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HR  EN   

5-6/2019

WEB IZDANJE


Znanstveno-stručno i staleško glasilo
Hrvatskoga šumarskog društva
      Prvi puta izašao 1877. godine i neprekidno izlazi do današnjeg dana
            Prvi broj WEB izdanja sa brojem 1-2/2008.
   ISSN No.: 1846-9140              UDC 630*https://doi.org/10.31298/sl
upute autorima
TISKANO IZDANJE
DIGITALNA ARHIVA

   Izdavač: Hrvatsko šumarsko društvo

   Adresa: 10000 Zagreb, Trg Mažuranića 11, Croatia
   Telefon/fax: ++385 1 4828 477
   e-mail: urednistvo@sumari.hr
   Glavni urednik: Josip Margaletić


     
 
RIJEČ UREDNIŠTVA
 
Uredništvo   201
Čitamo li (ili ne) Šumarski list      
RIJEČ UREDNIŠTVA<br>
Šumarski list je znanstveno-stručno i staleško glasilo Hrvatskoga šumarskog društva, čiji je prvi broj tiskan 1. siječnja 1877. godine i izlazi neprekidno do danas. Dakle, u tisku je njegovo 143. godište! Pri osnivanju Hrvatskog šumarskog društva, koje bilježi 172 godine utemeljenja, među postavljenim ciljevima rada bilo je, između ostalog, ponajprije uvođenje šumarske nastave u Hrvatskoj (što je ostvareno osnivanjem Gospodarsko-šumarskog učilišta u Križevcima 1860. godine) i tiskanje šumarskog glasila te izgradnja Šumarskog doma (što je ostvareno 1898. godine). Sve su to ostvarili naši šumari-prethodnici, a što mi baštinimo do danas. Te temelje nove generacije šumarskih stručnjaka trebaju samo čuvati i dograđivati. Činimo li to odgovorno? Ovo je samo nekoliko rečenica uvoda, da ne zaboravimo šumarsku povijest. No, zbog čega pitanje u naslovu? Naime, ovih dana čuli smo neke kritike na račun kvalitete našega časopisa, a iskazana je i sumnja čitaju li ga šumarski stručnjaci, posebice oni na terenu? Kritika je svakako dobra, jer ona potiče na poboljšanje stanja, no ona treba biti dobronamjerna i argumentirana. Ako se ona tiče kvalitete znanstvenih i stručnih članka, nju određuju ponajprije teme iz svih segmenata šumarstva i autori, a verificiraju ih prethodno Uredništvo i konačno recenzenti. Nezamislivo je da bi glavni urednik i dva recenzenta specijalista iz odnosnog znanstveno-stručnog područja šumarstva mogli „propustiti“ za tiskanje neinteresantan i nekvalitetan članak. Ako je pak problem u temama i autorima znanstvenih i stručnih članaka iz inozemnog područja, komentar može biti „dvosmjeran“. Njima kao i domaćim autorima važno je da članak bude tiskan u Šumarskome listu koji je citiran u relevantnim svjetskim časopisima, što doprinosi napredovanju u struci. No, nije li to istovremeno i dobra promidžba za naš časopis? Isto tako, nezamislivo je da su našim šumarskim stručnjacima baš sve njihove teme neinteresantne, s obzirom na činjenicu da je Hrvatska planinska, ravničarska i mediteranska zemlja obrasla šumama sličnima u okruženju. No, ako nam je pak problem strani jezik unatoč dvojezičnom kratkom sadržaju i prilozima, onda se moramo upitati kojega smo to intelektualnog „profila“ u 21. stoljeću? S druge strane, posebno naglašavamo kako Uredništvo uvijek daje prednost domaćim znanstvenicima, posebice stručnjacima s terena, koje često pozivamo da se upravo oni javljaju u časopisu, kao što su to činili naši vrli prethodnici. Šumarski list je digitaliziran, pa nije teško pregledati starija godišta časopisa i uvjeriti se u kvalitetu članaka i interesantnost obrađivanih tema iz šumarske prakse, što nam danas, iskreno rečeno, nedostaje. S time u vezi slijedi pitanje, posebice kritičarima: kada su zadnji puta napisali znanstveno-stručni članak ili bilo kakav napis i objavili ga u svome znanstveno-stručnom i staleškom glasilu? Hrvatsko šumarstvo je imalo, ima i imat će, kako organizacijskih tako i stručnih problema, pa je prilika da o tome progovorimo, primjerice u rubrikama Izazovi i suprotstavljanja ili Aktualno. U ovoj rubrici smo višekratno dobronamjerno ukazivali na probleme očekujući odaziv struke! No očito je da je većina, danas moderno rečeno, spremna samo za „zapozorje“, a samo iznimno za scenu.
Još samo jedna napomena u vezi s čitanjem ili nečitanjem Šumarskoga lista (i ne samo njega); doajen hrvatskoga šumarstva pokojni Prof. emeritus Branimir Prpić često je znao reći: „Tko 5 do 7 godina „zapusti“ struku, trebao bi ponovo upisati fakultet”. To je upravo na tragu danas posebno apostrofiranog permanentnog obrazovanja, vjerujući da je jedan od „alata“ u tome procesu i Šumarski list. Na kraju, bilo bi dobro da svatko od nas stane pred ogledalo, pogleda se te postavi pitanje, na koje može ili ne može dati odgovor; bit će to samo jedno od mnoštva koja danas opterećuju šumarstvo. Ako u tom trenutku oborimo pogled, još ima nade za nas i našu struku.
<br>Uredništvo


