|ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPERS|
|Oršanić, M., D. Horvat, N. Pernar, M. Šušnjar, D. Bakšić, D. Drvodelić||UDK 630* 232.3 + 181.4 (001)||3|
|Influence of Mineral and Bio Oil on the Germination of Acorn and the Growth of Pedunculate Oak (Quercus Robur L.) Seedlings|
|Summary: The purpose of this study is to research the effects of different concentrations of mineral and biodegradable lubricants for chainsaws upon seedling growth and the initial growth of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.), the most significant forest tree species in the region of the lowland Croatia. Tests were carried out in two nurseries upon 1-m2-plots (altogether 28 test plots and two control ones) by spilling biodegradable oil and mineral oil, each in three concentrations (0.1 l/m2, 0.2 l/m2, 0.5 l/m2). The analysis showed that the increased concentration of mineral oil may decrease seedling germination; on the contrary, the bio-decomposable oil can increase it. Based on pedological research, we may conclude that the soil of weedy plots is biologically more active, which results in faster oil degradation.
ORŠANIĆ, Milan ŠL
HORVAT, Dubravko ŠL
PERNAR, Nikola ŠL
ŠUŠNJAR, Marijan ŠL
BAKŠIĆ, Darko ŠL
DRVODELIĆ, Damir ŠL
|Meštrović, Augustin||UDK 630* 907 (001)||11|
|Beneficial Functions of Whitebark Pine Forests (Pinus Heldreichii Christ) on the Mountain of Čvrsnica|
|Summary: This paper presents the evaluation of beneficial functions and whitebark pine forests based on data obtained in context of researching at westernmost part of natural area of the whitebark pine in Hercegovina on limestone – dolomitic parent material of Čvrsnica Mountain in pure natural and unmanagement stands. Except that, presented are and importance of beneficial functions and validity of the whitebark pine forest, the evaluation of beneficial functions of whitebark pine forests is defined relating to the age and development stage for: young, middle-aged, mature and oldgrowth stands and a total for the whitebark pine forests. Seizing the nacessary data about the whitebark pine forests, given by mentioned reaserch, the evaluation of beneficial functions of the whitebark pine forests is completed. To the whitebark pine forests on Čvrsnica Mountain can’t oppse their great economic values that is obvious but their beneficial valuation is multiple larger than economic. The results of evaluation of beneficial functions and the whitebark pine forests allow quality foundation for accurate understanding of beneficial functions of the whitebark forests and for their entire worthiness and protection.
Key words: beneficial functions of forests; distribution of beneficial functions of forests; evaluation of beneficial functions of forests and evaluation of forests.
MEŠTROVIĆ, Augustin ŠL
|Trinajstić, Ivo||UDK 630* 188 (001)||25|
|Contribution to the Spreading of the Yew and Linden Forest Ass. Tilio-Taxetum Glavač 1958 In Croatia|
|Summary: In the work, the new localities of the Tilio-Taxetum ass. in Croatia are published. These are Vražji prolaz near Skrad and Kamačnik near Vrbosko in Gorski Kotar, as well as the Plitvice Lakes National Park in Mala Kapela. The floristic composition is shown in the analytical table 1, prepared on the basis of 4 relevés. Simultaneously, it was made the syntaxonomic revision of the floristic composition published by Glavač (1959: Tab. 1), prepared on the basis of 15 relevés.
Within the so-far known floristic composition of the ass. Tilio-Taxetum, a total of 183 species has been registered. In all 19 relevés (100 %) 2 species only, or 1,1 %, have been registered, in more than 50 % (10–19) of the relevés 39 species, or 21,3 %, have been registered, while in one relevé only 53 species, or 29 %, of the total floristic composition have been registered. Out of the total floristic composition, 11 species, or 61,2 %, are individual syntaxa and 71 species, or 38,8 %, are companion plants. The quantitative relations of individual groups of species (characteristic and differential species, companion plants) are shown in table 1 under columns 5, 6 and 7.
The Illyrian association Tilio-Taxetum is classified in the Aremonio-Fagion alliance and inside it in the Ostryo-Fagenion suballiance, the Fagetalia sylvaticae order and the Querco-Fagete class. Its congenerous Central European association Taxo-Fagetum is classified within the Fagetalia sylvaticae order and the class Quereco-Fagetea class in the Fagion sylvaticae alliance and the Cephalanthero-Fagenion suballiance.
From the syndynamic and syngenetic point of view, the initial and optimal development phases of the Tilio-Taxetum ass., because of their growing on steeper slopes, are reflected as a constant stage within the climazonal beech forests. The terminal development phase shows a tendency of succession toward the climazonal forms of beech or beech-fir forests. In the first case it is mostly the. Ostryo-Fagetum ass., and in the second case probably the Omphalodo-Fagetum ass.
