorf, Uwe
    Njemirovskij, Vera
    Janicki, Zdravko
    Slavica, Alen
    Severin, Krešimir
 
 
PROFESSIONAL PAPERS
 
Frković, Alojzije  UDK 630* 156 327
The First Hunting Textbook of Bosnia and Herzegovina      
Summary: The article presents the first hunting (and fishing) textbook in Bosnia and Herzegovina, published in Sarajevo exactly 95 years ago, in 1914. The book, written for the needs of the newly established school of forestry, was penned by one of its teachers, Milan Střibrný, B. Sc. Drawing upon the available world literature, in particular “Hunting” by F. Ž. Kesterčanek and “Croa­tian Hunter” by J. Ettinger, in the part dedicated to hunting the author gives a detailed survey of hunting terminology, game biology, game hunting, hunting dogs, hunting weapons and equipment.
Key words: Bosnia and Herzegovina; Hunting and fishing; Milan Stribrny; textbook

    authors:
    FRKOVIĆ, Alojzije      ŠL