    autori:
    Uredništvo
 
 
IZVORNI ZNANSTVENI ČLANCI
 
Krešimir Krapinec, Miroslav Nikolić, Miljenko Bujanić, Dean Konjević  UDK 630* 156 (001)
https://doi.org/10.31298/sl.143.5-6.1
203
Considerations in the study of trophies: The effect of skull cutting on the real value of roe buck trophies      
Summary
Roe deer is Laurasiatherian mammal from the family of Cervidae. It is autochthonous and one of the most valued trophy game species in Croatia (Zorić 2014.). Antlers (left and right branch) with complete or part of the skull are regarded as trophy. Despite the fact that roe deer antlers are easily accessible trophies, formulas for their evaluations are still largely debated. It is a consequence of large number of elements that need to be evaluated, possible use of coefficient instead of measuring volume and mass, and potential differences in trophy preparation. Guidelines of the International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation (CIC) instructs that skulls should be cut through the eye cavities leaving intact nasal bones on the trophy. If otherwise cut or left intact with maxillar teeth, deduction of 65 or 90g is foreseen. Considering the fact that weight and density of bones varies between populations, we hypothesize that above mentioned deductions do not represent real values. Therefore the aim of this research was to determine the deviations from actual mass. A total of 40 roe buck skulls originating from the area of Central Croatia were analysed. All skulls were weighed 3 times, initially when intact, after shallow cut and after proscribed cut. Obtained data were statistically analysed. Following the shallow cut, skull is lighter for 25 to 52 g, which is 11 g less than proscribed 65 g. In other words application of shallow cut will result in the loss in trophy value. In cases of intact skulls loss in weight is related to gross skull mass. In this case even 68 to 70% of variability are explained by gross skull mass (R2=0.680; p<0.0001 – linear function, or R2=0.699; p<0.01 – potency function). According to the intersection of the lines (obligate deduction of 90 g and dependence of mass loss due to the cutting) milestone in the mass is at 310 g gross. In other words trophies lighter than 310 g should be cut according to proscriptions as they will lose less than 90 g, while heavier skulls should be left intact as they will lose more than proscribed 90 g. Regardless of the skull preparation, all obtained masses show statistically significant relation to volume. With increase in volume density of trophies decreases (R2=0.813; p<0.001), with the fact that cutting of the skull results in removal of denser, heavier parts of the trophy. Application of the coefficient 0.23 depends on the density of the trophy, meaning that its application in the case of heavier antlers with lower volume will increase the trophy value. In the case of porous antlers the real coefficient should be higher, as application of 0.23 results in lower trophy values. In the case of intact skulls we do not advice application of 0.23 coefficient as this will decrease the trophy value.

Key words: antlers; relative weight; weight; trophy evaluation; CIC; roe deer buck

    autori:
    KRAPINEC, Krešimir      ŠL
    Miroslav Nikolić  
    Miljenko Bujanić  
    Dean Konjević  
 
Milivoj Franjević, Zoran Šikić, Boris Hrašovec  UDK 630* 453 (001)
https://doi.org/10.31298/sl.143.5-6.2
215
First occurrence of Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford, 1894) – black steam borer in pheromone baited panel traps and population build up in Croatian oak stands      
Summary
During the first decade of 21st century in Croatian oak stands series of experiments concerning integrated oak timber protection were conducted. In the focus of this research was olfactory manipulation with native ambrosia beetles from genus Trypodendron and Xyleborus. Pheromone baited panel traps were used completed with different attractive components (lineatin, ETOH, GLV, Domowit-Trypowit D®) . During these experiments in trap catches new species of scolityd for Croatian lowland oak stands entomofauna was discovered. Occurrence of Xylosandrus germanus was first time registered in a second season of field experiments and its numbers had since continuously grown in trap catches. In 2011. monitoring of flight period for ambrosia beetles was conducted from beginning of January till early June. During this period six species of ambrosia beetles were caught among them most numerous species was T. signatum while X. germanus was second although only present in trap catches for four years.