TRINAJSTIĆ, Ivo ŠL
|Martinić, I., M. Kosović, I. Grginčić||UDK 630* 907.2||33|
|Outdoor Activities and Visitor Risk Management in Protected Areas|
|Summary: The article deals with the establishment of safe recreational zones in protected areas of nature. Risks to visitors and participants in outdoor recreation activities and responsibilities of protected area managements are defined. The basic elements of “visitor risk management” – identifying and assessing risks and selecting safety and control measures are discussed, and so are the financial and legislative aspects of risks. Special focus is placed on the phases in the risk assessment process and the identification of their levels. The likelihood of risk actualization and the severity of possible consequences are juxtaposed. With the view of reducing risks, legislative, organizational and personnel principles are presented and proposals for the development of an integral risk management program in Croatian national parks and nature parks are given. Clearly regulated levels of care by park managers towards visitors are considered the key issue. However, an overly high standard of responsibility of park managers could jeopardize their functioning.
Key words: nature; protected areas; recreation; risk management; visiting
MARTINIĆ, Ivan ŠL
GRGINČIĆ, Ivan ŠL
|Mayer, Ž., Ž. Hećimović||UDK 630* 263 + 231||43|
|Regeneration of Floodplain Forests in the Croatian Podunavlje Region Combined with Planting Seedlings of Narrow-Leaved Ash (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.)|
|Summary: The paper explores the possibility of generative and vegetative natural regeneration of Euro-American poplar cultures (Populus × canadensis Moench and P. deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall), either with seeds or from sprouts and stumps of autochthonous black and white poplars (Populus nigra L. and P. alba L.) and white willow (Salix alba L.), combined with planting narrow-leaved ash (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl). After the seventh year of plantation age and the applied tending and cleaning treatments in the stand, the dominant layer features narrow-leaved ash (7.86 m), white poplar (8.66 m) and white willow (8.64 m), while the subordinate layer contains “American” ash (Fraxinus americana L. and F. pennsylvanica Marshall), boxelder (Acer negundo L.), spreading elm (Ulmus laevis Pall.), black and white mulberry (Morus nigra L. and M. alba L.) and other species.
Following the final cut of “Euro-American” poplars (Populus × canadensis Moench. and P. deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall), it is possible to raise a natural stand of black poplar (Populus nigra L.), white poplar (Populus alba L.) and white willow (Salix alba L.) combined with narrow-leaved ash (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl). The regeneration period lasts somewhat longer, but the rotation will also be longer, because narrow-leaved ash and autochthonous poplars and willow are longer-lived than the clones of Euro-American poplars. This will make it possible to achieve natural succession of floodplain forests, thus obtaining the paraclimatic community Fraxino-ulmetum laevis Slav. 52 Salicion (Soo) Oberd 53.
By complementing a natural forest with narrow-leaved ash (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.) we have enriched the vegetation of floodplain forests and accelerated the process which would occur anyway. It is also possible to plant pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.), but this requires more care and time, but also better and drier sites. Black poplar is hard to raise naturally since this species is more demanding. It requires much more care and well prepared soil for the seeds. This, however, should not cause concern as a black poplar selection programme is currently under way (Osijek Forest Administration in cooperation with the Faculty of Forestry in Zagreb, Department of Forest Genetics, Dendrology and Botany), so that it will be possible to introduce it via planting material, similar to narrow-leaved ash. We recommend that, after the final cut of the Euro-American poplar, the site be prepared for natural regeneraton with autochthonous black and white poplar and white willow. The introduction of good-quality two-year-old seedlings of narrow-leaved ash (1,111 pcs/ha – planting distance 3 x 3 m), pedunculate oak and black poplar (up to 100 pcs/ha – planting distance 10 x 10 m) will improve the natural stand.
In the first, or possibly second year of plantation age, the young growth should be tended by freeing the young trees from luscious vegetation and from dewberry (Rubus caesius L.) in particular. In the fourth of the fifth year the saplings should be cleaned. In the meantime climbers should be removed; common grape vine (Vitis vinifera L.) ss. sylvestris /C.C. Gmel./ Berger), common hop (Humulus lupulus L.), clematis (Clematis L.) and others. Tending with thinning follows depending on the developmental stage of the stand until the final cut and resumed natural regeneration. Apart from the above mentioned species in the dominant layer, “American” ash (Fraxinus americana L., F. Pennsylvanica Marshall), boxelder (Acer negundo L.), spreading elm (Ulmus laevis Pall.), white and black mulberry (Morus alba L. and M. nigra L.) should be left in the subordinate layer, as well as other species that sporadically occur on river islands and in
Key words: Croatian Podunavlje region; floodplain forests; narrow-leaved ash
MAYER, Željko ŠL
|Posarić, Darko||UDK 630* 263 + 231 + 676||53|
|Regeneration of Pedunculate oak forests in Spačva by seed cutting – possibilities of improving a recent working method|
|Summary: Regeneration of Pedunculate oak forests in Spačva basin and in whole area of Forest administration Vinkovci is carried out by a combination of timely synchronized biological and technical operations which achive a good result. In this paper all regeneration operations are mentioned in chronological order and briefly described, but the most imported thing was to describe possible changes of working method which would result in better reforestation result, or lower costs of works, or to harmonize the recent way of work with new forestry laws. Possibilities of avoiding apperance of water-logging during and after regeneration process on some segments of regenerated area are mentioned, as well as possibilities of decreasing costs of felling trees on forest margins. It is also pointed on different obligations prescribed by law which should be applied in common working procedure.
Key words: biodiversity.; forest certification; forest regeneration; Pedunculate oak; water-logging
Posarić, Darko ŠL