Key words: ambrosia bark beetles; integrated oak timber protection; CEN EN 1316-1; FSC certified forests; invasive alien species

    autori:
    FRANJEVIĆ, Milivoj    ŠL
    ŠIKIĆ, Zoran      ŠL
    HRAŠOVEC, Boris      ŠL
 
Nikola Šušić, Martin Bobinac, Siniša Andrašev, Mirjana Šijačić-Nikolić, Andrijana Bauer-Živković  UDK 630* 232.3 + 815 (001)
https://doi.org/10.31298/sl.143.5-6.3
221
Growth characteristics of one-year-old Hungarian oak seedlings (Quercus frainetto Ten.) in full light conditions      
Summary
In silviculture, the characteristics of growth of seedlings in relation to light conditions are an important indicator of the success of natural regeneration. The paper shows the growth characteristics of one-year-old Hungarian oak seedlings in full light conditions in a field experiment conducted in 2016 in the nursery of the Faculty of Forestry in Belgrade. Four hundred seedlings were analyzed and classified according to the number of shoot growth flushes into three growth types: one-flush growth, two-flush growth and three-flush growth type. Within the analyzed four hundred seedlings, 39.8% belonged to the one-flush growth type, 58.2% to the two-flush growth type, and only 2.0% of the seedlings to the three-flush growth type. The one-flush growth seedlings have less leaves and lower values of height, root collar diameter and total leaf area, but they are characterized by a higher mean height of the primary axis (the height of the first growth flush), compared to the multi-flush growth seedlings. This is pointing out to different growth characteristics in the initial stage of development and during the growing season between different types of seedlings.

Key words: seedling growth types; single flushing; multiple flushing; root collar diameter; leaf area

    autori:
    Nikola Šušić  
    Martin Bobinac  
    Siniša Andrašev  
    Mirjana Šijačić-Nikolić  
    Andrijana Bauer-Živković  
 
Ayhan Usta, Murat Yilmaz, Selvinaz Yilmaz, Yavuz Okunur Kocamanoglu, Esengül Genc, Ibrahim Turna  UDK 630* 242 (001)
https://doi.org/10.31298/sl.143.5-6.4
231
The effects of thinning intensity on the growth of oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) plantations in Trabzon, NE Turkey      
Abstract
In this study, the effects of first thinnings having different intensities in oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) plantation areas were investigated in terms of diameter and height growth of trees. Sample plots were chosen from oriental beech plantation areas which are within the boundaries of Maçka–Yeşiltepe and Vakfıkebir districts of Trabzon province, Turkey. With removing of 0%, 10%, 25% and 40% of basal area in a hectare of stands which are in sapling stage, sample plots were established by applying thinnings which are in four different intensities (control, light, moderate, strong). After the thinning applications, basal areas were calculated by measuring diameters and heights of trees in established sample plots in order to reveal stand growth. The effects of thinnings were revealed related to some stand characteristics (average diameter, basal area, average height, relative diameter increment, etc.) and determined chosen trees. The effect of thinning intensity on average diameter, basal area, and volume values is statistically important in every two plantations. 2-year results showed that thinning increased the diameter increment significantly, and the increase in diameter increment was positively correlated with the thinning intensity in both experiments. Moreover, increments of diameter, height, basal area, and volume were higher in Maçka-Yeşiltepe experiment than in Vakfıkebir experiment. But, the values of moderate and strong thinning intensities applied in Vakfıkebir were close to each other. When all the results are evaluated, application of strong thinning intensity for Yeşiltepe sample plot, the moderate thinning intensity for Vakfıkebir sample plot is seen appropriate by us in terms of both stand development.

Key words: Oriental beech; thinning intensity; growth; plantation; increments

    autori:
    Ayhan Usta  
    Murat Yilmaz  
    Selvinaz Yilmaz  
    Yavuz Okunur Kocamanoglu  
    Esengül Genc  
    Ibrahim Turna  
 
Yilmaz Turk, Murat Yildiz  UDK 630* 377 + 424 (001)
https://doi.org/10.31298/sl.143.5-6.5
241
The effects of wood chips and slash usage on skid trail sheet erosion caused by log skidding using a farm tractor      
Summary
This study investigated the sheet erosion that occurs as a result of log skidding operations using a farm tractor on skid trails and the use of wood chips and slash in order to minimize the soil loss. A total of four blocks (sample fields) were formed in four designated skid trails in the study area and three runoff plots were established in each block. One of the runoff plots was left empty as a control (CNT). Wood chips (C) was placed in the second plot and logging residue slash (S) in the third. A total of 108 water samples were taken from the test sites, 36 from each of the control, wood chips and slash plots. The water samples were brought to the laboratory and placed in an heating oven. After the runoff water was evaporated, the remaining sediment was weighed on a sensitive scale. The specified value was calculated according to the total amount of runoff accumulated in the storage tank and the total suspended sediment it carried. As a result, the amount of the average runoff in the CNT was determined as 6.32 mm/m2, in the C as 6.13 mm/m2 and in the S as 6.03 mm/m2. The average amount of suspended sediment transported in the CNT was found as 2.58 g m-2, in the C as 1.61 g m-2 and in the S as 2.13 g m-2. Therefore, the amount of soil loss in the control plots was about 1.2 times higher than in the slash plots and 1.6 times higher than in the wood chips plots. In this study, variance analysis results showed a statistically significant difference between the suspended sediment quantities carried from the plots (p <0.05). This study demonstrated that logging residues can be used to reduce the sheet erosion that occurs in skid trails after log extraction.

Key words: skid trails; log skidding; sheet erosion; logging residues; rehabilitation; Turkey

    autori:
    Yilmaz Turk  
    Murat Yildiz  
 
 
PRETHODNO PRIOPĆENJE
 
Kenan Zahirović, Osman Mujezinović, Mirza Dautbašić  UDK 630* 453
https://doi.org/10.31298/sl.143.5-6.6
251
Prvi nalaz parazitoda (Platygaster robiniae) na bagremovoj muhi šiškarici u Bosni i Hercegovini      
Sažetak
Bagrem je alohtona vrsta drveća, koja je na naše prostore unesena i prije 400 godina. Iako je invazivna vrsta Obolodiplosis robiniae na ovim prostorima prvi put utvrđena 2007. godine, na stablima bagrema do sada nisu primijećene značajne štete. U mjesecu lipnju 2018. godine utvrđen je prvi nalaz parazitoida bagremove muhe šiškarice (Platygaster robiniae), iako se vjerojatno puno ranije javio, međutim, do sada nije opisan i predstavlja novu vrstu u entomološkom kompleksu na području Bosne i Hercegovine.

Ključne riječi: bagremova muha šiškarica; parazitoid; Hymenoptera; Platygastridae.

    autori:
    Kenan Zahirović  
    Osman Mujezinović  
    Mirza Dautbašić  
 
 
STRUČNI ČLANCI
 
Ivana Plišo Vusić, Irena Šapić, Joso Vukelić  UDK 630* 181.6 + 187
https://doi.org/10.31298/sl.143.5-6.7
255
Prepoznavanje i kartiranje šumskih staništa Natura 2000 u Hrvatskoj (I) – 91E0*, aluvijalne šume s crnom johom Alnus glutinosa i običnim jasenom Fraxinus excelsior (Alno-Padion, Alnion incanae, Salicion albae)      
Sažetak
U radu je opisano 16 šumskih stanišnih tipova iz Nacionalne klasifikacije staništa Republike Hrvatske koji su obuhvaćeni stanišnim tipom 91E0* Natura 2000. On je prioritetni europski stanišni tip, a odnosi se na močvarne, povremeno poplavne i vlažne šumske zajednice. Od drveća prevladavaju – ovisno o tipu – uskolisne vrbe, bijela i crna topola, bijela i crna joha, poljski i obični jasen. U prizemnom su sloju glavne higrofilne vrste uz veći ili manji udjel biljaka iz okolnih šuma viših položaja. U članku je europski stanišni tip 91E0* detaljnije prikazan, a svaki stanišni tip iz nacionalne klasifikacije predstavljen je kratkim opisom s arealom i dijagnostičkim pokazateljima. Također su navedeni i njegovi povezani tipovi, odgovarajući kôd prema EUNIS-ovoj klasifikaciji i literatura u kojoj je podrobnije opisan. Članak ima praktičnu važnost jer pomaže u prepoznavanju i kartiranju šumskih stanišnih tipova, a ti se zadaci upravo provode u hrvatskom šumarstvu.

Ključne riječi: stanišni tip 91E0* Natura 2000; Nacionalna klasifikacija staništa; šumski stanišni tipovi; higrofilne šume; Republika Hrvatska

    autori:
    Ivana Plišo Vusić  
    Irena Šapić  
    VUKELIĆ, Joso      ŠL